History and Traditions


Commencement has a long and rich history. Read along below for the traditions of graduation and to learn more about the honorary degrees and speeches presented at UMSL's past commencements.

Written speeches and speakers names can be found below. Our speakers from Spring 2018 and after are available in the recording archive.

 

 

Terry Elmendorf, ceremony VI
Retired Vice President & CFO, The Boeing Company
May 15, 2022
Speech

Rhonda Key, ceremony V
Assistant Superintendent of High Schools, Hazelwood School District
May 15, 2022
Speech

Evelyn Moore, ceremony IV
F/A-18 Director of Engineering & Chief Engineer, The Boeing Company
May 14, 2022
Speech

Matthew Shank, ceremony III
President, Virginia Foundation of Independent Colleges, President Emeritus, Marymount University
May 14, 2022

Nicole Adewale, ceremony II
Principal/Owner ABNA Engineering Inc.
May 14, 2022
Speech

Sean Mulqueeny, OD , ceremony I
President, Mulqueeny Eye Centers and Clinical Associate Professor, University of Missouri Saint Louis College of Optometry
May 13, 2022

Brittany Hogan, ceremony VI
Manager, Center of Humas Service Leadership
Delmar Devine
December 19, 2021
speech

Opal Jones, ceremony V
President and CEO, DOORWAYS
December 19, 2021
speech

Akeem Shannon, ceremony IV
Founder and CEO, Flipstik
December 19, 2021
speech

Brian Williams, ceremony III
Senator, Missouri State Senate
December 18, 2021
speech

Marcela Manjarrez, ceremony II
Senior vice President and CCO, Centene Corporation
December 18, 2021
speech

Toni Douihy, ceremony I
Vice President, Assistant General Counsel
Macy's, Inc.
December 18, 2021
speech

Darrion Cockrell
2021 Missouri Teacher of the Year
May 15, 2021
speech

Ella Jones
Mayor, City of Ferguson
December 19, 2020
speech

Timothy Nowak, ceremony III
Executive Director, World Trade Center St. Louis
December 14, 2019
speech

Marie A. Casey, ceremony II
President and Founder, Casey Communications, Inc.
December 14, 2019
speech

Denise Murphy, ceremony I
Vice President for Patient Care Systems and Senior Nurse Executive, BJC HealthCare
December 14, 2019
speech

Lisa D. Yanker, ceremony VI
Retired Vice President, IBM
May 19, 2019
speech

Charles J. Pearson, ceremony V
Superintendent of Schools, Normandy Schools Collaborative
May 19, 2019
speech

Bethany Johnson-Javois, ceremony IV
Chief Executive Officer, St. Louis Integrated Health Network
May 18, 2019
speech

Sara E. Foster, ceremony III
Executive Vice President, Commerce Bancshares, Inc.
May 18, 2019
speech

Claire Schenk, ceremony II
Partner, Thompson Coburn LLP
May 18, 2019
speech

Dr. Edward S. Bennett, ceremony I
Assistant Dean of Student Services and Alumni Relations, and Professor, UMSL College of Optometry
May 17, 2019
speech

Sheila A. Burkett, ceremony III
Co-Founder & CEO, Spry Digital
December 15, 2018
speech

Christine Brewer, ceremony II
American Soprano
December 15, 2018
song list and performance

Richard K. Jung, ceremony I
Strategic Advisor, Thrively
December 15, 2018
speech

Thomas Schlafly,  ceremony VI
Chairman of the Board, the St. Louis Brewery, LLC
Senior Council, Thompson Coburn, LLP
May 13, 2018
speech

Sharonica Hardin-Bartley,  ceremony V
Superintendent of Schools, The School District of University City
May 13, 2018
speech

Tony Thompson,  ceremony IV
Chairman and CEO, Kwame Building Group Inc.
May 12, 2018
speech

Susan K. Feigenbaum,  ceremony III
Curators' Distinguished Teaching Professor Department of Economics, UMSL
May 12, 2018
speech

Bobby Norfolk,  ceremony II
Speaker, Author, Storyteller, Teaching Artist
May 12, 2018
speech

Arol Augsburger,  ceremony I
President, Illinois College of Optometry
May 11, 2018
speech

Kei Y. Pang,  ceremony III
Chief Executive Officer, Nidec Motor Company
December 16, 2017
speech

