American Political Development

A Bibliography for Teaching and Research

Prepared by Dave Robertson  / Last Updated: July 28, 2018

see also the Political Economy Bibliography / Environmental Politics Bibliography / American Political Development Syllabus

INDEX:  BASIC ARCHIVAL & DATA SOURCES INDEXES  /  METHODS AND CONCEPTS *  Theory Construction *  Case Studies  * The Political Science Discipline * Historical Institutionalism * The StateThe Positive Theory of InstitutionsAmerican Political Development * The American State * Federalism  / Institutional Engineering / PERIODS OF POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT / Colonial Period, Territories, American Revolution * U.S. Constitution * Founding to Civil War, 1789-1865 * The State of Courts and Parties, 1865-1900 * Progressivism* Normalcy and New Deal * Cold War and the 1960s * The Recent American Political SystemThe Conservative Ascendancy / LEGISLATIVE DEVELOPMENT / PRESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT / ADMINISTRATIVE & BUREAUCRATIC DEVELOPMENT / THE COURTS & LEGAL DEVELOPMENT * Critical Legal Theory / THE DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICS * Primary Sources and Data * Political Parties  *  Realignment  *  Suffrage, Elections, Initiative & Referenda * Interests * Political Corruption, Machines, Patronage  * Campaign Finance * Public Opinion * Political Culture and Ideology * The South * Religion * Gender * Race * Slavery * Latinos * Native Americans * Disability * Media / THE DEVELOPMENT OF POLICY * Agenda Setting * Legislating / Foreign Policy and National Security

UP indicates University Press / APSR indicates American Political Science Review / SAPD indicates Studies in American Political Development


The Library of Congress American Memory site / The Avalon Project

The American Political Development website at the Miller Center, University of Virginia

C-SPAN Video Library


Richard Jensen's American Political History On-Line / History Matters

U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970 (US GPO, 1975) and Statistical Abstract of the United States (US GPO, annual)   

Harold W. Stanley and Richard G. Niemi, Vital Statistics on American Politics (Congressional Quarterly Press)

Links to Archive Grid / U.S. National Archives / The Archives of Maryland Online / Other Archives and Repositories of Primary Sources

Links to U.S. Library of Congress Finding Aids / NARA Center for Legislative Archives / Legislative Histories / NARA Index of Committee Indexes: Library Resources for Administrative History: Congressional Hearings and Committee Prints

Links to Harvard-MIT Data Center / Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research  /
UCSD Social Science Data Archives / UCSD Social Science Data on the Net / Statistical Sources

Link to the University of Virginia Miller Center's The American President website

Link to Historical Maps (University of Texas) / Historical Maps (University of Illinois) / Librarians' Index to the Internet / Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections

Link to OneLook Dictionaries

Link The Making of America online 19th century journals and books  / searchable newspaper archives (includes New York Times)

The Political Graveyard (political biography)


United States Government Publications: Monthly Catalogue

U.S. Serial Set Index

Public Affairs Information Service (periodical index)

America: History and Life (periodical index)

American Statistics Index (ASI; statistics from public documents; microfiche)

Statistical Reference Index (SRI; statistics from private documents; microfiche)

David F. Trask and Robert W. Pomeroy, III, eds., The Craft of Public History: An Annotated Select Bibliography (Greenwood, 1983)

U.S. Library of Congress, A Guide to the Study of the United States of America (Washington: GPO, 1960).

Link to The History Journals Guide / Ultimate Political Science Links page


Link to Political Methodology Society & APSA Political Methodology section

Qualitative Methods syllabi 

John Gerring, "Mere Description," British Journal of Political Science 42:4 (2012), 721-746

Research Tools / Theory Construction / Case Studies / Pitfalls

Scott A. Frisch, Douglas B. Harris, Sean Q. Kelly, and David C.W. Parker, eds., Doing Archival Research in Political Science (Cambria Press, 2012)

John Gerring, Social Science Methodology: A Criterial Framework (Cambridge UP, 2001)

M. Cameron Hay, ed., Methods That Matter:  Integrating Mixed Methods for More Effective Social Science Research (U of Chicago Press, 2016)

Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams, The Craft of Research (U of Chicago Press, 1995)

Paul C. Stern, Evaluating Social Science Research (Oxford University Press, 1979)

Paul Diesing, Patterns of Discovery in the Social Sciences (Aldine, Atherton, 1971)

Paul Pierson, Politics in Time: History, Institutions, and Social Analysis (Princeton UP, 2005);

Paul Pierson, "Not Just What, but When: Timing and Sequence in Political Processes,"  SAPD 14:1 (Spring 2000): 72-92; Robert Jervis, "Timing and Interaction in Politics: A Comment on Pierson;" Kathleen Thelen, "Timing and Temporality in the Analysis of Institutional Change;" and Amy Bridges, "Path Dependence, Sequence, History, Theory," SAPD 14:1 (Spring, 2000): 93-112

B. Guy Peters, Jon Pierre and Desmond S. King, "The Politics of Path Dependency: Political Conflict in Historical Institutionalism" Journal of Politics, 67:4 (Nov., 2005), pp. 1275-1300

Mary Douglas and Steven Ney, Missing Persons: A Critique of the Social Sciences (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998).

Henry E. Brady and David Collier, eds., Rethinking Social Inquiry: Diverse Tools, Shared Standards (Rowman and LIttlefirled, 2004)

James Mahoney and Kathleen Thelen, eds. Advances in Comparative-Historical Analysis (Cambridge UP, 2015)

Evan S. Lieberman, "Causal Inference in Historical Institutional Analysis: A Specification of Periodization Strategies," Comparative Political Studies 34:9 (November, 2001)

Charles Tilley and Robert E. Goodin, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Contextual Political Analysis (Oxford UP, 2006)

Paul A. David, "Clio and the Economics of QWERTY." American Economic Review 75:2 (1985):332-337

Paul A. David, ‘‘Why Are Institutions the ‘Carriers of History’?: Path Dependence and the Evolution of Conventions, Organizations, and Institutions,’’ Structural Change and Economic Dynamics 5 (1994), 205–220

Andrew Bennett and Jeffrey T. Checkel, eds., Process Tracing: From Metaphor to Analytic Tool (Cambridge UP, 2014)

Clifford Geertz, The Interpretation of Cultures (Basic Books, 1973)


Philip E. Tetlock and Aaron Belkin, Counterfactual Thought Experiments in World Politics: Logical, Methodological, and Psychological Perspectives (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996)

Stephen L. Morgan and Christopher Winship, Counterfactuals and Causal Inference: Methods and Principles for Social Research, 2nd ed (Cambridge UP, 2014)

Richard Ned LeBow, "What's So Different About a Counterfactual?" World Politics 52 (July, 2000): 550-585

Martin Bunzl, "Counterfactual History: A User's Guide," American Historical Review 109:3 (June 2004): 845-858.

Niall Ferguson, ed. Virtual History: Alternatives and Counterfactuals (Basic Books, 1999).

Robert Crowley, ed. What If? The World's Foremost Historians Imagine What Might Have Been. G.P. Putnam's and Sons, 1999).

[for an excellent example of the use of counterfactuals in American Political Development, see Jack N. Rakove, “The Origins of Judicial Review: A Plea for New Contexts,” Stanford Law Review 49 (May, 1997), 1031--]


Gary Goertz and Harvey Starr, eds., Necessary Conditions: Theory, Methodology, and Applications (Rowman and Littlefield, 2002)

 Max Weber, Methodology of the Social Sciences (Free Press, 1949)

H.H Gerth and C. Wright Mills, From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology (Oxford University Press, 1946)

Charles Tilly, Big Structures, Large Processes, Huge Comparisons (Russell Sage, 1984)

Jon Elster, Logic and Society: Contradictions and Possible Worlds (Wiley, 1978)

A.M. MacIver, "Levels of Explanation in History," in May Brodbeck, ed., Readings in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences (Macmillan, 1968)

Anthony Giddens, Central Problems in Social Theory: Action, Structure and Contradiction in Social Analysis California, 1979) and The Constitution of Society (California, 1984).

Marcelo Bucheli and R. Daniel Wadhwani, eds., Organizations in Time: History, Theory, Methods (Oxford UP, 2014)


John Gerring, “What Is a Case Study and What Is It Good for?” APSR 98 (2004): 341-354

Harry Eckstein, "Case Study and Theory in Political Science," in Fred I. Greenstein and Nelson W. Polsby, eds., Handbook of Political Science, Volume 7: Strategies of Inquiry (Addison-Wesley, 1975)

Robert K. Yin, Case Study Research: Design and Methods 3rd ed. (Sage: 2002) and Applications of Case Study Research, 2nd ed. (Sage, 2002).

Robert E. Stake, The Art of Case Study Research (Sage, 1995)

Lindsay J. Whaley, Introduction to Typology: The Unity and Diversity of Language (Sage, 1996).

Alexander L. George, "Case Studies and Theory Development: The Method of Structured, Focused Comparison," in Paul G. Lauren, ed., Diplomacy: New Approaches in History, Theory, and Policy (Free Press, 1979)

Alexander L. George and Andrew Bennett, Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences (MIT Press, 2004)

David Collier, "The Comparative Method," in Ada W. Finifter, ed., Political Science: The State of the Discipline II (American Political Science Association, 1993), 105-120.

Charles W. Anderson, "System versus Strategy in Comparative Policy Analysis: A Plea for Contextual and Experiential Knowledge," In W.B. Gwyn and G.C. Edwards III (eds). Perspectives in Public Policy-Making (Tulane University, 1975)

Arend Lijphart, "Comparative Politics and the Comparative Method," APSR 65: 3 (September, 1971), 682 - 695


Julian E. Zelizer, "What Political Science Can Learn from the New Political History," Annual Review of Political Science, 13 (May 2010), 25–36;

Marc Bloch, The Historian's Craft (Vintage, 1953)

E.H. Carr, What is History? (Penguin, 1990)

John Lewis Gaddis, The Landscape of History: How Historians Map the Past (Oxford UP, 2002).

William H. Sewell, Logics of History (U of Chicago Press, 2005)

Marc Trachtenberg, The Craft of International History: A Guide to Method (Princeton UP, 2006)

James West Davidson and Mark Hamilton Lytle, After the Fact: The Art of Historical Detection (Knopf, 1981)

J. Morgan Kousser, "Restoring Politics to Political History," Journal of Interdisciplinary History 12:4 (Spring, 1982), 569-95.

Arthur L. Stinchcombe, Constructing Social Theories (University of Chicago Press, 1987)

Francis G. Castles, "Introduction: The Puzzles of Political Economy," in Castles, ed., The Comparative History of Public Policy (Oxford University Press, 1989)

Ian Lustick, "History, Historiography, and Political Science: Multiple Historical Records and the Problem of Selection Bias," APSR 90: 3 (Sept 1996): 605-618.

Ernst Breisach, Historiography: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern. University of Chicago, 1994

Gary B. Nash, Charlotte Crabtree, and Ross E. Dunn, History on Trial: Culture Wars and the Teaching of the Past (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1997).

Emery Roe, Narrative Policy Analysis: Theory and Practice (Duke U Press, 1994)

Mark C. Smith, Social Science in the Crucible: The American Debate over Objectivity and Purpose, 1918-1941 (Duke U Press, 1994)

Thomas J. Archdeacon, Correlation and Regression Analysis: A Historians Guide (Wisconsin, 1994)

Bill James, "The Meaning of Statistics," from The New Bill James Historical Baseball Abstract (New York: Free Press, 2001), pp. 338-339


The Development of the Political Science Discipline

Ira Katznelson and Helen Milner, eds., Political Science: The State of the Discipline (New York: W.W. Norton, 2002)

Albert Somit and Joseph Tannehaus, The Development of American Political Science (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1967).

Dorothy Ross, The Origins of American Social Science (Cambridge UP, 1991) and "The Social Science Disciplines." In Theodore M. Porter and Dorothy Ross, eds. The Cambridge History of Science, volume 7, The Modern Social Sciences (Cambridge University Press, 2003)

Roger Backhouse and Philippe Fontaine, eds., The History of the Social Sciences since 1945 (Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Theodore J. Lowi, "The Politics of Higher Education: Political Science as Case Study," in George J. Graham, Jr. and George W. Carey, eds., The Post-Behavioral Era: Perspectives on Political Science (New York: David McKay Company, 1972)

Ian Shapiro, Rogers M. Smith, and Tarek E. Masoud, eds. Problems and Methods in the Study of Politics (Cambridge UP, 2004)

David M. Ricci, The Tragedy of Political Science: Politics, Scholarship, and Democracy (Yale UP, 1984).

Kristen Renwick Monroe, ed., Perestroika ! The Raucous Revolution In Political Science (Yale Up, 2005)

James Farr, John S. Dryzek and Stephen T. Leonard, eds., Political Science in History: Research Programs and Political Traditions (Cambridge UP, 1995)

James Farr and Raymond Seidelman, eds., Discipline and History: Political Science in the United States (U of Michigan Press, 1993).

Dennis J. Mahoney, Politics and Progress: The Emergence of American Political Science (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2004).

Terence Ball, ed. Idioms of Inquiry: Critique and Renewal in Political Science (State University of New York Press, 1987)

Martin Landau, Political Theory and Political Science (Macmillan, 1972)

David B. Easton, John G. Gunnell, and Michael B. Stein, eds., Regime and Discipline: Democracy and the Development of Political Science (U of Michigan Press, 1995)

John Gunnell, "The Historiography of American Political Science," in David Easton, et al The Development of Political Science (Routledge, 1991)

Gabriel Almond, "Separate Tables: Schools and Sects in Political Science." PS: Political Science and Politics 21 (1988): 828-842 and A Discipline Divided (Sage, 1990)

Bernard Crick, The American Science of Politics (Routledge, 1959)

Anna Haddow, Political Science in American Colleges and Universities, 1636-1900 (1939)

Robert Adcock, Liberalism and the Emergence of American Political Science : a Transatlantic Tale (Oxford UP, 2014)

Jessica Blatt, Race and the Making of American Political Science (U of Pennsylvania Press, 2018)

Mary G. Dietz and James Farr, "'Politics Would Undoubtedly Unwoman Her': Gender, Suffrage, and American Political Science" in Helene Silverberg, ed., Gender and American Social Science: The Formative Years (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1998)

Jurgen Herbst, The German Historical School in American Scholarship: A Study in the Transfer of Culture (Cornell UP, 1965)

Nasser Behnegar, Leo Strauss, Max Weber and the Scientific Study of Politics (University of Chicago Press, 2003)

Richard Hofstader and Walter Paul Metzger, The Development of Academic Freedom in the United States (1955)

 John W. Burgess, Reminiscences of An American Scholar (1934)

Barry D. Karl, Charles E. Merriam and the Study of Politics U of Chicago Press, 1974).

