Research Resources


When geropsychologists come together at conferences and share their stories of professional development, two themes are often present. First and foremost, we commonly fall in love with the aging population during our clinical work. As geropsychologists, we cherish the diversity and strengths that are manifest along with the challenges of aging. Individuals become more different from each other and increasingly interesting as they travel through life's journeys. Secondly, our continued efforts within clinical and community geropsychology are inspired and supported by kind and thoughtful colleagues who share these values. The work done in our lab is no exception; we welcome opportunities to learn from collaborators and explore new developments.

Intervention Development:
Grounded in cognitive-behavioral theories and strategies for change in ethnically diverse older adults (Gallagher-Thompson, Steffen & Thompson, 2008; Scogin et al., 2007; Yeo & Gallagher-Thompson, 2006; Zeiss & Steffen, 1996) and Bandura's theory of self-efficacy (1997), our lab's efforts are an extension of treatments developed by Dolores Gallagher-Thompson, Ph.D. and Larry Thompson, Ph.D. at Stanford University School of Medicine. The Women's Health and Aging Lab at UM-St. Louis is innovative in our use of video instruction, client manuals, and telephone coaching to reduce depression (Steffen & Gant, 2015), anger (Steffen, 2000), and psychosocial distress (Gant, Steffen & Lauderdale, 2007) in diverse dementia caregivers. Within this page, we provide some resources for becoming familiar with this body of work, and related work on the measurement of caregiving self-efficacy.

  Works include:

The Handbook of Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies with Older Adults (Gallagher-Thompson, Steffen & Thompson, 2008).

The Dementia Caregiving Skills Program:
Excerpt from Coach Manual.pdf
Excerpt from Caregiver Manual.pdf
Session 1 video
Measurement Issues:

The construct of caregiving self-efficacy has proven to be robust in understanding psychosocial functioning and treatment response in dementia family caregivers. Using a revised version of the caregiving self efficacy scale first developed by Zeiss et al. (1999), and in collaboration with our colleagues at Stanford University School of Medicine, we have continued to examine the usefulness of the Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy (Steffen et al., 2002). Below, we share some citations supporting the validity of the scale, and translations developed by investigators outside of the US.

Original scale reference:

Zeiss, A. M., Gallagher-Thompson, D., Lovett, S., Rose, J. & McKibbin, C. (1999). Self-efficacy as a mediator of caregiver coping: Development and testing of an assessment model. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology, 5, 221-230.
(Zeiss et al 1999 abstract.pdf)

Revised scale reference:
Steffen, A.M., McKibbin, C., Zeiss, A.M., Gallagher-Thompson, D., & Bandura, A.(2002). The revised scale for caregiving self-efficacy: Reliability and validity studies. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 57B, P74-P86.
(Steffen et al 2002_P74.pdf)

Supporting references:
Steffen, A. M. (2000). Anger management for dementia caregivers: A preliminary study using video and telephone interventions. Behavior Therapy, 31, 281-299.
(Steffen 2000 abstract.pdf)

Coon, D., Thompson, L., Steffen, A.M., Sorocco, K., & Gallagher-Thompson, D. (2003). Anger and depression management: Psychoeducational skill training interventions for women caregivers of a relative with dementia. The Gerontologist, 43, 678-689. (Coon et al 2003 abstract.pdf)

Gilliam, C., & Steffen, A. M. (2006). The relationship between caregiving self-efficacy and depressive symptoms in dementia family caregivers. .Aging & Mental Health, 10, 79-86.
(Gilliam & Steffen 2006 abstract.pdf)

Rabinowitz, Y., Mausbach, B. T., Thompson, L.W., & Gallagher-Thompson, D. (2007). The relationship between self-efficacy and cumulative health risk associated with health behavior patterns in female caregivers of elderly relatives with Alzheimer's Dementia. Journal of Aging and Health, 19, 946-964.
(Rabinowitz et al 2007 abstract.pdf)

Harvey, K. et al. (2008). A review of instruments developed to measure outcomes for carers of people with mental health problems. ACTA Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 117, 164-176.
(Harvey et al 2008 abstract.pdf)

Marziali et al. (2010). Evaluation of an assessment battery for estimating dementia caregiver needs for health and social care services. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias, 25, 446-454.
(Marziali et al 2010 abstract.pdf)


The revised scale for caregiving self-efficacy
Márquez-González, M., Losada, A., López, J. & Peñacoba, C.(2009). Reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy. Clinical Gerontologist: The Journal of Aging and Mental Health, 32, 347-357.
(Márquez-González et al 2009 abstract.pdf)

Romero-Moreno, R., Losada, A., Mausbach, B.T., Marquez-Gonzalez, M., Patterson, T. L., & Lopez, J. (2011). Analysis of the moderating effect of self-efficacy domains in different points of the dementia caregiving process. Aging & Mental Health
(Romero-Moreno et al abstract.pdf)

Marziali, E., et al. (2011). Dementia caregivers' responses to two internet-based information-support programs. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias. (Marziali et al in press AJADD 2011 abstract.pdf)

Au et al. (2009).Social support and well-being in dementia family caregivers: The mediating role of self-efficacy. Aging & Mental Health, 13, 761-768. (Au et al. 2009 abstract.pdf)