Gary F. Bell,  ceremony II
Founder and Artistic Director, Stray Dog Theatre
December 16, 2017
speech

Cheryl Jones, ceremony I
President and CEO, Girls Inc.
December 16, 2017

Dr. Thomas Hoerr, ceremony V
Scholar in Residence with College of Education, UMSL
May 14, 2017
speech

Jennifer Cordia, ceremony IV
Vice President of Patient Care and Chief Nursing Officer, Christian Hospital and Northwest Healthcare
May 13, 2017
speech

W. Raymond Barrett, ceremony I
Chairman and Founder, Biomedical Systems
May 12, 2017
speech

D'Andre Braddix, ceremony II
Assistant Dean of Students, UMSL
December 17, 2016
speech

John Vatterott, ceremony I
Owner, Ceder Creek
December 17, 2016
speech

Tim Hebel, ceremony I
BS computer science 2016
Founder, Beanstalk Web Soutions
May 14, 2016
speech

Jordan Pickering, ceremony II
CCJ doctoral student
May 14, 2016
speech

Barbara W. Brown, OD 1988
ceremony III
May 14, 2016
speech

Lee Fetter, ceremony IV
BJC Group President
May 15, 2016
speech

Joseph A. Stieven, ceremony V
CEO, Stieven Capital Advisors, LP
May 15, 2016
speech

Jim Krueger
Vice Chancellor for Managerial and Technological Services, UMSL
Dec. 19, 2015
speech

Ronald B. McMullen
President, Christian Hospital
Aug. 8, 2015
speech

June McAllister Fowler
VP, BJC Healthcare
May 16, 2015
speech

Colleen Starkloff
Co-founder, Starkloff Disability Institute
May 16, 2015
speech

The Hon. Terry Swinger OD
Optometrist and former Missouri
legislator
May 16, 2015
speech

Maxine Clark
Founder of Build-A-Bear Workshop
May 17, 2015
speech

Gladys Caines Coggswell
Storyteller and historian
May 17, 2015
speech

Patrick J. Sly
Executive VP, Emerson
May 17, 2015
speech

Robert G Heil
Founder, Heil Sound
Dec. 20, 2014
speech not available

Jorge Riopedre
Exec. Dir.,Casa de Salud
Dec. 20, 2014
speech

Karla Bakersmith
CEO, Scrubs & Beyond
Dec. 20, 2014
speech

Grayling O. Tobias
Superintendent
Hazelwood School District
Aug. 9, 2014
speech

Steven R. Sullivan
President, Provident, Inc.
Aug. 9, 2014
speech

Joseph Bergfeld
President, Pittsburgh Pipe and Supply Co.
May 17, 2014
speech

Randy E. Sims
President and Founder
Sims Exectuive Search
May 17, 2014

Stephen J. Burrows
Business executive and educator
May 18, 2014
speech

The. Rev. Starsky Wilson
President and CEO, Deaconess Foundation
Dec. 14, 2013
speech

The Hon. Jason Kander
Missouri Secretary of State
Dec. 14, 2013
speech

Kirk Richter
retired Vice-President and treasurer,
Sigma Aldrich Corp.
Dec. 14, 2013
speech

David Hilliard
President and CEO, Wyman Center
Aug. 10, 2013
speech

JoAnn M. Shaw
Vice President and
Chief Learning Officer
BJC Center for LifeLong Learning
Aug. 10, 2013
speech

Jeffrey Weaver, OD
Executive Director
American Board of Optometry
May 18, 2013
speech

Dennis Reagan
President and CEO, the Muny
Aug. 4, 2012
Speech

Jean Carnahan
Former U.S. Senator
Aug. 4, 2012
Speech

Andrew Hall
Former President and CEO of Stage Stores Inc.
May 13, 2012
Speech

Lt. Col. James Craig
Commander, The Gateway Battalion Army ROTC detachment St. Louis
May 12, 2012
Speech

Patricia Wolff, MD
Executive Director of Meds & Food for Kids
May 12, 2012
Speech

Jerry Dunn
Clinical Associate Professor and Director of Child Advocacy Center
Dec. 17, 2011
Speech