Richard M. Merelman, Pluralism at Yale: The Culture of Political Science in America (U of Wisconsin Press, 2003)

Historical Institutionalism

Theda Skocpol, "Bringing the State Back In," in Peter Evans, Theda Skocpol, and Dietrich Rueschemeyer, eds., Bringing the State Back In (Cambridge University Press, 1985), 3-37; see also Theda Skocpol, “Introduction,” Protecting Soldiers and Mothers (Belknap Press, 1992, pp. 1-62)

Paul Pierson, "Increasing Returns, Path Dependence, and the Study of Politics," APSR 94:2 (June, 2000): 251-267 and "Not Just What, but When: Timing and Sequence in Political Processes,"  SAPD 14:1 (Spring 2000): 72-92. 

Karen Orren and Steve Skowronek, "The Study Of American Political Development," in Ira Katznelson and Helen Milner, eds., Political Science: The State of the Discipline (New York: W.W. Norton, 2002); and Karen Orren, and Stephen Skowronek, 'Beyond the Iconography of Order: Notes for a "New Institutionalism," in Lawrence C. Dodd and Calvin Jillson (eds.), The Dynamics of American Politics: Approaches and Interpretations (Westview Press, 1994)

Ian Shapiro, Stephen Skowronek, and Daniel Galvin, eds., Rethinking Political Institutions: The Art of the State (New York UP, 2006)

David Brian Robertson, "Politics and the Past: History, Behavioralism, and the Return to Institutionalism in American Political Science," in Eric Monkkonen, ed., Engaging the Past: The Uses of History Across the Social Sciences (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1994), pp. 113-153

Ellen M. Immergut, "The Theoretical Core of the New Institutionalism," Politics & Society 26: 1 (March, 1998): 5-34

Robert C. Lieberman, "Ideas, Institutions, and Political Order: Explaining Political Change," APSR 96:4 (December 2002): 697-712.

Peter A. Hall and Rosemary C. R. Taylor, “Political Science and the Three Institutionalisms,” Political Studies 44 (1996): 936-957

Sven Steinmo, Kathleen Thelen, and Frank Longstreth, eds., Structuring Politics: Historical Institutionalism in Historical Perspective (Cambridge UP, 1992)

Marcelo Bucheli and R. Daniel Wadhwani, eds. Organizations in Time: History, Theory, Methods (Oxford UP, 2014).

B. Guy Peters, Institutional Theory in Political Science: The New Institutionalism (London: Pinter, 199?)

Dennis Kavanagh, "Why Political Science Needs History," Political Studies 39:3, 479-495

Ira Katznelson, "The Doleful Dance of Politics and Policy: Can Historical Institutionalism Make a Difference?" APSR 92:1 (March, 1998): 191-198.

Karen L. Remmer, "Theoretical Decay and Theoretical Development: The Resurgence of Institutional Analysis," World Politics 50:1 (October 1997): 34-61.

Thomas A. Koelble, "The New Institutionalism in Political Science," Comparative Politics 27 (January, 1995), pp. 231-243.

Theodore J. Lowi, "Foreword," and Calvin Jillson, Patterns and Periodicity in American National Politics," in Dodd and Jillson, The Dynamics of American Politics, pp ix-xvii, 1-22

Timothy Mitchell, "The Limits of the State: Beyond Statist Approaches and their Critics," APSR 85:1 (March, 1991) 77-96.

Gabriel Almond, "The Return to the State," APSR, 82:3 (September, 1988) 853-874

Mary C. Brinton and Victor Nee, eds., The New Institutionalism in Sociology (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1998).

David Apter, "Institutionalism Reconsidered," International Social Science Journal 43:3 (August, 1991): 463-48.

Andrew Abbott, "Sequences of Social Events: Concepts and Methods for the Analysis of Order in Social Processes," Historical Methods, 16:4 (Fall, 1983): 129-147,  and  "Conception of Time and Events in Social Science Methods: Causal and Narrative Approaches," Historical Methods, 23:4 (Fall, 1990): 140-150.

Eric Monkkonen, ed., Engaging the Past: The Uses of History Across the Social Sciences (Duke University Press, 1994)

Sanford M. Jacoby, "The New Institutionalism: What Can It Learn From the Old?" Industrial Relations 29:2 (Spring, 1990).


Institutional change

Kathleen Thelen, How Institutions Evolve: The Political Economy of Skills in Germany, Britain, the United States and Japan (Cambridge UP, 2004)

Eric Schickler, Disjointed Pluralism: Institutional Innovation and the Development of the U.S. Congress (Princeton UP, 2001)

Margaret Weir, “When Does Policy Change? The Organizational Politics of Change,” in Rethinking Political Institutions: The Art of the State, ed. Ian Shapiro, Stephen Skowronek, and Daniel Galvin (New York University Press, 2006)

James Mahoney and Kathleen Thelen, eds. Explaining Institutional Change: Ambiguity, Agency, and Power (Cambridge UP, 2009).

Julia R. Azari and Jennifer K. Smith, “Unwritten Rules: Informal Institutions in Established Democracies,” Perspectives on Politics 10:1 (March 2012), 37-55

B. Guy Peters, Jon Pierre and Desmond S. King, "The Politics of Path Dependency: Political Conflict in Historical Institutionalism" Journal of Politics, 67:4 (Nov., 2005), pp. 1275-1300


The State

 J.P. Nettl, "The State as a Conceptual Variable," World Politics 20:4 (July, 1968), 559-592.

Theda Skocpol, "Bringing the State Back In," in Peter Evans, Theda Skocpol, and Dietrich Rueschemeyer, eds., Bringing the State Back In (Cambridge University Press, 1985), 3-37; see also Theda Skocpol, States and Social Revolutions:  A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia and  China (Cambridge UP, 1979).

Peter J. Steinberger, The Idea of the State (Cambridge UP, 2004).

Bob Jessop, The State: Past, Present, Future (Polity Press. 2016).

Stephen D. Krasner, "Approaches to the State: Alternative Conceptions and Historical Dynamics," Comparative Politics (January, 1984): 223-246, and Stephen D. Krasner, "Sovereignty: An Institutional Perspective," Comparative Political Studies 21:1 (1988), pp. 66-94

James T. Sparrow, William J. Novak, and Stephen W. Sawyer, eds. Boundaries of the State in US History (U of Chicago Press, 2015)

Quentin Skinner and Bo Stråth, eds., States and Citizens: History, Theory, Prospects (Cambridge UP, 2002)

Quentin Skinner, "The State," chapter 5 in Terence Ball, James Farr, and Russell L. Hanson, Political Innovation and Conceptual Change (Cambridge University Press, 1989)

Gianfranco Poggi, The Development of the Modern State: A Sociological Introduction (Hutchinson, 1978).

Matthew Lange and Dietrich Rueschemeyer, eds., States and Development: Historical Antecedents of Stagnation and Advance (Palgrave Macmillan, 2005)

Alan Harding, Medieval Law and the Foundations of the State (Oxford UP, 2002).

Martin van Creveld, The Rise and Decline of the State (Cambridge UP, 1999)

Hendrik Spruyt, The Sovereign State and Its Competitors (Princeton UP, 1994)

S.E. Finer, The History of Government (Oxford UP, 1997): Vol. 1: Ancient Monarchies and Empires; Vol. 2. The Intermediate Ages; Vol. 3: Empires, Monarchies, and the Modern State

Charles Tilly, Coercion, Capital, and European States, A.D. 990-1990 (Blackwell, 1990)

Karen Barkey and Sunita Parikh, “Comparative Perspectives on the State,” Annual Review of Sociology 17 (1991):  523-49

Morton H. Fried, "State (The Institution)," and Frederick M. Watkins, "State (The Concept)," in David L. Sills, ed., International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (Macmillan, 1968).

Stephen Skowronek, Building a New American State: The Expansion of National Administrative Capacities, 1877-1920 (Cambridge University Press, 1982).

Clyde W. Barrow, Critical Theories of the State: Marxist, Neo-Marxist, Post-Marxist (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1993).

Eric Nordlinger, On the Autonomy of the Democratic State (Harvard University Press, 1981)

Roger Benjamin and Stephen L. Elkin, eds., The Democratic State (University Press of Kansas, 1985).

Bob Jessop, State Theory: Putting the Capitalist State in its Place (Penn State, 1991)

Barbara Geddes, Politician's Dilemma: Building State Capacity in Latin America (University of California, 1994) [Rational choice analysis]

George M. Thomas and John W. Meyer, “The Expansion of the State,” Annual Review of Sociology 10 (1984):  461-482

Nicos Poulantzas, "The Problem of the Capitalist State," New Left Review, 58 (1969): 67-78

Ralph Miliband, The State and Capitalist Society (Quartet, 1969).

Fred Block, "The Ruling Class Does Not Rule," Socialist Revolution 7:3 (1977): 6-28.

Alfred Stepan, The State and Society: Peru in Comparative Perspective (Princeton University Press: 1978).

Martin Carnoy, The State and Political Theory (Princeton University Press, 1984)

David Held, Political Theory and the Modern State: Essays on State, Power, and Democracy (Stanford UP, 1989)

James A. Caporaso, The Elusive State (Sage, 1989)

Anthony Giddens, The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration (1984)

Jerald Hage, Robert Hanneman, and Edward T. Gargan, State Responsiveness and State Activism (Unwin-Hyman, 1989).

Roger King, The State in Modern Society: New Directions in Political Sociology (Chatham House, 1986).

Bertrand Badie and Pierre Birnbaum, The Sociology of the State (Chicago, 1983)

Robert Grafstein, "The Problem of Institutional Constraint," Journal of Politics 50:3 (August, 1988), pp. 577-99.

Barrington Moore, Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy (Beacon, 1966).

Theda Skocpol, States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia, and China (Cambridge University Press, 1979)

Charles Bright and Susan Harding, eds., Statemaking and Social Movements: Essays in History and Theory (University of Michigan Press, 1984)

K.H.F. Dyson, The State Tradition in Western Europe (Martin Robertson, 1980).

Peter Evans, "The Eclipse of the State? Reflections on Stateness in an Era of Globalization," World Politics 50:1 (October 1997): 62-87.

The Positive Theory of Institutions  (See also Rational Choice in Political Economy Bibliography)

Daniel Diermeier and Keith Krehbiel, "Institutionalism as a Methodology," Journal of Theoretical Politics 15:2 (April 2003): 123-144

Barry Weingast, "Political Stability and Civil War: Institutions, Commitment, and American Denmocracy," in Robert H. Bates, Avner Grief, Margaret Levi, Jean-Laurent Rosenthal, and Barry Weingast, Analytic Narratives (Princeton UP, 1998)            

Kenneth A. Shepsle, "Institutional Equilibrium and Equilibrium Institutions," in Herbert F. Weisberg, ed., Political Science: The Science of Politics (Agathon, 1986)

Kenneth A. Shepsle, "Institutional Arrangements and Equilibrium in Multidimensional Voting Models," American Journal of Political Science (1979), 27-60

Kenneth A. Shepsle, "Studying Institutions: Some Lessons from the Rational Choice Approach," Journal of Theoretical Politics 1:2 (1989): 131-147

James Alt and Kenneth Shepsle, eds., Perspectives on Positive Political Economy (Cambridge UP)

Jack Knight, Institutions and Social Conflict (Cambridge University Press, 1992)

Kenneth A. Shepsle and Barry R. Weingast, eds., Positive Theories of Congressional Institutions (U of Michigan Press, 1995).

Robert H. Bates, Avner Grief, Margaret Levi, Jean-Laurent Rosenthal, and Barry Weingast, Analytic Narratives (Princeton UP, 1998)

Robert Keohane, "Rational Choice Explanations," chapter 5 in After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy (Princeton UP, 1984).

Neil K. Komesar, Imperfect Alternatives: Choosing Institutions in Law, Economics, and Public Policy (U of Chicago Press, 1994)

Donald P. Green and Ian Shapiro, Pathologies of Rational Choice Theory: A Critique of Applications in Political Science (Yale UP, 1994)

Ian Shapiro, The Flight from Reality in the Human Sciences (Princeton UP, 2005)

Jeffrey Friedman, The Rational Choice Controversy: Economic Models of Politics Reconsidered (Yale UP, 1996)

Ira Katznelson and Barry R. Weingast, eds. 2005. Preferences and Situations: Points of Intersection Between Historical and Rational Choice Institutionalism. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

American "Exceptionalism"

Werner Sombart, Why Is There No Socialism in the United States? (Macmillan, 1976; originally 1905)

Louis Hartz, The Liberal Tradition in America (Harcourt, Brace, 1955)

Steven L. Taylor, Matthew S. Shugart, Arend Lijphart, Bernard Grofman, A Different Democracy: American Government in a 31 Country Perspective (Yale UP, 2014)

Rogers M. Smith, "Beyond Tocqueville, Myrdal, and Hartz: The Multiple Traditions in America," American Political Science Review 87: 549-566 (1993).

Seymour Martin Lipset, American Exceptionalism: A Double Edged Sword (WW Norton, 1996) and The First New Nation: The United States in Historical and Comparative Perspective (Basic, 1963)

Seymour Martin Lipset and Gary Marks, It Didn't Happen Here: Why Socialism Failed in the United States (WW Norton, 2001)

Samuel P. Huntington, American Politics: The Promise of Disharmony (Harvard UP, 1981)

Peter H. Shuck and James Q. Wilson, eds., Understanding America: The Anatomy of an Exceptional Nation. (Clarendon Press, 2008)

Donald Pease, The New American Exceptionalism (U of Minnesota Press, 2009)

Godfrey Hodgson, The Myth of American Exceptionalism (Yale UP, 2009)

Graham K. Wilson, Only in America? The Politics of the United States in Comparative Perspective (Chatham House, 1998)

Peter Baldwin, The Narcissism of Minor Differences: How America and Europe Are Alike (Oxford UP, 2009)

Anthony King, "Ideas, Institutions, and the Policies of Governments: A Comparative Analysis, Parts I and II," and "Ideas, Institutions, and the Policies of Governments: A Comparative Analysis, Part III, "British Journal of Political Science 3 (1973)

Michael Ignatieff, ed., American Exceptionalism and Human Rights (Princeton UP, 2005)

David Brian Robertson, Capital, Labor, and State: The Battle for American Labor Markets from the Civil War to the New Deal (Rowman and Littlefield, 2000)

Robert H. Salisbury, "Why No Corporatism in America?" in Philippe C. Schmitter and Gerhard Lembruch, eds., Trends Toward Corporatist Intermediation (Sage, 1979)

Robert N. Bellah, Richard Madsen, William M. Sullivan, Ann Swidler, and Steven M. Tipton, Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life (U of California Press, 1985)

Theodore Lowi, "Why No Socialism in the United States," in The Costs of Federalism

Christopher Pierson, "The 'Exceptional United States: First New Nation or Last Welfare State?" Social Policy & Administration 24:3 (November 1990): 186-198

Gary M. Klass, "Explaining America and the Welfare State: An Alternative Theory," British Journal of Political Science 15 (1985)

Sean Wilentz, "Against Exceptionalism: Class Consciousness and the American Labor Movement, 1790-1920," International Labor and Working Class History 26 (1984): 1-24

Charles Lockhart, The Roots of American Exceptionalism (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003)

David Noble, Death of a Nation: American Culture and the End of Exceptionalism (U of Minnesota Press, 2002)

 Ian Tyrrell, "American Exceptionalism in an Age of International History," American Historical Review 96 (1991): 1031-1055

Michael Kammen, "The Problem of American Exceptionalism: A Reconsideration," American Quarterly, 45 (March 1993), 1-43

Michael McGerr, "The Price of the 'New Transnational History,'" pp. 1056-1067, in American Historical Review, 96 (October 1991): 1031-1055

Deborah L. Madsen, American Exceptionalism. (University Press of Mississippi, 1998)

Sylvia Söderlind and James Taylor Carson, eds., American Exceptionalisms: From Winthrop to Winfrey (SUNY Press, 2011)

Rick Halpern and Jonathan Morris, eds.,  American Exceptionalism: US Working Class Formation in an International Context (Macmillan, 1997)

John Kingdon, America the Unusual (St. Martin's 1999)

American Political Development

Links to H-Net, American Political History site / APSA Politics and History site

Studies in American Political Development (journal, semi-annual)

Karen Orren and Stephen Skowronek, The Search for American Political Development (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004)

Rogers M. Smith, Civic Ideals: Conflicting Visions of Citizenship in U.S. History (New Haven: Yale University Press).

Lawrence Dodd and Calvin Jillson, eds., The Dynamics of American Politics: Approaches and Interpretations (Westview Press, 1994).

Lawrence Dodd and Calvin Jillson, eds, New Perspectives on American Politics (Washington: CQ Press, 1994).

Sheldon D. Pollack, War, Revenue, and State Building: Financing the Development of the American State (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2009)

Ira Katznelson and Martin Shefter, eds., Shaped by War and Trade: International Influences on American Political Development (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002)

Lawrence Jacobs, The Unsustainable American State (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2009)

Desmond King, Robert C . Lieberman, Gretchen Ritter, Laurence Whitehead eds., Democratization in America: A Comparative-Historical Analysis (Johns Hopkins UP, 2009)


Robert A. Dahl, Who Governs? Democracy and Power in an American City (Yale UP, 1961)

Richard D. Brown, The Transformation of American Life: 1600-1865 (Hill and Wang, 1976).

James W. Caesar, Reconstructing America: The Symbol of America in Modern Thought (Yale UP, 1997).

Oscar and Mary Handlin, The Dimensions of Liberty (Harvard, 1961)

Louis Hartz, The Liberal Tradition in America: An Interpretation of American Political Thought since the Revolution (Harcourt Brace, and World, 1955).

Richard Hofstadter, 1989. The American Political Tradition: And the Men Who Made It (Knopf, 1948)

William Appleman Williams, The Contours of American History (Quadrangle, 1961)

Rowland Berthoff, An Unsettled People: Social Order and Disorder in American History (Harper & Row, 1971)

Elvin Lim, The Lovers' Quarrel: The Two Foundings and American Political Development (Oxford UP, 2014)


The American State

Barry D. Karl, The Uneasy State (University of Chicago Press, 1983)

Brian Balogh, A Government Out of Sight: The Mystery of National Authority in Nineteenth-Century America (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009)

Richard Franklin, Yankee Leviathan: The Origins of Central State Authority in America, 1859-1877 (Cambridge University Press, 1990)

Morton Keller, Affairs of State: Public Life in Late Nineteenth Century America (Cambridge University Press, 1977).

Edward S. Greenberg and Thomas S. Mayer, eds., Changes in the State: Causes and Consequences (Sage, 1990).

Robert Higgs, Crisis and Leviathan: Critical Episodes in the Growth of American Government (Oxford University Press, 1987)

Theodore Sky, To Provide for the General Welfare: A History of the Federal Spending Power (U of Delaware Press, 2003)

Gary Lawson and Guy Seidman, The Constitution of Empire: Territorial Expansion and American Legal History (Yale UP, 2004)

Stephen D. Krasner, Defending the National Interest (Princeton University Press, 1978).


Federalism and the States

The American Partnership Federalism links

Journals: Publius * State Politics and Policy Quarterly * State and Local Government Review * Governing

David Brian Robertson, Federalism and the Making of America, 2nd ed. (Routledge, 2017)

"Federalism" and "Federation", International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences  (1968)

Dimitrious Karmis and Wayne Norman, eds. Theories of Federalism: A Reader, ed.  (Palgrave Macmillan, 2005)

Daniel Elazar, Exploring Federalism (University of Alabama Press, 1987), The American Partnership (U of Chicago, 1962), and American Federalism: A View from the States, 3rd ed. (Harper & Row, 1984)

Daniel Elazar and John Kincaid, eds., Covenant, Polity, and Constitutionalism (Rowman & Littlefield, 1983)

William H. Riker, Federalism: Origin, Operation, Significance (Little, Brown, 1964) and  "Federalism," in Fred I. Greenstein and Nelson W. Polsby, eds., Handbook of Political Science: Government Institutions and Processes (Addison-Wesley, 1975)

Jenna Bednar, The Robust Federation: Principles of Design (Cambridge University Press, 2009)

Mikhail Filippov, Peter C Ordeshook and Olga Vitalievna Shvetsova, Designing Federalism: A Theory of Self-sustainable Federal Institutions (Cambridge University Press, 2004)

Ellis Katz and G. Alan Tarr,  Federalism and Rights (Rowman and Littlefield, 1996)


Carol S. Weissert, “Beyond Marble Cakes and Picket Fences: What U.S. Federalism Scholars Can Learn from Comparative Work,” Journal of Politics 73:4 (October 2011), 965-979

K.C. Wheare, Federal Government, (Oxford UP, 1951)

Ivo Duchacek, Comparative Federalisms

Michael Burgess, Comparative Federalism: Theory and Practice (Routledge, 2006)

Ugo Amoretti and Nancy Bermeo, eds. Federalism and Territorial Cleavages (Johns Hopkins UP, 2004)

Jan Erk, “Does Federalism Really Matter?” Comparative Politics 39, no.1 (2006): 103-120 and “Federalism as a Growth Industry.” Publius: the Journal of Federalism, 37:2 (2007), 262-278

Jan Erk and Wilfried Swenden, New Directions in Federalism Studies (Routledge, 2009)

Jan Erk and Lawrence M. Anderson, eds. The Paradox of Federalism. London: Routledge Press, 2010.

Akhtar Majeed, Ronald L. Watts, and Douglas M. Brown, eds., Distribution of Powers and Responsibilities in Federal Countries, (McGill-Queens UP, 2006)

Kent Eaton, “Federalism in Europe and Latin America: Conceptualization, Causes, and Consequences” World Politics 60: 4 (July 2008), 665-698

Daniel Ziblatt, Structuring the State: The Formation of Italy and Germany and the Puzzle of Federalism (Princeton University Press, 2006)

Tulia Falleti, Decentralization and Subnational Politics in Latin America (Cambridge UP, 2010)

Anand Menon and Martin A. Schain, eds., Comparative Federalism: The European Union and the United States in Comparative Perspective (Oxford University Press, 2006)

Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, Studies in Comparative Federalism: Australia, Canada, the United States and West Germany (ACIR, 1981)

Herman Bakvis and William M. Chandler, eds., Federalism and the Role of the State (U of Toronto Press, 1987)

Ronald Watts, Comparing Federal Systems in the 1990s (McGill-Queen’s UP, 1997)

Edward McWhinney, Comparative Federalism: States’ Rights and National Power, 2nd ed. (U of Toronto Press, 1965).

Ann L. Griffiths, ed. Handbook of Federal Countries, 2002 (McGill-Queens UP, 2002)

Herbert Obinger, Stephan Leibfried, and Francis G. Castles, eds. Federalism and the Welfare State: New World and European Experiences (Cambridge University Press, 2005)

Keith Banting, The Welfare State and Canadian Federalism

Pradeep Chhibber and Ken Kollman, The Formation of National Party Systems: Federalism and Party Competition in Canada, Great Britain, India, and the United States (Princteton UP, 2004)

Alfred Stepan, Juan J. Linz, and Yogendra Yadav, Crafting State-Nations: India and Other Multinational Democracies (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University press, 2010)


Albert Bushnell Hart, Introduction to the Study of Federal Government (Boston: Ginn and Company, 1891)

Arthur Macmahon, Federalism: Mature and Emergent (New York: Columbia University Press, 1962)

Grant McConnell, Private Power & American Democracy (Vintage, 1966)

Keith E. Whittington, "Dismantling the Modern Sate? The Changing Structural Foundations of Federalism," Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 25:4 (Summer, 1998), 483-527


Martha Derthick, The Influence of Federal Grants (Harvard UP, 1970), Uncontrollable Spending for Social Services (Brookings, 1975), and Keeping the Compound Republic: Essays on American Federalism (Brookings, 2002)

Aaron Wildavsky, “Federalism is About Inequality,” in The Costs of Federalism, ed. Robert T. Golembiewski and Aaron Wildavsky (Transaction Books, 1984)

David Brian Robertson, Federalism and the Making of America (Routledge, 2011, 2017); "The Bias of American Federalism: The Limits of Welfare State Development in the Progressive Era," Journal of Policy History 1 (1989): 261-291; Capital, Labor, and State: The Battle for American Labor Markets from the Civil War to the New Deal (Rowman and Littlefield, 2000), chapter 2 and passim.

Herbert Wechsler, “The Political Safeguards of Federalism: The Role of the States in the Composition and Selection of the National Government,” Columbia Law Review 54:4 (April 1954), 543-560.

Andrew C. Lenner, The Federal Principle in American Politics, 1790-1833 (Rowman & Littlefield, 2001)

Marc W. Kruman, Between Authority and Liberty: State Constitution-making in Revolutionary America (U of North Carolina Press, 1999)

Kimberley S. Johnson, Governing the American State: Congress and the New Federalism, 1877–1929 (Princeton University Press, 2007)

John D. Nugent, Safeguarding Federalism: How States Protect their Interests in National Policymaking (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2009).

Samuel Krislov, “American Federalism as American Exceptionalism,” Publius 31:1 (Winter 2001), 9-26

Alison LaCroix, The Ideological Origins of American Federalism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010)

Samuel H. Beer, "Federalism, Nationalism, and Democracy in America," APSR 72:1 (March, 1978), 9-19, and To Make a Nation: The Rediscovery of American Federalism (Belknap, 1993)

Forrest McDonald, States' Rights and the Union: Imperium in Imperio, 1776-1876 (UP of Kansas, 2000).

Harry N. Scheiber, "Federalism and the American Economic Order, 1789-1910," Law and Society Review 10:1 (Fall, 1975), pp. 57-118; "American Federalism and the Diffusion of Power: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives," University of Toledo Law Review 9 (1975), 619-680; "Federalism and the Legal Process: Historical and Contemporary Analysis of the American System," Law and Society Review 14:3 (Spring, 1980), pp. 663-722.

Barry R. Weingast, “The Economic Role of Political Institutions: Market-Preserving Federalism and Economic Development,” Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization 11:1 (April, 1995), 1-31

David Gordon, ed. Secession, State and Liberty (Transaction Publishers, 1998)

William Graebner, "Federalism and the Progressive Era: A Structural Interpretation of Reform," Journal of American History 64:2 (September, 1977): 331-357

Robert F. Nagel, The Implosion of American Federalism (Oxford UP, 2001)      Forrest McDonald, States' Rights and the Union: Imperium in Imperio, 1776-1876 (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2000)

Edward L. Ayers, ‎Patricia Nelson Limerick, ‎& Stephen Nissenbaum, All Over the Map: Rethinking American Regions (Johns Hopkins UP, 1996)

David M. Potter and Thomas G. Manning, Nationalism and Sectionalism in America, 1775-1877 (Henry Holt & Co., 1949)


Richard Nathan, “Updating Theories of American Federalism,” in Intergovernmental Management for the Twenty-First Century, ed. Timothy J. Conlan and Paul L. Posner (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2008), 13-25

Edward S. Corwin, “The Passing of Dual Federalism,” Virginia Law Review 36:1 (February,1950)

Morton Grodzins, The American System: A New View of Government in the United States (Rand-McNally 1966) and "The Federal System" in Goals for Americans: Report of the President's Commission on National Goals (Prentice-Hall, 1960)

Timothy J. Conlan, From New Federalism to Devolution: Twenty-Five Years of Intergovernmental Reform, revised ed. (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1998)

Timothy J. Conlan and Paul L. Posner, eds., Intergovernmental Management for the 21st Century, (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2008)

Jonathan A. Rodden, Hamilton’s Paradox: The Promise and Peril of Fiscal Federalism (Cambridge University Press, 2006)

David B. Walker, The Rebirth of Federalism : Slouching toward Washington, 2nd ed. (Chatham, N.J. : Chatham House, 1999)

Laurence J. O'Toole, Jr., ed. and Robert K. Christensen, eds., American Intergovernmental Relations, 5th ed. (CQ Press, 2012)

Wallace E. Oates, The Political Economy of Federalism (DC Heath, 1977)

Susan Rose-Ackerman, "Does Federalism Matter? Political Choice in a Federal Republic," Journal of Political Economy  89:1 (February, 1981), 152-165

Thomas J. Anton, American Federalism and Public Policy: How the System Works (Random House, 1989)

Paul E. Peterson, The Price of Federalism (Brookings, 1995)

Russell L. Hanson, ed., Governing Partners: State-Local Relations in the U.S. (Westview Press, 1997)

U.S. Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, The Condition of Contemporary Federalism: Conflicting Theories and Collapsing Constraints (GPO, 1981)

W. Mark Crain, Volatile States: Institutions, Policy, and the Performance of American State Economies (U of Michigan Press, 2003).


Daphne A. Kenyon, Interjurisdictional Tax and Policy Competition: Good or Bad for the Federal System? (Washington, D.C.: Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, 1991)

Daphne A. Kenyon and John Kincaid, eds., Competition Among State and Local Governments: Efficiency and Equity in American Federalism (Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute Press, 1991)

Michael A. Bailey and Mark Carl Rom,  "A Wider Race? Interstate Competition across Health and Welfare Programs", Journal of Politics 66:2 (May 2004).

Scott J. Basinger and Mark Hallerberg, "Remodeling the Competition for Capital: How Domestic Politics Erases the Race to the Bottom," APSR 98:2 (May 2004), pp.  261-276.

Richard L. Reeves, "Federalism and Environmental Regulation: A Public Choice Analysis," Harvard Law Review  115:2 (December 2001), 555-641.

Wallace E. Oates and Robert M. Schwab, "Economic Competition Among Jurisdictions: Efficiency Enhancing or Distortion Inducing," Journal of Public Economics 33 (1988): 333-354

Ehtisham Ahmad and Giorgio Brosio, eds., Handbook of Fiscal Federalism (Edward Elgar, 2006)


James A. Gardner, Introduction to Symposium Issue, "The New Judicial Federalism: A New Generation: The "States-as-Laboratories" Metaphor in State Constitutional Law," Valparaiso University Law Review 30 (Spring, 1996): 475-91

Emily Zackin, Looking for Rights in All the Wrong Places Why State Constitutions Contain America’s Positive Rights (Princeton UP, 2013)


      State Constitutions:

      Allan Nevins, The American States During and After the Revolution, 1775-1789 (Kelley, 1969)

 Jon C. Teaford, The Rise of the States: Evolution of American State Government (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002).