Cynthia Prost
President of Arts and Education Council
Dec. 17, 2011
Speech

The Honorable Suresh Kumar
Assistant Secretary of Commerce
Dec. 17, 2011
Speech

Robert Reeg
President of MasterCard Technologies
Aug. 6, 2011
Speech

Charlie Hoffman
Former President and CEO of Covad Communications
Aug. 6, 2011
Speech

Art McCoy
Superintendent of the Ferguson-Florissant School District
May 15, 2011
Speech

Earl Horton, BSBA
May 15, 2011
Speech

Dori Carlson O.D.
May 14, 2011
Speech

Gary Dollar
President and CEO at United Way of Greater St. Louis
May 14, 2011
Speech

Deborah Patterson
President of Monsanto Fund
May 14, 2011
Speech


Norman Eaker
Principal and CEO, Edward Jones
Aug. 7, 2010
Speech


John "Jack" Galmiche
President and CEO of KETC Nine Network
May 15, 2010

Students
May 15, 2010
Thomas Knoten, MA philosophy
Amanda Duckwall, BS biology
Speech

Thomas Klein, BA English

Lee Ann Barrett
Executive Director of the Missouri Optometric Association
May 15, 2010
(College of Optometry)

Inda Schaenen
Educator and doctoral candidate
May 16, 2010
(College of Education)

Erwin Branahl
Retired engineer and McDonnell Douglas executive
May 16, 2010
(College of Business Administration and UMSL/Washington University Joint Undergraduate Engineering Program)
Speech


Karen Kalish
Executive Director and Founder of Cultural Leadership
and the Teacher Home Visit Program
Dec. 19, 2009
(College of Arts and Sciences)
Speech

Debra Hollingsworth
Vice President for External Affairs at AT&T Missouri
Dec. 19, 2009
(College of Arts and Sciences)
Speech


Warner Baxter
President and CEO of Ameren UE
May 16, 2009
(College of Arts and Sciences)
Speech


Gary Belsky
Editor in Chief of ESPN The Magazine
(Colleges of Education, College of Nursing, College of Fine Arts and Communication, School of Social Work, Bachelor of General Studies and Bachelor of Interdisciplinary Studies, and Masters in Public Policy Administration)
Speech

Don Marsh
Journalist, author and current host of 90.7 FM KWMU's St. Louis on the Air
Aug. 2, 2008
(College of Education, College of Nursing, College of Fine Arts and Communication)
Speech

Charles Armbruster
retired UMSL chemistry professor
Aug. 2, 2008
(College of Arts and Sciences, School of Social Work, Bachelor of General Studies, Bachelor of Interdisciplinary Studies, Master's in Gerontology, Master's in Public Policy Administration)
Speech

John Hixson
President and Chief Executive Officer, LaBarge Products, Inc.
Aug. 2, 2008
(College of Business Administration, UMSL/WU Joint Undergraduate Engineering)
Speech


James R. Kimmey
President and CEO, Missouri Foundation for Health
Dec. 16, 2006
(College of Nursing and Health Studies, UMSL/WU Joint Undergraduate Engineering Program, College of Fine Arts and Communication, School of Social Work, Bachelor of General Studies, UMR-EEC, Gerontology Masters Program and Masters in Public Policy Administration)
Speech

Robert Lewis
Principal and President, Development Strategies
Dec. 16, 2006
(College of Arts and Sciences)
Speech

Robert Frank
President, Illuminor LLC
Dec. 17, 2006
(College of Education)
Speech

The Honorable Robin Carnahan
Missouri Secretary of State
Dec. 17, 2006
(College of Business Administration)
Speech


The Honorable William Lacy Clay
Missouri Representative to the U.S. House of Representatives
May 13, 2006
(College of Nursing, UMSL/WU Joint Undergraduate Engineering Program, College of Fine Arts and Communication, School of Social Work, Bachelor of General Studies, UMR-EEC, Gerontology Masters Program and Masters in Public Policy Administration)
Speech

William Thomas Walker
Dean, Continuing Education and Outreach, UMSL
May 13, 2006
(College of Arts and Sciences)
Speech

Stephen Lehmkuhle
Senior Vice President of Academic Affairs, University of Missouri System
May 13, 2006
(College of Optometry)
Speech

Elizabeth Fitzgerald
President. The Magic House
May 14, 2006
(College of Education)
Speech

Peter Schick
President, Moneta Group
May 14, 2006
(College of Business Administration)
Speech