Ballard C. Campbell, The Growth of American Government: Governance from the Cleveland Era to the Present, revised & expanded (Indiana UP, 2014)

John Kincaid, ed., Political Culture, Public Policy and the American States (Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues, 1982)

Robert Erikson, Gerald Wright, and John P. McIver, Statehouse Democracy (Cambridge UP, 1993)

David Osborne, Laboratories of Democracy: A New Breed of Governors Creates Models for National Growth (Harvard Business School Press, 1990)

Ann O'M. Bowman and Richard Kearney, The Resurgence of the States (Prentice-Hall, 1986).

Peter Eisinger, The Rise of the Entrepreneurial Stat: State and Local Economic Development Policy in the United States (U of Wisconsin Press, 1988)

Barry G. Rabe, Statehouse and Greenhouse: The Stealth Politics of American Climate Change Policy (Brookings Institution, 2004)

Andrew Karch, Democratic Laboratories: Policy Diffusion among the American States (U of Michigan Press, 2007)

James G. Gimpel and Jason E. Schuknecht, Patchwork Nation: Sectionalism and Political Change in American Politics U of Michigan Press, 2003)


Andrew Karch, Democratic Laboratories: Policy Diffusion among the American States  (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2007)

Todd Makse and Craig Volden, “The Role of Policy Attributes in the Diffusion of Innovations,” Journal of Politics 73:1 (January 2011), 108-124

Brady Baybeck, William D. Berry and David A. Siegel, “A Strategic Theory of Policy Diffusion via Intergovernmental Competition,” Journal of Politics 73:1 (January 2011): 232-247



The Colonial Period

Colonial North America at Harvard Library *

Alan Taylor, American Colonies: The Settling of North America (Viking, 2001) 

Francis Jennings, The Invasion of America: Indians, Colonialism, and the Cant of Conquest (U of North Carolina Press, 1975), The Ambiguous Iroquois Empire: The Covenant Chain Confederation of Indian Tribes from Its Beginnings to the Lancaster Treaty of 1744 (W. W. Norton, 1984), and Empire of Fortune: Crowns, Colonies, and Tribes in the Seven Years’ War in America (W. W. Norton, 1988)

Gary Nash, Red, White, and Black: The Peoples of Early North America, 7th ed. (Pearson, 2014)

John J. McCusker and Russell R. Menard. The Economy of British America, 1607–1789 (U of North Carolina Press, 1985)

Jack P. Greene and J. R. Pole, eds. Colonial British America: Essays in the New History of the Early Modern Era (Johns Hopkins UP, 1984)

David S. Lovejoy, The Glorious Revolution in America (Wesleyan UP, 1987)


Karen Ordahl Kupperman, The Jamestown Project (Belknap Press, 2009)

Carl Bridenbaugh, Jamestown, 1544–1699 (Oxford UP, 1980)

Woody Holton, Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia (U of North Carolina Press, 1999)

Bernard Bailyn, “Politics and Social Structure in Virginia,” In Colonial America: Essays in Politics and Social Development, ed, Stanley Katz, John Murrin, and Douglas Greenberg (McGraw Hill, 1993)

David Grayson Allen, In English Ways: The Movement of Societies and the Transferal of English Local Law and Custom to Massachusetts Bay in the Seventeenth Century (U of North Carolina Press, 1981)

Edmund S. Morgan, The Puritan Dilemma: The Story of John Winthrop (Longman, 2006)

Francis J. Bremer, The Puritan Experiment: New England Society from Bradford to Edwards (St. Martin's Press, 1976)

John Gorham Palfrey, History of New England, 5 vols (1859–1890)

Jill LePore, The Name of War: King Philip’s War and the Creation of American Identity (Vintage, 1999)

Michael Kammen, Colonial New York: A History (Oxford UP, 1996)

Jean R. Soderlund, William Penn and the Founding of Pennsylvania: A Documentary History (U of Pennsylvania Press, 1983)

Jessica Roney, Governed by a Spirit of Opposition: The Origins of American Political Practice in Colonial Philadelphia (Johns Hopkins UP, 2014)

James T. Lemon, The Best Poor Man’s Country: Early Southeastern Pennsylvania (Johns Hopkins UP, 2002)

Milton Ready, The Tarheel State: A History of North Carolina (U of South Carolina Press, 2005)

William Bacon Stevens, A History of Georgia from Its First Discovery by Europeans to the Adoption of the Present Constitution in 1808. 2 vols. (D. Appleton, 1847)

Amanda Johnson, Georgia as Colony and State (Walter W. Brown, 1938) Kenneth Coleman, Colonial Georgia: A History (Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1976)

Eric Hinderaker and Peter C. Mancall, At the Edge of Empire: The Backcountry in British North America (Johns Hopkins UP, 2003)

Jack D. Forbes, Apache, Navaho, and Spaniard (U of Oklahoma Press, 1994)

John Francis Bannon, The Spanish Borderlands Frontier, 1513-1821 (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970)

David J. Weber, The Spanish Frontier in North America (Yale UP, 1992)  Charles Gibson, Spain in America (Harper and Row, 1966)

J. H. Elliott, The Old World and the New, 1492–1650 (Cambridge UP, 1970) [New Spain].

William John Eccles, France in America (Harper and Row, 1972)


Fred Anderson, Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766 (Vintage, 2001)

William M. Fowler, Empires at War: The French and Indian War and the Struggle for North America, 1754–1763 (Walker, 2005)

Colin Calloway, The Scratch of a Pen: 1763 and the Transformation of North America. (Oxford UP. 2006)



Robert M. Taylor, Jr. ed., The Northwest Ordinance 1787: A Bicentennial Handbook (Indiana Historical Society, 1987)

Peter S. Onuf, Statehood and Union: A History of the Northwest Ordinance (Indiana UP, 1987)

Frederick D. Williams, ed. The Northwest Ordinance: Essays on Its Formulation, Provisions, and Legacy (Michigan State UP, 1989)

Max Farrand, The Legislation of Congress for the Government of the Organized Territories of the United States, 1789–1895 (W. A. Smith, 1896)

Earl Pomeroy, The Territories and the United States, 1861 - I890: Studies in Colonial Administration. (Oxford UP, 1947)

Sanford Levinson and Bartholomew H. Sparrow, eds., The Louisiana Purchase and American Expansion, 1803-1898, (Rowman & Littlefield, 2005)

Robert A. Katz, “The Jurisprudence of Legitimacy: Applying the Constitution to U.S. Territories” The University of Chicago Law Review 59.2 (1992): 779–806


The  Declaration of Independence and American Revolution

Pauline Maier, From Resistance to Revolution: Colonial Radicals and the Development of American Opposition to Britain, 1765–1776 (W. W. Norton, 1992) and American Scripture: The Making of the Declaration of Independence (Vintage, 1998)

Alexander Tsesis, For Liberty and Equality:  The Life and Times of the Declaration of Independence  (Oxford UP, 2014)

Danielle Allen, Our Declaration: A Reading of the Declaration of Independence in Defense of Equality (Liveright, 2014)

Gary B. Nash, The Unknown American Revolution: The Unruly Birth of Democracy and the Struggle to Create America. (Penguin, 2006)

Bernard Bailyn, Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (Harvard UP, 1967)

Joseph L. Davis, Sectionalism in American Politics, 1774-1787 (U of Wisconsin Press, 1977)

T. H. Breen, American Insurgents, American Patriots: The Revolution of the People (Hill and Wang, 2011)

Edmund S. Morgan and Helen M. Morgan. The Stamp Act Crisis: Prologue to the American Revolution (U of North Carolina Press, 1995)

William S. Powell, James K. Huhta, and Thomas J. Farnham, eds. The Regulators in North Carolina: A Documentary History, 1759–1776 (North Carolina State Department of Archives and History, 1971)

Walter S. Dunn, Choosing Sides on the Frontier in the American Revolution (Praeger, 2005)


U.S. Constitution

Searchable constitutions of the world @

Colorado State University Links to Colonial U.S. History and Declaration of Independence

Founders Online, U.S. National Archives

Links to Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789 / Letters of Delegates to the Continental Congress

Link to the Articles of Confederation / State Constitutions prior to 1787 /  State Constitutions / The Annotated U.S. Constitution

 Link to Constitutional Convention delegate biographiesJournal of the Federal Convention / The Federalist Papers

Link to State Debates on the Adoption of the Constitution

Link to Annals of Congress, 1789-1793 / Senator William Maclay's U.S. Senate Journal, 1789-1795

Links to Journal of the U.S. House of Representatives and Journal of the U.S. Senate

Links to American Founders Online / the Papers of James Madison, the Papers of George Washington, the Papers of James Wilson, and John Adams online

Max Farrand, ed., The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787 (Yale University Press, 1966);

 James H. Hutson, ed., Supplement to Max Farrand's the Records of the Federal Convention of 1787 (Yale University Press, 1987)

Wilbourn E. Benton, ed. 1787: Drafting the Constitution (Texas A&M, 1986), 2 vols. [Concordance between Constitutional articles and the notes of participants at the constitutional convention]

Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, The Founders' Constitution (Chicago, 1985). 5 Vols.

John R. Vile, The Constitutional Convention of 1787: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of America's Founding. (ABC-CLIO, 2005)

Michael Kammen, ed., The Origins of the American Constitution: A Documentary History (Penguin, 1986).

Congressional Research Service, The Constitution of the United States: Analysis and Interpretation (US GPO, 1987) Senate Docs. 99-16, 100-9.

U.S. Library of Congress, Letters of Delegates to Congress, 1774-1789, Volumes 1-26 (U.S.GPO)


Gordon S. Wood, The Confederation and the Constitution: The Critical Issues (edited, Little, Brown) and The Creation of the American Republic (Norton, 1969)

Jack N. Rakove, Original Meanings: Politics and Ideas in the Making of the Constitution (Alfred A. Knopf, 1996)

David C. Hendrickson, Peace Pact: The Lost World of the American Founding (UP of Kansas, 2003)

Richard Beeman, Stephen Botein, and Edward C. Carter II, eds., Beyond Confederation: Origins of the Constitution and American National Identity (U of North Carolina Press, 1987)


David Brian Robertson, The Constitution and America's Destiny (Cambridge UP, 2005), The Original Compromise: What the Constitution’s Framers Were Thinking (Oxford University Press, 2013) and "Madison's Opponents and Constitutional Design," APSR (2005)

Richard Beeman, Plain, Honest Men: The Making of the American Constitution (Random House, 2009) and Varieties of Political Experience in Eighteenth Century America (U of Pennsylvania Press, 2004)

Christopher Collier and James Lincoln Collier, Decision at Philadelphia: The Constitutional Convention of 1787 (Random House, 1987)

Clinton Rossiter, 1787: The Grand Convention (Macmillan,1966)

John P. Roche, "The Founding Fathers: A Reform Caucus in Action," APSR 55:4 (December, 1961), pp. 799-816

Lance Banning, The Sacred Fire of Liberty: James Madison and the Founding of the Federal Republic (Cornell UP, 1995)

Richard K. Matthews, If Men Were Angels: James Madison and the Heartless Empire of Reason (Kansas, 1995).

Samuel Kernell, ed.  James Madison: The Theory and Practice of Republican Government (Stanford UP, 2003)

Andrew Burstein, Madison and Jefferson (Random House, 2010)

James Morton Smith, ed. The Republic of Letters: The Correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, 1776-1826,  3 vols. (Norton, 1995)

Richard B. Morris, Witnesses at the Creation: Hamilton, Madison, Jay, and the Constitution (New American Library, 1985) and The Forging of the Union, 1781-1789 (Harper and Row, 1987)

Calvin C. Jillson, Constitution Making: Conflict and Consensus in the Federal Convention of 1787 (Agathon, 1988)

Thornton Anderson, Creating the Constitution: The Convention of 1787 and the First Congress (Pennsylvania State UP, 1993)

Charles Beard, An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution (Macmillan, 1913)

Forrest McDonald, We, The People: The Economic Origins of the Constitution (Phoenix Bks, 1963)

Joseph M. Lynch, Negotiating The Constitution: The Earliest Debates Over Original Intent  (Cornell UP, 1999)

Richard Beeman, Stephan Botein, and Edward C. Carter II, eds. Beyond Confederation: Origins of the Constitution and American National Identity (U of North Carolina Press, 1987).

Charles A. Kromkowski, Recreating the American Republic: Rules of Apportionment, Constitutional Change, and American Political Development, 1700-1870 (Cambridge UP, 2002).

Mary Sarah Bilder, Madison’s Hand: Revising the Constitutional Convention (Harvard UP, 2015)

William Winslow Crosskey, Politics and the Constitution in the History of the United States (U of Chicago Press, 1953) and William Winslow Crosskey and William Jeffrey, Jr., Politics and the Constitution in the History of the United States, Vol. III: The Political Background of the Federal Convention (University of Chicago Press, 1980).

M.N.S. Sellers, American Republicanism: Roman Ideology in the United States Constitution (New York University Press, 1994)

Benson Bobrick, Angel in the Whirlwind: The Triumph of the American Revolution (Simon and Schuster, 1997).

James Kirby Martin, Men in Rebellion: Higher Government Leaders and the Coming of the American Revolution (Rutgers UP, 1973)

Merrill Jensen, The Articles of Confederation (Wisconsin, 1963)

Calvin Johnson, Righteous Anger at the Wicked States: The Meaning of  the Founders' Constitution, (Cambridge UP, 2005)

Barry Schwartz, George Washington: The Making of an American Symbol (Free Press, 1987)

Robert Lowry Clinton, God and Man in the Law: The Foundations of Anglo-American Constitutionalism (Kansas, 1997)

Ann Lyon, Constitutional History of the United Kingdom (London: Cavendish Publishing, 2003)

Russell L. Hanson, The Democratic Imagination: Conversations with Our Past (Princeton UP, 1986)

Woody Holton, Unruly Americans and the Origins of the Constitution (New York: Hill and Wang, 2007)

Cathy Matson and Peter Onuf, A Union of Interests: Political and Economic Thought in Revolutionary America (U of Kansas Press, 1990).

Peter Onuf, A History of the Northwest Ordinance (Indiana UP, 1987)

John J. Dinan, The American State Constitutional Tradition (UP of Kansas, 2006)


Pennsylvania Constitutions

Francis Newton Thorpe, The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and other Organic Laws of the States, Territories, and Colonies Now or Heretofore Forming The United States of America. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1909.

Marc W. Kruman, Between Authority and Liberty: State Constitution-making in Revolutionary America  (U of North Carolina Press, 1999)

Willi Paul Adams, The First American Constitutions: Republican Ideology and the Making of the State Constitutions in the Revolutionary Era  (Expanded ed.; Rowman and Littlefield, 2002)

Alan Tully, Forming American Politics: Ideals, Interests, and Institutions in Colonial New York and Pennsylvania (Johns Hopkins, 1994)

E. Wilder Spaulding, New York in the Critical Period, 1783-1789 (Columbia UP, 1932)

Christopher Collier, Roger Sherman’s Connecticut: Yankee Politics and the American Revolution (Wesleyan UP, 1971)


Pauline Maier, Ratification: The People Debate the Constitution, 1787-1788 (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010)

 Jacob E. Cooke, ed., The Federalist (Wesleyan University Press, 1961). [preferred edition]

Herbert Storing, ed., The Complete Anti-Federalist (University of Chicago Press, 1980)

Herbert J. Storing, What the Anti-Federalists Were For (University of Chicago Press, 1981)

David J. Siemers, Ratifying the Republic: Antifederalists and Federalists in Constitutional Time (Stanford UP, 2002)

David Epstein, The Political Theory of the Federalist (University of Chicago Press, 1984).

George W. Carey, The Federalist: Design for a Constitutional Republic (U of Illinois Press, 1989)

Christopher M. Duncan, The Anti-Federalists and Early American Political Thought (Northern Illinois U, 1995)

Bernard Grofman and Donald Wittman, eds., The Federalist Papers and the New Institutionalism (Agathon, 1989)

William H. Riker, The Strategy of Rhetoric: Campaigning for the American Constitution (Yale UP, 1996).

Symposium on the Federalist Papers, Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy 16:1 (Winter, 1993)


Akhil Reed Amar, America's Constitution: A Biography (Random House, 2005)

Max M. Edling, A Revolution in Favor of Government: Origins of the U.S. Constitution and the Making of the American State (Oxford University Press, 2003)

Seymour Martin Lipset, The First New Nation: The United States in Historical Perspective (Basic Books, 1963)

M.J.C. Vile, Constitutionalism and the Separation of Powers, (Clarendon Press, 1967).

Peter F. Nardulli, ed., The Constitution and American Political Development (U of Illinois Press, 1992).

Woodrow Wilson, Constitutional Government in the United States (Columbia, 1908).

E.S. Corwin, The Constitution and What it Means Today (Princeton UP, 1973).

C. Herman Pritchett, The American Constitution (McGraw-Hill, 1968)

Keith E. Whittington, Constitutional Interpretation: Textual Meaning, Original Intent, and Judicial Review (U of Kansas Press, 2001)

Johnathan O'Neill, Originalism in American Law and Politics: a Constitutional History, (Johns Hopkins UP, 2005)

Samuel H. Beer, To Make a Nation: The Rediscovery of American Federalism (Belknap, 1993)

Sheldon S. Wolin, The Presence of the Past: Essays on the State and the Constitution (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990)

Robert L. Tsai, America’s Forgotten Constitutions:  Defiant Visions of Power and Community (Harvard UP, 2014)

Loren P. Beth, The Development of the American Constitution, 1877-1917 (Harper and Row, 1971).

Paul L. Murphy, The Constitution in Crisis Times, 1918-1969 (Harper and Row, 1969)

Robert A. Goldwin and William A. Schambra, eds., How Capitalistic is the Constitution? (American Enterprise Institute, 1982), How Democratic is the Constitution? (AEI, 1984) and How Federal is the Constitution? (AEI, 1987).

John R. Manley and Kenneth F. Dolbeare, The Case Against the Constitution (M.E. Sharpe, 1987)

Robert A. Goldwin and Art Kaufman, eds., Separation of Powers: Does it Still Work? (American Enterprise Institute, )

Bradford Wilson and Peter W. Schramm, eds. Separation of Powers and Good Government (Rowman and Littlefield, 1994)

George Athan Billias, American Constitutionalism Heard Round the World, 1776-1989A Global History (New York: New York University Press, 2009)


John R. Vile, ed. Proposed Amendments to the U.S. Constitution 1787-2001 , 3 vols., ed., (Law Book Exchange, 2002)

Richard B. Bernstein with Jerome Agel, Amending America: If We Love the Constitution So Much, Why Do We Keep Trying to Change It? (UP of Kansas, 2015)

 David E. Kyvig, Explicit and Authentic Acts: Amending the U.S. Constitution, 1776-1995 (UP of Kansas, 1996)

Akhil Reed Amar, The Bill of Rights: Creation and Reconstruction (Yale UP, 1998)

Richard Labunski, James Madison and the Struggle for the Bill of Rights (Oxford UP, 2006)

Leonard W. Levy, Origins of the Bill of Rights (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999)

Link to the First Amendment Center site at Vanderbilt University

Zechariah Chafee, Jr., Free Speech in The United States (Harvard UP, 1954)

Michael Ken Curtis, Free Speech, "the People's Darling Privilege": Strugles for Freedom of Expression in American History (Duke UP, 2000)

Mark E. Neely, Jr., The Fate of Liberty: Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties (Oxford UP)

Paul L. Murphy, World War I and the Origin of Civil Liberties in the United States (New York: W.W. Norton, 1979)

Jeffrey Alan Smith, War and Press Freedom: The Problem of Prerogative Power (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999)

Constitutions and Institutional Engineering

Martin A. Reddish, The Constitution as Political Structure (Oxford, 1995)

Giovanni Sartori, Comparative Constitutional Engineering: An Inquiry Into Structures, Incentives, and Outcomes (New York U Press, 1994)

Sotirios A. Barber and Robert P. George, eds., Constitutional Politics: Essays on Constitution Making, Maintenance, and Change (Princeton University Press, 2002).

Andrew MacIntyre, The Power of Institutions: Political Architecture and Governance (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2002.

David Easton, The Analysis of Political Structure (Routledge, 1990)

John Dearlove, "Bringing the Constitution Back In: Political Science and the State," Political Studies 37:4 (December, 1989), 521-539

William H. Riker (1980) "Implications from the Disequilibrium of Majority Rule for the Study of Institutions," APSR 74:2 (June, 1980) 432-446, and Comments and Replies by Peter C. Ordeshook, Douglas W. Rae, and Riker, pp. 447-458.

Jack Knight, Institutions and Social Conflict (Cambridge, 1992)

R. Kent Weaver and Bert A. Rockman, eds., Do Institutions Matter? Government Capabilities in the United States and Abroad (Brookings, 1993).

Roland M. Czada and Adrienne Windhoff-Heritier, eds., Political Choice: Institutions, Rules, and the Limits of Rationality (Westview, 1990)

John E. Jackson, ed., Institutions in American Society: Essays in Market, Political, and Social Organizations (University of Michigan Press, 1990)

Terry M. Moe, "Interests, Institutions, and Positive Theory: The Politics of the NLRB," in SAPD 2 (1987), pp. 236-299.

Sven Steinmo, Kathleen Thelen, and Frank Longstreth, eds., Structuring Politics: Historical Institutionalism in Comparative Analysis (Cambridge, 1992)

Elinor Ostrom, Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action (Cambridge, 1990)

Vincent Ostrom, The Political Theory of a Compound Republic

Walter W. Powell and Paul J. DiMaggio, The New Institutionalism and Organizational Analysis (Chicago, 1991)



The Early American Republic: Founding to Civil War

Links to Antebellum HistoryAndrew Burstein, Madison and Jefferson (Random House, 2010)

 American State Papers, 1789-1838 / American Election Returns, 1787-1825 / Niles Weekly Register

The Abraham Lincoln papers / Wepner Program on the Lincoln Legacy / John C. Calhoun's Disquisition on Government

H-SHEAR /  Journal of the Early Republic


Joyce Appleby, Inheriting the Revolution: The First Generation of Americans (Belknap, 2000)

Richard R. John,  "Governmental Institutions as Agents of Change: Rethinking American Political Development in the Early Republic, 1787-1835," Studies in American Political Development 11:2 (1997): 347-380 and Spreading the News: The American Postal System from Franklin to Morse (Harvard UP, 1995).

Glenn C. Altschuler and Stuart M. Blumin, Rude Republic: Americans and Their Politics in the Nineteenth Century (Princeton UP, 2000)

Joanne Freeman, Affairs of Honor: National Politics in the New Republic (Yale UP, 200l)

Dennis D. Moore, ed., Letters from an American Farmer and Other Essays: J. Hector St. John de Crèvecoeur (Harvard UP, 2013)

Stanley Elkins and Eric McKitrick, The Age of Federalism: The Early American Republic, 1788-1800 (Oxford UP, 1993)

James Rogers Sharp, American Politics in the Early Republic: The New Nation in Crisis (Yale UP, 1993)

George William Van Cleve, A Slaveholders’ Union: Slavery, Politics, and the Constitution in the Early American Republic (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010)

 Sandra M. Gustafson, Imagining Deliberative Democracy in the Early American Republic (U of Chicago Press, 2011)

 John L. Brooke, Columbia Rising: Civil Life on the Upper Hudson from the Revolution to the Age of Jackson (U of North Carolina Press, 2010)

Sean Wilentz, The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln (Norton, 2005)

Daniel Walker Howe, What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815-1848 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007).

 Saul Cornell, The Other Founders: Anti-Federalism and the Dissenting Tradition in America, 1788-1828 (U of North Carolina Press, 1999)

Richard Buel, Securing the Revolution: Ideology in American Politics, 1789-1815 (Cornell UP, 1972)

James A. Henretta, Michael Kammen, and Stanley N. Katz, eds. The Transformation of Early American History: Society, Authority, and Ideology (Knopf, 1991).

Vernon L. Parrington, The Romantic Revolution in America, 1800-1860 (Harcourt, Brace, and World, 1927)

 James S. Young, The Washington Community, 1800-1828 (Columbia UP, 1966)

Kenneth R. Bowling, The Creation of Washington, D.C.: The Idea and Location of the American Capital (George Mason University Press, 1991)

Peter J. Kastor, The Louisiana Purchase: Emergence of an American Nation (Washington: CQ Press, 2002)

Alan S. Taylor, William Cooper's Town: Power And Persuasion On The Frontier Of The Early American Republic (Knopf, 1995)

Scott A. Silverstone, Divided Union: The Politics of War in the Early American Republic (Cornell UP, 2004)


Henry Adams, History of the United States of America [1801-1817, 9 volumes], (C. Scribner's Sons, 1889-91)

Leonard White, The Jeffersonians (Macmillan, 1948)

Marshall Smelser, The Democratic Republic, 1801-1815 (Harper and Row, 1968)

David Hackett Fischer, The Federalist Party in the Era of Jeffersonian Democracy (Harper and Row, 1965)

George Dangerfield, The Awakening of American Nationalism 1815-1828 (Harper and Row, 1965)

Annette Gordon-Reed and Peter S. Onuf, Most Blessed of the Patriarchs”: Thomas Jefferson and the Empire of the Imagination (Liveright, 2016)

R.B. Bernstein, Thomas Jefferson (Oxford UP, 2003)

Joseph J. Ellis, American Sphinx: The Character of Thomas Jefferson (Alfred A. Knopf, 1997)

Fawn M. Brodie, Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History (WW Norton, 1974)

James F. Simon, What Kind of Nation: Thomas Jefferson, John Marshall, and the Epic Struggle to Create a United States (Simon & Schuster, 2002)

Craig Thompson Friend, Along the Maysville Road: the Early American Republic in the Trans-Appalachian West (U of  Tennessee Press,  2005)

Alan Taylor, The Civil War of 1812: American Citizens, British Subjects, Irish Rebels, & Indian Allies (New York: Knopf, 2010)


Alexis De Tocqueville, Democracy in America (Alfred A. Knopf, 1945 [originally 1835 & 1840])

André Jardin, Tocqueville: A Biography (Johns Hopkins, 1998)

Kevin Butterfield, The Making of Tocqueville's America: Law and Association in the Early United States (U of Chicago Press, 2015)

Ken Masugi, ed., Interpreting Tocqueville's Democracy in America (Rowman and Littlefield, 1991)

Sheldon S. Wolin, Tocqueville between Two Worlds (Princeton UP, 2001).


William J. Novak, The People's Welfare: Law and Regulation in Nineteenth-Century America (U of North Carolina Press, 1996)

Brian Balogh, A Government Out of Sight: The Mystery of National Authority in Nineteenth-Century America (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009)

L. Ray Gunn, The Decline of Authority: Public Economic Policy and Political Development in New York, 1800-1860 (Cornell University Press, 1988)


Library of Congress: Papers of Andrew Jackson / Papers of Martin Van Buren /

Leonard White, The Jacksonians (Macmillan, 1954)

Marvin Meyers, The Jacksonian Persuasion (Stanford UP, 1957)

Robert V. Remini, Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Empire, 1767-1821 (Harper & Row, 1977); Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Freedom, 1822-1832 (Harper & Row, 1981); Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Democracy, 1833-1845 (Harper & Row, 1984)

Arthur M. Schleslinger, Jr., The Age of Jackson (Little, Brown, 1945)

 James C. Curtis, Andrew Jackson and the Search for Vindication (Little, Brown 1976) Donald B. Cole, The Presidency of Andrew Jackson (UP of Kansas, 1993)

Richard B. Latner, The Presidency of Andrew Jackson: White House Politics 1829-1837 (U of Georgia Press, 1979)

Harry L. Watson, Liberty and Power: The Politics of Jacksonian America, New York : Hill and Wang, 1990

Charles Sellars, The Market Revolution: Jacksonian America, 1815-1846 (Oxford UP, 1992).

Richard R. John, Spreading The News:  The American Postal System From Franklin To Morse (Cambridge:  Harvard University Press, 1995)

Richard J. Ellis, The Union at Risk: Jacksonian Democracy, States' Rights and the Nullification Crisis (Oxford UP, 1987)

William W. Freehling, Prelude to Civil War: The Nullification Controversy in South Carolina, 1816-1836 (New York, 1966) and The Road to Disunion: Sessessionists at Bay, 1776-1854 (Oxford UP, 1990).

David Grimsted, American Mobbing,1828-1861: Toward Civil War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998).

Matthew Crenson, The Federal Machine: The Beginnings of Bureaucracy in Jacksonian America (Johns Hopkins, 1975)

Joel Silbey, Martin Van Buren and the Emergence of American Popular Politics. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002).

Amy Bridges, A City in the Republic: Antebellum New York and the Origins of Machine Politics (Cornell UP, 1984).

Robert V. Remini, Martin Van Buren and the Democratic Party (New York: Columbia University Press, 1951)

Jerome Mushkat and Joseph G. Rayback, Martin Van Buren: Law, Politics, and the Shaping of Republican Ideology, (Northern Illinois UP, 1997).

Merrill D. Peterson, The Great Triumvirate: Webster, Clay, and Calhoun (Oxford UP, 1987).