H. Gerald Schwartz Jr.
Senior professor of civil and environmental engineering and director of the Engineering Management Program, Washington University in St. Louis
Dec. 17, 2005
(College of Nursing, UMSL/WU Joint Undergraduate Engineering Program, College of Fine Arts and Communication, School of Social Work, Bachelor of General Studies, UMR-EEC, Gerontology Masters Program and Masters in Public Policy Administration)
Speech

Mark A. Burkholder 
Dean, College of Arts & Sciences, UMSL
Dec. 17, 2005
(College of Arts and Sciences)
Speech

Thomas R. Hoerr
Director, New City School
Dec. 18, 2005
(College of Education)
Speech

David G. Otto
Principal, Edward Jones
Dec. 18, 2005
(College of Business Administration)
Speech


Charles D. Schmitz
Dean and Professor of the College of Education, UMSL
Aug. 7, 2005
(College of Arts and Sciences, School of Social Work, College of Education, Evening College, College of Fine Arts and Communication, Master's in Gerontology, Master's in Public Policy Administration)
Speech

Gregory Boyce
President and COO, Peabody Energy
Aug. 7, 2005
(College of Business Administration, College of Nursing, UMSL/WU Joint Engineering Program)
Speech


Lee Armstrong Clear
Vice President and Marketing Manager, Clear Channel Radio-St. Louis.
May 14, 2005
(Eveving College, Barnes College of Nursing and Health Studies, UMSL/WU Joint Undergraduate Engineering Program, College of Fine Arts and Communication, UMR-EEC, Gerontology Masters Program and Masters in Public Policy Administration)
Speech

Susan K. Feigenbaum
Professor and Chair, Department of Economics, UMSL
May 14, 2005
(College of Arts and Sciences and School of Social Work)
Speech

Jerald Wayne Strickland
Interim Senior Vice President of Academic Affairs, University of Houston
May 14, 2005
(College of Optometry)
Speech

Charles D. Schmitz
Dean and Professor of the College of Education, UMSL
May 15, 2005
(College of Education)
Speech


K. Lynn Wieck, Ph.D. RN
CEO, Management Soultions for Healthcare
Dec. 18, 2004
(Evening College, College of Nursing, UMSL/WU Joint Undergraduate Engineering Program, College of Fine Arts and Communication, UMR-EEC, Gerontology Masters Program and Masters in Public Policy Administration)
Speech

Scott H. Decker
Curators' Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice, UMSL
Dec. 18, 2004
(College of Arts and Sciences and School of Social Work)
Speech

Charles D. Schmitz
Dean and Professor, College of Education, UMSL
Dec. 19, 2004
(College of Education)
Speech

Keith Womer
Dean,   College of Business Administration, UMSL
Dec. 19, 2004
(College of Business Administration)
Speech


Donald H. Driemeier
Deputy to the Chancellor, UMSL
Aug. 8, 2004
(College of Arts and Sciences, Evening College, College of Education, College of Fine Arts and Communication, Gerontology Masters Program and Masters in Public Policy Administration)
Speech

Cecil G. Wood
Senior Vice President, UMB Bank
Aug. 8, 2004
(College of Business Administration, College of Nursing and UMSL/WU Joint Undergraduate Engineering Program)
Speech

Stanley I. Proctor
Chemical Engineer & President, Proctor Consulting Services
May 15, 2004 
(Evening College, Barnes College of Nursing & Health Studies, UMSL/WU Joint Undergraduate Engineering Program, College of Fine Arts & Communication, UM Rolla Engineering Education Center, Gerontology Masters Program, Physiological Optics Masters Program, and Masters in Public Policy Administration)

Roger Beachy
President & Director, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center
May 15, 2004 
(College of Arts and Sciences)

The Honorable Anne Ream
curator, University of Missouri System Board of Curators 
May 15, 2004 
(College of Optometry)

Lynn Beckwith, Jr. 
Interim E. Desmond Lee Endowed Professor, University of Missouri - St. Louis & St. Louis Public Schools 
May 16, 2004 
(College of Education)

Thomas Schlafly
Attorney at Law, Blackwell Sanders Peper Martin L.L.P
President, St. Louis Brewery Inc. 
May 16, 2004 
(College of Business Administration)