John C. Calhoun, A Disquisition on Government (Bobbs-Merrill, 1953)

Harry L. Watson, Jacksonian Politics and Community Conflict: The Emergence of the Second American Party System in Cumberland County, North Carolina (LSU Press, 1981)

Kenneth J. Winkle, The Politics of Community: Migration and Politics in Antebellum Ohio (New York: Cambridge UP, 1988)

J. Mills Thornton III, Politics and Power in a Slave Society: Alabama, 1800-1860 (LSU Press, 1978)

Seymour V. Connor and Odie B. Faulk, North America Divided: The Mexican War, 1846-1848 (Oxford UP, 1971) 

Michael F. Holt, The Political Crisis of the 1850's (Norton, 1978) and The Rise and Fall of the American Whig Party: Jacksonian Politics and the Onset of the Civil War (Oxford UP, 1999)

Christopher Childers, The Failure of Popular Sovereignty: Slavery, Manifest Destiny, and the Radicalization of Southern Politics (U Press of Kansas, 2012)

William Freehling, The Road to Disunion, vol. 1, Sessessionists at Bay, 1776-1854 (Oxford, 1990)

James A. Rawley, Race and Politics: "Bleeding Kansas" and the Coming of the Civil War (Lippincott, 1969)
Holman Hamilton, Prologue to Conflict: the Crisis and Compromise of 1850 (Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press, 1964)

 Joel H. Silbey, The Partisan Imperative: The Dynamics of American Politics Before the Civil War (Oxford, 1985) and A Respectable Minority: The Democratic Party in the Civil War Era, 1860-1868 (Norton, 1977)

James A. Rawley, Race and Politics: "Bleeding Kansas" and the Coming of the Civil War (Lippincott, 1969)

Eugene H. Berwanger, The Frontier against Slavery: Western Anti-Negro Prejudice and the Slavery Extension Controversy (U of Illinois Press, 1967)

Steven E. Woodworth, Manifest Destinies: America's Westward Expansion and the Road to the Civil War (New York: Knopf, 2010)

Robert W. Johannsen, Frontier Politics on the Eve of the Civil War (U of Washington Press, 1955.


J. David Greenstone, The Lincoln Persuasion: Remaking American Liberalism (Princeton, 1993)

Eric Foner, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery (New York: W. W. Norton, 2010)

George Kateb, Lincoln's Political Thought (Harvard UP 2015)

Thomas E. Schneider, Lincoln's Defense of Politics: the Public Man and His Opponents in the Crisis Over Slavery (U of Missouri Press, 2006)

Lex Renda, Running on the Record: Civil War-Era Politics in New Hampshire (U of Virginia Press, 1997)

Richard Franklin Bensel, Yankee Leviathan: The Origins of Central State Authority in America, 1859-1877 (Cambridge University Press, 1990)

 James M. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (Oxford, 1988)

The State of Courts and Parties, 1865-1900

 Links to Gilded Age & Progressive Era resources / H-Net, Gilded Age and Progressive Era site

Richard F. Bensel, Sectionalism and American Political Development (Wisconsin, 1984) and The Political Economy of American Industrialization, 1877-1900 (New York: Cambridge UP, 2001)

James Bryce, The American Commonwealth (Macmillan, 1894)

Woodrow Wilson, Congressional Government (World Publishing, 1885)

Rebecca Edwards, New Spirits: Americans in the Gilded Age, 1865-1905 (Oxford UP, 2005)

Richard Cherny, American Politics in the Gilded Age, 1868-1900  (1997)

Martin Shefter, "Trade Unions and Political Machines: The Organization and Disorganization of the American Working Class in the Late Nineteenth Century," in Martin Shefter, Political Parties and the State: The American Historical Experience (Princeton, 1994).

Morton Keller, Affairs of State: Public Life in Late Nineteenth Century America (Belknap, 1977).

Leonard White, The Republican Era, 1869-1901 (Macmillan, 1958)

Robert H. Wiebe, The Search for Order (Hill and Wang, 1967)

John A. Garraty, The New Commonwealth, 1877-1890 (Harper and Row, 1968)


Eric Foner, Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877 (Harper and Row, 1988) and Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil War (Oxford UP, 1995).

C. Vann Woodward, Reunion and Reaction: The Compromise of 1877 and the End of Reconstruction (Little, Brown) and "Yes, There Was a Compromise of 1877" Journal of American History 60:2 (1973), 215-23   

Keith M. Stampp, The Era of Reconstruction, 1865-1877 (Random House, 1965)  

Vincent P. DeSantis, "Rutherford B. Hayes and the Removal of the Troops and the End of Reconstruction," in Region, Race and Reconstruction, ed. by Morgan Kousser and James McPherson (Oxford University Press, 1982), 417-50.

Allan Peskin, "Was There a Compromise of 1877?" Journal of American History 60:1 (1973), 63-75

Brooks D. Simpson, The Reconstruction Presidents (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998)

Robert C. Lieberman, "The Freedmen's Bureau and the Politics of Institutional Structure," Social Science History 18:3 (Fall 1994): 405-437


John M. Dobson, Politics in the Gilded Age: A New Perspective on Reform (Praeger, 1972).

Robert G. McCloskey, American Conservatism in the Age of Enterprise: A Study of William Graham Sumner, Stephen J. Field, and Andrew Carnegie (Harvard, 1951)

Roy Morris Jr., Fraud of the Century: Rutherford B. Hayes, Samuel Tilden and the Stolen Election of 1876 (Simon & Schuster, 2003).

Candice Millard, Destiny of the Republic: A Tale of Madness, Medicine and the Murder of a President (Doubleday, 2011)

Joanne Retiano, The Tariff Question in the Gilded Age: The Great Debate of 1888 (Penn State, 1994).


William Jennings Bryan, "Cross of Gold" Speech, July 9, 1896

Michael Kazin, The Populist Persuasion: An American History (Basic: 1995) Charles Postel, The Populist Vision  (Oxford UP, 2007)

Lawrence Goodwyn, Democratic Promise: The Populist Moment in America (Oxford University Press, 1976)

John Hicks, The Populist Revolt (University of Minnesota Press, 1931)

William Holmes, ed., American Populism (Hill and Wang, 1994)

Gretchen Ritter, Goldbugs and Greenbacks: The Antimonopoly Tradition and the Politics of Finance in America, 1865–1896 (Cambridge UP, 1999)

Solon Buck, The Granger Movement: A Study of Agricultural Organization and Its Political,Economic and Social Manifestations, 1870-1880 (U of Nebraska Press, 1913)

George Miller, Railroads and the Granger Laws (U of Wisconsin Press, 1971)

Lee Benson, Merchants, Farmers and Railroads: Railroad Regulation and NewYork Politics (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1955)


Robert F. Durden, The Climax of Populism: The Election of 1896 (U of Kentucky Press, 1965)

Paul W. Glad, McKinley, Bryan, and the People (Lippincott, 1964)

Michael Kazin, A Godly Hero: The Life of William Jennings Bryan (Knopf, 2006).

Richard Franklin Bensel, Passion and Preferences: William Jennings Bryan and the 1896 Democratic Convention (Cambridge UP, 2008)

William T. Horner, Ohio's Kingmaker: Mark Hanna, Man and Myth (Ohio University Press, 2010)


J. Morgan Kousser, The Shaping of Southern Politics: Restrictions and the Establishment of the One-Party South, 1880-1910 (Yale University Press, 1974)

 Richard L. McCormick, The Party Period and Public Policy: American Politics form the Age of Jackson to the Progressive Era (Oxford University Press, 1986).

William G. Ross, A Muted Fury: Populists, Progressives, and Labor Unions Confront the Courts, 1890-1937 (Princeton, 1993)


 Richard Hofstadter, The Age of Reform: From Bryan to F.D.R. (Knopf; first edition 1955)

Theda Skocpol, Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States (Belknap, 1992)

Sidney M. Milkis, Theodore Roosevelt, The Progressive Party, and the Transformation of American Democracy (U Press of Kansas, 2009)

Sidney M. Milkis and Jerome M. Mileur, eds., Progressivism and the New Democracy (U of Massachusetts Press, 1999)

David Brian Robertson, Capital, Labor, and State: The Battle for American Labor Markets from the Civil War to the New Deal (Rowman and Littlefield, 2000)

Amy Bridges, Morning Glories: Municipal Reform in the Southwest (Princeton UP)

Alan Dawley, Changing the World: American Progressives in War and Revolution (Princeton UP, 2003)

Herbert Croly, The Promise of American Life (EP Dutton, 1909).

John Milton Cooper, The Warrior and the Priest: Woodrow Wilson and Theodore Roosevelt (Harvard UP, 1983)

Edmund Morris, The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt (Coward, McCann, and Geoghegan, 1979) and Theodore Rex (Random House, 2001)

Jean M. Yarbrough, Theodore Roosevelt and the American Political Tradition (UP of Kansas, 2012)

Arthur S. Link, Wilson (Princeton University Press, 5 vols., 1947-1965) and Woodrow Wilson and the Progressive Era, 1910-1917 (Harper and Row, 1954).

Arthur S. Link and Richard L. McCormick, Progressivism (Harlan Davidson, 1983)

Morton Keller, Regulating a New Economy (Harvard, 1990) and Regulating a New Society: Public Policy and Social Change in America, 1900-1933 (Harvard, 1994)

Gabriel Kolko, The Triumph of Conservatism: A Reinterpretation of American History, 1900-1916 (Free Press, 1963)

Richard Hofsteader, The Age of Reform (Knopf, 1956)

John M. Jordan, Machine-Age Ideology: Social Engineering and American Liberalism, 1911-1939.( University of North Carolina Press, 1994).

Arthur Bentley, The Process of Government (University of Chicago Press, 1908).

 Kenneth Finegold, Experts and Politicians: Reform Challenges to Machine Politics in New York, Cleveland and Chicago (Princeton, 1995)

Lewis J. Gould, ed. The Progressive Era (Syracuse UP, 1974)

Richard F. Hamm, Shaping the Eighteenth Amendment: Temperance Reform, Legal Culture, and the Polity, 1880-1920 (North Carolina, 1995)

Sidney Milkis and Daniel Tichenor, "The Progressive Party, Social Reformers, and the Politics of "Direct Democracy"," Studies in American Political Development 8:2 (1994)

Eileen Lorenzi McDonagh, "Representative Democracy and State Building in the Progressive Era," APSR 86:4 (December, 1992), pp 938-950

David Brian Robertson, "Policy Entrepreneurs and Policy Divergence: John R. Commons and William Beveridge," Social Service Review, 62:3 (1988): 504-531.

William Graebner, "Federalism and the Progressive Era: A Structural Interpretation of Reform," Journal of American History 64:2 (September, 1977): 331-357.

William Deverell and Tom Sitton, eds., California Progressivism Revisited (California, 1994)

Normalcy and New Deal

 Link to the New Deal Network / H-Net, New Deal site

Ira Katznelson, Fear Itself: The New Deal and the Origins of Our Time (New York: Liveright, 2013)

Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Crisis of the Old Order: 1919-1933, The Age of Roosevelt, Volume I; The Coming of the New Deal: 1933-1935, The Age of Roosevelt, Volume II; The Politics of Upheaval: 1935-1936, The Age of Roosevelt, Volume III (Houghton Mifflin, 1957)

William E. Leuchtenburg, Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932-1940 (Harper & Row, 1963) and The New Deal: A Documentary History (Harper & Row, 1968).

Jordan A. Schwarz, The New Dealers:  Power and Politics in the Age of Roosevelt (Knopf, 1993)

Jefferson Cowie, The Great Exception The New Deal and the Limits of American Politics (Princeton UP, 2016)

Sidney M. Milkis and Jerome M. Mileur, The New Deal and the Triumph of Liberalism (University of Massachusetts Press, 2002)

David E. Hamilton, The New Deal (Houghton, Mifflin, 1999)

Anthony J. Badger, The New Deal: The Depression Years, 1933-1940 (Ivan R. Dee, 2002)

Alan Lawson, A Commonwealth of Hope: The New Deal Response to Crisis (Johns Hopkins UP, 2006)

Roger Biles, A New Deal for the American People (Northern Illinois UP, 1991)

Eliot A. Rosen, Roosevelt, the Great Depression, and the Economics of Recovery (University of Virginia Press, 2005)

Barton J. Bernstein, "The New Deal: The Conservative Achievements of Liberal Reform," in Barton J. Bernstein, ed., Toward a New Past: Dissenting Essays in American History (1968)

Ronald Radosh, "The Myth of the New Deal," in Murray Rothbard and Ronald Radosh, eds., A New History of Leviathan: Essays on the Rise of the American Corporate State (EP Dutton, 1972)

Jerold  S. Aueerbach,"New  Deal,  Old  Deal, or Raw Deal: Some Thoughts on New  Left Historiography," Journal of Southern History 35 (1960): 18-30

Paul F. Conkin, The New Deal, 2nd ed (Harlan Davidson, 1975)

James T. Patterson, Congressional Conservatism and the New Deal: The Growth of the Conservative Coalition in Congress, 1933-1939 (University of Kentucky Press, 1967)

Eric Schickler, Racial Realignment: The Transformation of American Liberalism, 1932-1965 (Princeton UP, 2016)

Steve Fraser and Gary Gerstle, eds., The Rise and Fall of the New Deal Order, 1930-1980 (Princeton University Press, 1989)

Eric Schickler, Racial Realignment: The Transformation of American Liberalism, 1932-1965 (Princeton UP, 2016)

Eric F. Goldman, Rendezvous with Destiny (Knopf, 1952)

Maurine Beasley, Eleanor Roosevelt: Transformative First Lady (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2010)

Daniel Scroop, Mr. Democrat: Jim Farley, the New Deal, and the Making of American Politics (U of Michigan Press, 2006)

Steven Fraser, Labor Will Rule: Sidney Hillman and the Rise of American Labor (1991)

James MacGregor Burns, Roosevelt: The Lion and the Fox (Harcourt, Brace, and World, 1956)

Mark J. Rozell, FDR and the Modern Presidency: Leadership and Legacy (Praeger, 1997)

John Braeman,The New Deal (Ohio State UP, 1975); vol. 1: The National Level; vol. 2: The State and Local Levels

Albert U. Romasco, The Politics of Recovery: Roosevelt's New Deal (Oxford UP, 1983)

Otis L. Graham, The New Deal (Little, Brown, 1973)

Robert Himmelberg,The Great Depression and the New Deal (Greenwood Press, 2001)

Alan Brinkley, The End of Reform: New Deal Liberalism in Recession and War (Alfred A. Knopf, 1995)

Ronald Edsforth, The New Deal: America's Response to the Great Depression (Blackwell Publishers, 2000)

Jason Scott Smith, Building New Deal Liberalism:  The Political Economy of Public Works, 1933 – 1956 (Cambridge UP, 2009)

Frank Freidel, Franklin D. Roosevelt: A Rendezvous with Destiny (Little, Brown, 1990)

Katie Louchheim, The Making of the New Deal: The Insiders Speak (Harvard UP, 1983)

Joseph P. Lash, Dealers and Dreamers: A New Look at the New Deal (1988)

Howard Zinn, ed., New Deal Thought, (Bobbs-Merrill, 1966)

Peter H. Irons, The New Deal Lawyers (Princeton University Press, 1982)

Lyle Dorsett, Franklin Roosevelt and the City Bosses (Kennikat Press, 1977)

J. Joseph Huthmacher, Senator Robert Wagner and the Rise of Urban Liberalism (1968)

Roy Lubove, The Struggle for Social Security (1968)

Suzanne Mettler, Dividing Citizens: Gender and Federalism in New Deal Public Policy (Cornell UP, 1998)   

Colin Gordon, New Deals: Business, Labor, and Politics in America, 1920-1935 (Cambridge, 1994)

Theda Skocpol and Kenneth Finegold, "State Capacity and Economic Intervention in the Early New Deal," Political Science Quarterly 97:2 (Summer, 1982): 255-278 Lizabeth Cohen, Making a New Deal: Industrial Workers in Chicago, 1919-1939 (Cambridge, 1990).

Patrick D. Reagan, Designing a New America: The Origins of New Deal Planning, 1890-1943 (University of Massachusetts Press, 2000)

William J. Barber, Designs within Disorder: Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Economists, and the Shaping of American Economic Policy, 1933-1945 (Cambridge UP, 1996)

G. Edward White, The Constitution and the New Deal. Harvard UP, 2000)

Kiran Klaus Patel, The New Deal A Global History (Princeton UP, 2016)


Cold War, the 1960s and 1970s

Henry R. Luce, "The American Century," Life, February 17, 1941, pp 61-65. 240-411

James T. Patterson, Grand Expectations: The United States, 1945-1974 (Oxford, 1994).

David B. Truman, The Governmental Process, (Alfred A. Knopf, 1953)

Samuel Lubell, The Future of American Politics, 2nd ed., rev. (Doubleday, 1956)

Thomas G. Paterson, On Every Front: The Making of the Cold War (Norton, 1979)

H.W. Brands, The Devil We Knew: Americans and the Cold War (Oxford, 1993)

Suzanne Mettler, Soldiers to Citizens: The G.I. Bill and the Making of the Greatest Generation (Oxford UP, 2005)

Eric Schickler, Racial Realignment: The Transformation of American Liberalism, 1932-1965 (Princeton UP, 2016)

Mary Dudziak, Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy (Princeton UP, 2000).

Walter LaFeber, America, Russia, and the Cold War, 1945-1992, 7th ed (McGraw Hill, 1993)

Ellen Schrecker, The Age of McCarthyism: A Brief History with Documents (St. Martin's, 1994)

David Caute, The Great Fear

Hugh Heclo, "The Sixties' False Dawn: Awakenings, Movements, and Postmodern Policy-Making," in Brian J. Balogh, Integrating the Sixties (Penn State University Press, 1996)

James L. Sundquist, Politics and Policy: The Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson Years (Brookings, 1968)

Theodore J. Lowi, The End of Liberalism: The Second Republic of the United States (Norton, 1979)

Edward G. Carmines and James A. Stimson, Issue Evolution: Race and the Transformation of American Politics (Princeton, 1989).

Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters: America in the Kind Years, 1954-1963 (Simon and Schuster, 1988)


W. J. Rorabaugh, Kennedy and the Promise of the Sixties (Cambridge University Press, 2002).

Sidney M. Milkis and Jerome M. Mileur, eds., The Great Society and the High Tide of Liberalism, (U of Massachusetts Press, 2005)

Julian E. Zelizer, The Fierce Urgency of Now: Lyndon Johnson, Congress, and the Battle for the Great Society (Penguin 2015)

Allen J. Matusow, The Unravelling of America: A History of Liberalism in the 1960s (Harper and Row, 1984)

Stewart Burns, Social Movements of the 1960s: Searching for Democracy (Twayne, 1990)

Elizabeth Cobbs Hoffman, All You Need is Love: The Peace Corps and the Spirit of the 1960s (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998).

David Chalmers, And the Crooked Places Made Straight: The Struggle for Social Change in the 1960s (Johns Hopkins, 1991)

Meta Mendel-Reyes, Reclaiming Democracy: The Sixties in Politics and Memory. (Routledge, 1995).

David Farber, ed., The Sixties: From Memory to History (U of North Carolina, 1994)

Tom Wells, The War Within: America's Battle Over Vietnam (California, 1994)

William E. Leuchtenburg, In the Shadow of FDR: From Harry Truman to Ronald Reagan (Cornell University Press, 1989)

James L. Sundquist, The Decline and Resurgence of Congress (Brookings, 1981)


Bruce J. Schulman and Julian E. Zelizer, eds., Rightward Bound: Making America Conservative in the 1970s (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008)

A. James Reichley, Conservatives in an Age of Change: The Nixon and Ford Administrations (Brookings, 1981)

Keith W. Olson, Watergate: The Presidential Scandal that Shook America (U Press of Kansas, 2003)

Harry P. Jeffrey and Thomas Maxwell-Long, Watergate and the Resignation of Richard Nixon: Impact of a Constitutional Crisis (CQ Press 2004)

Watergate exhibit, Gerald R. Ford Library

The New (?) American Political System

Sean Wilentz, The Age of Reagan, 1974-2008 (Harper Collins, 2008)

Steven F. Hayward, The Age of Reagan, 1964-1980: The Fall of the Old Liberal Order (Crown, 2001) and The Age of Reagan, 1980-1989: The Conservative Counterrevolution (Crown, 2009)

Byron E. Shafer, The Two Majorities and the Puzzle of Modern American Politics (UP of Kansas, 2003).

Theodore J. Lowi, The End of the Republican Era (Oklahoma, 1995)

E.J. Dionne, Jr., Why Americans Hate Politics: The Death of the Democratic Process, 2nd ed (Touchstone, 1992)

Richard R. Nelson and Gavin Wright, "The Rise and Fall of American Technological Leadership: The Postwar Era in Historical Perspective," Journal of Economic Literature 30 (December, 1992)

Bryan D. Jones, ed. The New American Political System? Reflections on Political Change, the 1992 Election, and the Clinton Administration (Westview, 1995)

Anthony King, ed., The New American Political System, 2nd Ed. (American Enterprise Institute, 1990)

Benjamin Ginsberg and Martin Shefter, Politics by Other Means: Politicians, Prosecutors, and the Press from Watergate to Whitewater (WW Norton, 1999)

 Thomas Ferguson and Joel Rogers, Right Turn: The Decline of the Democrats and the Future of American Politics (Hill and Wang, 1986)

William Lunch, The Nationalization of American Politics, (University of California Press, 1987).

William Claggett, William Flanigan, and Nancy Zingale, "Nationalization of the American Electorate," American Political Science Review 78 (1984): 77-91.

John P. Heinz, Edward O. Laumann, Robert L. Nelson, and Robert H. Salisbury, The Hollow Core: Private Interests in National Policy Making (Harvard UP, 1993)

 Richard A. Harris and Sidney Milkis, eds., Remaking American Politics (Westview, 1989).

Theodore Lowi and Alan Stone, eds., Nationalizing Government (Sage, 1978).


The Conservative Ascendancy

“Conservatism: A Round Table,” Journal of American History 98:3 (Dec. 2011), ; Kim Phillips-Fein, “Conservatism: A State of the Field,” 723-743; responses by Wilfred M. McClay, Alan Brinkley, Donald T. Critchlow, Martin Durham, Matthew D. Lassiter, Lisa McGirr,  and Kim Phillips-Fein, 744-773.

David T. Courtwright, No Right Turn: Conservative Politics in a Liberal America (Harvard UP, 2010)

Kim Phillips-Fein, Invisible Hands: The Making of the Conser­vative Movement from the New Deal to Reagan (WW Norton, 2009)

Donald T. Critchlow, The Conservative Ascendancy: How the GOP Right Made Political History (Harvard UP, 2007)

Donald T. Critchlow and Nancy K. MacLean, Debating the American Conservative Movement: 1945 to the Present (Rowman and Littlefield, 2009)

Lisa McGirr, Suburban Warriors: The Origins of the New American Right (Princeton UP, 2001)

Brian J. Glenn and Steven M. Teles, eds., Conservatism and American Political Development (Oxford UP, 2009)

Julian E. Zelizer, “Rethinking the History of American Conservatism,” Reviews in American History, 38 (June 2010), 367–392. 

Julian E. Zelizer and Bruce J. Schulman, eds., Rightward Bound: Making America Conservative in the 1970s (Cambridge, Mass., 2008)

George H. Nash, The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America since 1945 (Intercollegiate Studies Institute, 1996)

Laura Kalman, Right Star Rising: A New Politics, 1974–1980 (WW Norton, 2010)

Dan T. Carter, From George Wallace to Newt Gingrich: Race in the Conservative Counterrevolution, 1963–1994 (LSU Press, 1996)

Jerome L. Himmelstein, To the Right: The Transformation of American Conservatism (U of California, 1990)

Godfrey Hodgson, The World Turned Right Side Up: A History of the Conservative Ascendancy in America (Houghton Mifflin, 1996)

Steven M. Teles, The Rise of the Conservative Legal Movement: The Battle for Control of the Law (Princeton, 2008)

Donald T. Critchlow, Phyllis Schlafly and Grassroots Conservatism: A Woman’s Crusade (Princeton UP, 2005)

Ronnee Schreiber, Righting Feminism: Conservative Women and American Politics (Oxford UP, 2008)

Ronald P. Formisano, Boston against Busing: Race, Class, and Ethnicity in the 1960s and 1970s (U of North Carolina Press, 1991)

Michael W. Flamm, Law and Order: Street Crime, Civil Unrest, and the Crisis of Liberalism in the 1960s (Columbia UP, 2005).



Primary Sources and Data

Annals of Congress (covers 1789-1824); Register of Debate (covers Congress, 1824-1837); Congressional Globe (1833-1873); Congressional Record (1873 - )

Congressional Directory (GPO, annual)

Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress

Almanac of American Politics (Washington: National Journal, various years) and Politics in America (various years)

John F. Bibby, Thomas Mann, and Norman J. Ornstein, Vital Statistics on Congress (CQ Press, various years)

Stanley B. Parsons, William W. Beach, Dan Hermann, and Michael J. Dubin, United States Congressional Districts and Data, (Greenwood Press, 1978, 1986); covers 1789-1883.

U.S. Senate, Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1989 (US GPO, 1989). Senate Doc. 100-34.

Donald C. Bacon, Roger H. Davidson, and Morton Keller, The Encyclopedia of the United States Congress (New York, 1995)

Secondary Sources

Congressional Quarterly, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, Congressional Quarterly Almanac, and Congress and the Nation (Various years)

Congressional Quarterly, The Origins and Development of Congress (CQ Press, 1976) and Guide to Congress (CQ Press)

Robert Goehlert, The United States Congress: A Bibliography (Free Press, 1982)

Eric Schickler and Frances E. Lee, eds. The Oxford Handbook of the American Congress. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2011)

Eric Schickler, Disjointed Pluralism: Institutional Innovation and the Development of the U.S. Congress (Princeton UP, 2001)

Paul J. Quirk and Sarah A. Binder, eds. 2005. The Legislative Branch (Oxford UP, 2005).

Woodrow Wilson, Congressional Government: A Study in American Politics (1885)

Joseph West Moore, The American Congress (1895)

John S. Lapinski, The Substance of Representation: Congress, American Political Development, and Lawmaking (Princeton UP 2015)

Neal Devins & Keith E. Whittington, eds., Congress and the Constitution (Duke UP, 2005)

Louis Fisher, Constitutional Conflicts between Congress and the President (UP of Kansas, 2014)

 Alvin M. Josephy, On the Hill: A History of the American Congress (Touchstone, 1980)

Joel H. Silbey, "Current Historiographic Trends in the Study of the Twentieth Century Congress," Social Science History 24 (2000):317-331

David W. Brady and Craig Volden, Revolving Gridlock: Politics and Policy from Carter to Clinton (Westview Press, 1998)

Julian Zelizer, On Capitol Hill: The Struggle to Reform Congress and its Consequences, 1948-2000 (Cambridge UP, 2004)

Sarah H. Binder, Minority Rights, Majority Rule: Partisanship and the Development of Congress (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997).

Kenneth C. Martis and Gregory A. Elmes, The Historical Atlas of State Power in Congress, 1790-1990 (CQ Press, 1993).

 Joseph Cooper and David W. Brady, "Toward a Diachronic Analysis of Congress," American Political Science Review 75:3 (September, 1981), pp. 988-1006.

Ira Katznelson and John S. Lapinski, "At the Crossroads: Congress and American Political Development," Perspective on Politics 4 (2006): 243-260

Peverill Squire. “The Evolution of American Colonial Assemblies as Legislative Organizations,” Congress and the Presidency 32:2 (Autumn 2005): 109-132

David W. Brady and Mathew D. McCubbins, Party, Process, and Political Change in Congress: New Perspectives on the History of Congress (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2002)

Peter H. Argersinger, Representation and Inequality in Late Nineteenth-Century America: The Politics of Apportionment (Cambridge UP, 2012)

David Brady, Critical Elections and Congressional Policy Making (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1988)

Keith T. Poole and Howard Rosenthal, Congress: A Political-Economic History of Roll Call Voting (Oxford University Press, 1997)

George Tsebelis and Jeannette Money, Bicameralism (Cambridge, 1997).

Diana Evans, Greasing the Wheels: Using Pork Barrel Projects to Build Majority Coalitions in Congress (Cambridge UP, 2004)

Douglas Dion, Turning the Legislative Thumbscrew: Minority Rights and Procedural Change in Legislative Politics (U of Michigan Press, 1997).

Mack C. Shelly II, Permanent Majority: The Conservative Coalition in the United States Congress (University of Alabama Press, 1981).

Sean M. Theriault, Party Polarization in Congress (Cambridge UP, 2008)


Susan Webb Hammond, Congressional Caucuses in National Policy Making (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001)

Barbara Sinclair, Majority Leadership in the US House and The Transformation of the US Senate (Johns Hopkins UP, 1990)

Walter Stubbs, Congressional Committees, 1789-1982 [listing] (Greenwood Press, 1985)

Garrison Nelson, Committees in the U.S. Congress, 1947-1992, 2 vols. (CQ Press, 1993).

Christopher J. Deering and Steven S. Smith, Committees in Congress, 3rd ed. (Congressional Quarterly, 1997)

Linda Katherine Kowalcky and Lance T. LeLoup, "Congress and the Politics of Statutory Debt Limitation," Public Administration Review 53 (Jan/Feb, 1993), 14-27.

Charles Stewart III, Budget Reform Politics: The Design of the Appropriations Process in the House of Representatives, 1865-1921 (Cambridge, 1989).

Irwin N. Gertzog, Women and Power on Capitol Hill: Reconstructing the Congressional Women's Caucus (Boulder: Lynne Reinner, 2003)

Michael J. Malbin, Unelected Representatives: Congressional Staff and the Future of Representative Government (Basic, 1980).

Charles Tiefer, Congressional Practice and Procedure: A Reference, Research, and Legislative Guide (Greenwood, 1989).

Philip Norton, ed., Legislatures (Oxford University Press, 1990).

Sue Thomas, How Women Legislate (Oxford, 1994)

Legislative Studies Quarterly (journal)

Congress and the Presidency (journal)

Parliamentary Affairs (journal)

The U.S. House of Representatives

Robert V. Remini, The House: The History of the House of Representatives (HarperCollins, 2006)

George B. Galloway, History of the House of Representatives (Crowell, 1961)

Nelson Polsby, "The Institutionalization of the House of Representatives," American Political Science Review (March, 1968)

Peter Swenson, "The Influence of Recruitment on the Structure of Power in the U.S. House, 1870-1940," Legislative Studies Quarterly 9 (1982): 23-49

David Brady, Kara Buckley, and Douglas Rivers, "The Roots of Careerism in the U.S. House of Representatives," Legislative Studies Quarterly 24: 489-510.