Thomas F. George 
Chancellor, University of Missouri - St. Louis 
Jan. 11, 2004 
(College of Education)

David G. Niklaus
Business Columnist, St. Louis Post-Dispatch  
Jan. 11, 2004 
(College of Business Administration)

Jean Carnahan 
U.S. Senator (former)
Jan. 10, 2004 
(College of Arts & Sciences)

Jill A. McGuire 
Executive Director, St. Louis Regional Arts Commission 
Jan. 10, 2004 
University of Missouri - St. Louis 

Elson S. Floyd 
President, University of Missouri System
Aug. 10, 2003 
University of Missouri - St. Louis 

Dr. Donald Suggs
President & Publisher, St. Louis American 
May 17, 2003 
University of Missouri - St. Louis 

Blanche M. Touhill
Chancellor Emeritus, University of Missouri - St. Louis  
Jan. 12, 2003 
University of Missouri - St. Louis 

Lawrence Barton
Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri - St. Louis  
Aug. 11, 2002
University of Missouri - St. Louis 

The Honorable William Lacy Clay 
United States Congressman (former)
May 18, 2002 
University of Missouri - St. Louis 

The Honorable Peter Kinder 
President Pro Tem, Missouri Senate
Jan. 13, 2002 
University of Missouri - St. Louis 

Joseph T. Porter
Attorney at Law, Polsinelli Shalton & Welte P.C.
President, University of Missouri - St. Louis Alumni Association
Aug. 12, 2001
University of Missouri - St. Louis 

Hon. Francis F. Slay
Mayor, City of St. Louis
May 19, 2001
University of Missouri - St. Louis 

Jan Newton
President, Missouri Division, Southwestern Bell Telephone Company 
Jan. 14, 2001
University of Missouri - St. Louis 

Peter H. Raven
Director, Missouri Botanical Garden 
May 20, 2000
University of Missouri - St. Louis 

Ellen Sherberg
Publisher, St. Louis Business Journal 
January 9, 2000
University of Missouri - St. Louis 

The Honorable Connie Hager Silverstein
curator, University of Missouri System Board of Curators
Aug. 8, 1999
University of Missouri - St. Louis 

David C. Darnell
President, NationsBank Midwest 
May 15, 1999
University of Missouri - St. Louis 

John W. Bachmann
Managing Principal, Edward Jones
Jan. 10, 1999
University of Missouri - St. Louis 

Robert R. Archibald
President, Missouri Historical Society 
Aug. 9, 1998
University of Missouri - St. Louis

M. Brian Mulroney
Canadian Prime Minister (Former)
May 16, 1998
University of Missouri - St. Louis

Manuel T. Pacheco 
President, University of Missouri System
Jan. 11, 1998
University of Missouri - St. Louis

Osborne Earl "Ozzie" Smith
Shortstop, St. Louis Cardinals 
Aug. 10, 1997
University of Missouri - St. Louis

The Honorable Thomas F. Eagleton
United States Senator 
May 17, 1997
University of Missouri - St. Louis

Malaika Horne
President, University of Missouri System Board of Curators 
Jan. 12, 1997
University of Missouri - St. Louis

Kala M. Stroup
Commissioner, Missouri Coordinating Board of Higher Education
Head, Missouri Department of Education
Aug. 11, 1996
University of Missouri - St. Louis

Antoinette Bailey
President, McDonnell Douglas Foundation
May 18, 1996
University of Missouri - St. Louis

Stephen W. Lehmkuhle
Professor of Optometry, University of Missouri - St. Louis 
Aug. 6, 1995
University of Missouri - St. Louis

Julius Hunter
News Anchor, KMOV-TV St. Louis 
Jan. 8, 1995
University of Missouri - St. Louis

The Honorable Mary S. Gillespie
curator, University of Missouri System Board of Curators 
Aug. 7, 1994
University of Missouri - St. Louis

William F. Woo
Editor, St. Louis Post-Dispatch 
May 15, 1994
University of Missouri - St. Louis

Cynthia B. Thompson
curator, University of Missouri System Board of Curators
Jan. 9, 1994
University of Missouri - St. Louis

Joseph S. Martinich 
Associate Professor of Business Administration, University of Missouri - St. Louis 
Aug. 8, 1993
University of Missouri - St. Louis

John F. Dill
President and CEO, Mosby-Year Book, Inc.
May 16, 1993
University of Missouri - St. Louis

Eugene M. Lang
Founder, I Have a Dream Foundation

Jan. 10, 1993
University of Missouri - St. Louis

James L. McHugh
curator, University of Missouri System Board of Curators 
Aug. 9, 1992
University of Missouri - St. Louis

Stanford McDonnell
Chairman Emeritus, McDonnell Douglas Corporation 
May 17, 1992
University of Missouri - St. Louis

John P. Lichtenegger
President, University of Missouri System Board of Curators 
Jan. 5, 1992
University of Missouri - St. Louis

Donald Phares 
Professor of Economics, University of Missouri - St. Louis 
Aug. 4, 1991
University of Missouri - St. Louis

Robert Yeckel
Chair, Missouri Coordinating Board of Higher Education 
May 12, 1991
University of Missouri - St. Louis

Douglas Bennet 
President, National Public Radio 
Jan. 6, 1991
University of Missouri - St. Louis

Thomas M. Jordan
Curators' Professor of Behavioral Studies, University of Missouri - St. Louis 
Aug. 5, 1990
University of Missouri - St. Louis

Stephen Jay Gould 
Professor of Zoology, Harvard University 
May 13, 1990
University of Missouri - St. Louis

Admiral Stansfield Turner
Admiral (retired), United States Navy 
May 13, 1990
University of Missouri - St. Louis

Willie Mae Ford Smith
National Heritage Fellow, National Endowment for the Arts  
Aug. 6, 1989
University of Missouri - St. Louis

The Honorable Vincent C. Schoemehl, Jr. 
Mayor, City of St. Louis 
May 14, 1989
University of Missouri - St. Louis

The Honorable Edwin S. Turner
President, University of Missouri System Board of Curators 
Jan. 8, 1989
University of Missouri - St. Louis

Robert McFerrin
Baritone Artist in Residence, University of Missouri - St. Louis 
Aug. 7, 1988
University of Missouri - St. Louis

Leonard Slatkin
Music Director and Conductor, St. Louis Symphony Orchestra 
May 15, 1988
University of Missouri - St. Louis

The Honorable Roger B. Wilson
Missouri State Senator 
Jan. 3, 1988
University of Missouri - St. Louis

The honorary doctorate degree is the highest form of recognition offered by the University of Missouri to persons of exceptional distinction. To learn more about honorary degrees, please visit the Honorary Degree website.

The University of Missouri - St. Louis Alma Mater, Heart of Missouri was composed by John Francis Dill and Diane Ceccarini. 

The distinctive academic attire of gowns, cape and hoods dates back to the 12th Century, when scholars were usually members of the clergy and wore robes similar to those of other church orders. In those days of unheated classrooms and dormitories, the gowns and hoods served a very practical purpose. Today, they identify the academic achievement of the wearer and reflect a continuous tradition 800 years old.

Both the gown and the hood indicate the degree that the wearer either holds or is about to receive. The gown for the bachelor's degree has a closed front and long, pointed sleeves. Masters wear a closed-sleeve robe with a slit near the upper arm and with the pointed part of the sleeve dangling below the arm. The doctor's hood is faced down the front with velvet and has tree velvet cross-cars on each bell-shaped sleeve. The velvet may be black, or its color may indicate the field in which the degree is taken. Graduates of some institutions may wear gowns in the color of the university which granted their degrees; e.g., crimson for Harvard, blue for Yale, bright gold for Johns Hopkins.

Hoods are not worn for the bachelor's degree. The master's hood is shorter than the doctor's and lacks it colored panels. Hoods are lined with the colors of the institution granting the degree and are edged with velvet in the color symbolic of the wearer's academic field: philosophy, dark blue; law, purple; public policy, peacock blue; education, light blue; fine arts, brown; arts, letters and humanities, white; science golden yellow; business, tan; music, pink; nursing, peach; engineering, orange; and optometry, seafoam green.

The mortar board cap came into use after the hood had ceased to be worn on the head. The tassel, worn over the left temple, is usually black, although a colored tassel may be worn to designate one's academic discipline, and the tassel on the doctor's cap may be of gold thread. Some doctor's caps are made of black velvet.

The wearing of the academic attire is one of the "rights and privileges" that accompanies a degree.