Ronald M. Peters, Jr. The American Speakership: The Office in Historical Perspective. 2nd ed., (Johns Hopkins UP, 1997)

Roger H. Davidson, Susan Webb Hammond, and Raymond W. Smock, eds. Masters of the House: Congressional Leadership Over Two Centuries (Westview, 1998)

Gary W. Cox, Legislative Leviathan: Party Government in the House (U of California Press, 1993)

Gary W. Cox and Mathew D. McCubbins, Setting the Agenda: Responsible Party Government in the U.S. House of Representatives (Cambridge UP, 2005)

David Brady, Congressional Voting in a Partisan Era: A Study of the McKinley Houses and a Comparison to the Modern House of Representatives (UP of Kansas, 1973)


The U.S. Senate

Sarah Binder and Steven S. Smith, Politics or Principle?Filibustering in the United States Senate (Brookings, 1996)

Gregory Wawro and Eric Schickler, Filibuster: Obstruction and Lawmaking in the U.S. Senate (Princeton UP, 1996)

Eric Schickler, “Institutional Change in the House of Representatives, 1867-1998: A Test of Partisan and Ideological Power Balance Models,” APSR 94 (2000): 269-88

Daniel Wirls and Stephen Wirls, The Invention of the United States Senate (Johns Hopkins UP, 2004)

Elaine K. Swift, The Making of an American Senate: Reconstitutive Change in Congress,1787-1841 (University of Michigan Press, 1996).

Joseph Martin Hernon, Profiles in Character: Hubris and Heroism in the U.S. Senate, 1789-1990, (M.E. Sharpe, 1997)

George H. Haynes, The Senate of the United States: Its History and Practice (1960)

David J. Rothman, Politics and Power: The United States Senate, 1869-1901 (1966)

 Lindsay Rogers, The American Senate (Knopf, 1926)

Wendy J. Schiller & Charles Stewart III, Electing the Senate: Indirect Democracy before the Seventeenth Amendment (Princeton UP, 2015)

Frances E. Lee and Bruce I. Oppenheimer, Sizing Up the Senate: The Unequal Consequences of Equal Representation (University of Chicago Press, 1999).

Thomas L. Brunell and Bernard Grofman, "Explaining Divided U.S. Senate Delegations, 1788-1996: A Realignment Approach," APSR 92:391-400

State Legislatures

Peverill, Squire, The Evolution of American Legislatures: Colonies, Territories, and States, 1619-2009 (University of Michigan Press, Squire, 2012).

Ballard Campbell, Representative Democracy: Public Policy and Midwestern Legislatures in the Late Nineteenth Century (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980).



Primary Sources and Data

Links to The American Presidency Project / POTUS / Presidential Inaugural Addresses / Annual Presidential Messages /

Links to Presidential Libraries / UVA Miller Center's The American President website

Public Papers of the Presidents [Truman to present]; (GPO; various years).

Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents [1965-] (GPO); 1993-present online

George C. Edwards III with Alec M. Gallup, Presidential Approval: A Sourcebook [Eisenhower to Reagan] (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990)

U.S. Government Organization Manual (US GPO; annual, 1935 - present). Current & recent editions online

Gary King and Lyn Ragsdale, The Elusive Executive: Discovering Statistical Patterns in the Presidency (CQ Press, 1988).

Robert Sobel and David B. Sicilia, The United States Executive Branch: A Biographical Directory of Heads of State and Cabinet Officials, 2 vols. (Greenwood Press, 2003)

Secondary Sources

Robert Goehlert and Fenton Martin, American Presidents: A Bibliography (CQ Press, 1987) (E176.1 .M3 1987)

Robert Goehlert and Fenton Martin, The Presidency: A Research Guide (ABC-CLIO, 1985) (JK516 .G57 x 1985)

George C. Edwards III, John H. Kessel, and Bert A. Rockman, eds., Researching the Presidency: Vital Questions, New Approaches (Pittsburgh, 1993)

George C. Edwards III and Steven J. Wayne, Studying the Presidency (University of Tennessee Press, 1983)

William M. Goldsmith, The Growth of Presidential Power: A Documented History 3 volumes. (Chelsea House, 1974).

Joseph Kane, Facts About the Presidents: A Compilation of Biographical and Historical Data (Wilson, 1974)

[Several authors], The Presidency of ... [individual presidents] (University Press of Kansas).

Joel D. Aberbach and Mark A. Peterson, eds., The Executive Branch (Oxford UP, 2005)

Stephen Skowronek, The Politics Presidents Make: Leadership from John Adams to Bill Clinton (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1997) and Presidential Leadership in Political Time: Reprise and Reappraisal (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2008)

Sidney M. Milkis and Mchael Nelson, The American Presidency: Origins and Development, 1776-1998, Fourth ed. (CQ Press, 2003)

Marc Landy and Sidney M. Milkis, Presidential Greatness (UP of Kansas, 2000)

Raymond Tatalovich and Thomas S. Engeman, The Presidency and Political Science: Two Hundred Years of Constitutional Debate (Johns Hopkins UP, 2003)

Charles O. Jones, The Presidency in A Separated System (Brookings, 1994)

Joseph M. Bessette and Jeffrey K. Tulis, eds., The Constitutional Presidency (Johns Hopkins UP, 2009)

Louis Fisher, Constitutional Conflicts between Congress and the President (UP of Kansas, 2014)

 Richard J. Ellis, Presidential Lighting Rods: The Politics of Blame Avoidance (University Press of Kansas, 1994)

Jean Reith Schroedel, Congress, the President, and Policymaking: A Historical Analysis (M.E. Sharpe, 1994)

Richard E. Neustadt, Presidential Power, rev. ed. (Wiley, 1980)

Jeffrey K. Tulis, The Rhetorical Presidency (Princeton, 1988)

Terry M. Moe and William G. Howell, "The Presidential Power of Unilateral Action," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 15:1 (April 1999), 132-179

Steven G. Calabresi and Christopher S. Yoo, The Unitary Executive: Presidential Power from Washington to Bush (Yale UP, 2008).

Edwin Hargrove, Presidential Leadership: Personality and Political Style (Macmillan, 1966)

Harold J. Laski, The American Presidency (Harper and Row, 1940)

Cornell G. Hooton, Executive Governance: Presidential Administrations and Policy Change in the Federal Bureaucracy (M.E. Sharpe, 1997)

Williams W. Lammers, The Presidency and Domestic Policy: Comparing Leadership Styles, FDR to Clinton (CQ Press, 2000)

Alexander L. George and Juliette L. George, Presidential Personality and Performance (Westview Press, 1998).

Louis Fisher, Presidential War Power (Kansas, 1995)

Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Imperial Presidency (Houghton Mifflin, 1973)

John Hart, The Presidential Branch (Pergammon, 1987)

Harry A. Bailey, Jr., and Jay M. Shafritz, The American Presidency: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives (Brooks/Cole, 1988).

Charles C. Thach, Jr., The Creation of the Presidency, 1775-1789: A Study in Constitutional History (Johns Hopkins UP, 1969).

Donald L. Robinson, "To the Best of My Ability: The Presidency and the Constitution (W.W. Norton, 1987)

Martin Fausold and Alan Shank, eds., The Constitution and the American Presidency (State University of New York Press, 1991)

Theodore J. Lowi, The Personal President (Cornell University Press, 1985)

Ralph Ketchum, Presidents Above Party: The First American Presidency, 1789-1829 (U of North Carolina Press)

Louis W. Koenig, The Chief Executive, fifth ed., (Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1986)

William E. Leuchtenburg, In the Shadow of FDR: From Harry Truman to Ronald Reagan, Rev. and Updated ed. (Cornell UP, 1989).

Daniel J. Galvin, Presidential Party Building: Dwight D. Eisenhower to George W. Bush (Princeton UP, 2010)

Andrew Rudalevige, Managing the President’s Program: Presidential Leadership and Legislative Policy Formulation (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002).

George C. Edwards III and Steven J. Wayne, Presidential Leadership: Politics and Policy Making (St. Martin's, 1985)

L. Gordon Crovitz and Jeremy Rabkin, eds., The Fettered Presidency: Legal Constraints on the Executive Branch (AEI, 1989)

Janet Martin, The Presidency and Women: Promise, Performance, and Illusion (Texas A&M UP, 2003)

Louis Fischer, Presidential Spending Power (Princeton, 1975)

Robert J. Spitzer, The Presidential Veto: Touchstone of the American Presidency (SUNY, 1988)

Richard A. Watson, Presidential Vetoes and Public Policy (UP of Kansas, 1993)

Mark J. Rozell, Executive Privilege: Presidential Power, Secrecy, and Accountability. 2nd ed. rev. (UP of Kansas, 2002)

Kenneth R. Mayer, With the Stroke of a Pen: Executive Orders and Presidential Power (Princeton UP, 2002)

Jeffrey D. Schultz, Presidential Scandals (CQ Press, 1999)

Thomas J. Weko, The Politicizing Presidency: The White House Personnel Office, 1948-1994. (Kansas, 1995)

Charles E. Walcott and Karen M. Hult, Governing the White House: From Hoover through LBJ (Kansas, 1995)

MaryAnne Borrelli, The President's Cabinet: Gender, Power, and Representation ( Lynne Reinner, 2002)

Louis Fisher, Presidential War Power, 2nd rev ed. (UP of Kansas, 2004)

Elizabeth Saunders, Leaders at War: How Presidents Shape Military Interventions (Cornell UP, 2011)

Presidential Studies Quarterly (journal)


Primary Sources and Data

Federal Register (US GPO, 1935 -)

The United States Government Manual (GPO; annual, 1935 - )

(see specific agencies in the Monthly Catalogue)

Robert Sobel, ed., Biographical Directory of the Executive Branch, 1774-1989 (Greenwood, 1990).

Secondary Sources

Robert Goehlert, The Executive Branch of the U.S. Government: A Bibliography (1989) (JK421 .G6 1989)

Joel D. Aberbach and Mark A. Peterson, eds., The Executive Branch (Oxford UP, 2005)

Robert Durant, ed., The Oxford Handbook of American Bureaucracy (Oxford University Press, 2010)


Daniel P. Carpenter, The Forging of Bureaucratic Autonomy: Reputations, Networks, and Policy Innovation in Executive Agencies, 1862-1928 (Princeton, UP, 2001) and Reputation and Power: Organizational Image and Pharmaceutical Regulation at the FDA (Princeton UP: 2010).

Joanna L. Grisinger, The Unwieldy American State: Administrative Politics Since the New Deal (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012)

Michael Nelson, "A Short, Ironic History of American National Bureaucracy," Journal of Politics 44 (August, 1982), pp. 747 -

James Q. Wilson, "The Rise of the Bureaucratic State," The Public Interest 41 (1975), 77-103,, and Bureaucracy: What Government Agencies Do And Why They Do It (Basic Books, 1989).

Daniel R. Ernst,  Tocqueville's Nightmare: The Administrative State Emerges in America, 1900-1940 (Oxford UP 2014)

Hugh Heclo, "Issue Networks and the Executive Establishment," In A. King (ed.), The New American Political System (American Enterprise Institute, 1978).

 Norton Long, "Power and Administration," Public Administration Review (Autumn, 1949).

Robert H. Salisbury, "Urban Politics: The New Convergence of Power," Journal of Politics, 26 (November, 1964): 775-797

Howard R. Lamar, "Introduction. Territorial Policy of the United States, 1789-1881, in Lamar, Dakota Territory, 1861-1889: A Study of Frontier Politics (Yale, 1956), pp. 1-27.

 Leonard White, The Jeffersonians (Macmillan, 1948), The Jacksonians (Macmillan, 1954), and The Republican Era, 1869-1901 (Macmillan, 1958)

Camilla Stivers, Bureau Men, Settlement Women: Constructing Public Administration in the Progressive Era (UP of Kansas, 2000)

Peri Arnold, Making the Managerial Presidency: Comprehensive Reorganization Planning, 1905-1980 (Princeton UP, 1986).

Thomas McCraw, ed., Regulation in Perspective: Historical Essays (Harvard University Press, 1981)

Jameson W. Doig and Erwin C. Hargrove, eds., Leadership and Innovation: A Biographical Perspective on Entrepreneurs in Government (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987)

Barry Dean Karl, Executive Reorganization in the New Deal: The Genesis of Administrative Management, 1900-1939 (Harvard University Press, 1963)

Richard Polenberg, Reorganizing Roosevelt's Government, 1936-1939 (Harvard University Press, 1966)

Erwin C. Hargrove, Prisoners of Myth: The Leadership of the Tennessee Valley Authority, 1933-1990 (Princeton, 1994)

Paul C. Light, Thickening Government: Federal Hierarchy and the Diffusion of Accountability (Brookings, 1994)

Metin Heper, The State and Public Bureaucracies: A Comparative Perspective (Greenwood Press, 1987).

 Joel D. Aberbach, Robert D. Putnam, and Bert A. Rockman, Bureaucrats and Politicians in Western Democracies (Harvard University Press, 1981)

Richard P. Nathan, The Administrative Presidency (Wiley, 1983)

Federal Regulatory Directory (CQ Press, 1979-)

Public Administration Review (journal)


Primary Sources and Data

Link to FindLaw / Judicial Research Initiative, U of South Carolina

U.S. Supreme Court Decisions, 1893- / History of the Supreme Court / Supreme Court Database

United States Reports

The Supreme Court Review

Clare Cushman, ed., Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, Second ed. (Congressional Quarterly, 1995)

Secondary Sources

Rogers M. Smith, "Political Jurisprudence, the `New Institutionalism,' and the Future of Public Law," APSR 82:1 (March, 1988), pp. 89-108

Keith E. Whittington, Political Foundations of Judicial Supremacy: The Presidency, the Supreme Court, and Constitutional Leadership in U.S. History.(Princeton UP, 2007), Constitutional Construction: Divided Powers and Constitutional Meaning (Harvard UP, 1999),  and Constitutional Interpretation: Textual Meaning, Original Intent, and Judicial Review (UP of Kansas, 1999)

Justin Crowe, Building the Judiciary: Law, Courts, and the Politics of Institutional Development (Princeton UP, 2012)

Anna Harvey,  A Mere Machine:  The Supreme Court, Congress, and American Democracy (Yale UP, 2013)

Michael A. Bailey and Forrest Maltzman, The Constrained Court: Law, Politics, and the Decisions Justices Make (Princeton UP, 2011)

Ronald Kahn and Ken I. Kersch, eds., The Supreme Court and American Political Development (U Press of Kansas, 2006).

David M. O’Brien, Storm Center: The Supreme Court in American Politics (W.W. Norton, 2014). 10th ed

Matthew Hall, The Nature of Supreme Court Power (Cambridge UP, 2010)

Sidney Teiser, “The Genesis of the Supreme Court,” Virginia Law Review, 25: 4 (February 1939), 398-421

Erwin C. Surrency, History of the Federal Courts (Oceana, 1987)

Kermit L. Hall and Kevin T. McGuire, eds., The Judicial Branch (Oxford UP, 2005)

Robert G. McCloskey, The American Supreme Court, 5th ed. (University of Chicago Press, 2010)

Maeva Marcus, ed. Origins of the Federal Judiciary: Essays on the Judiciary Act of 1789 (New York: Oxford UP, 1992)

Holt Wythe, “‘To Establish Justice’: Politics, the Judiciary Act of 1789, and the Invention of the Federal Courts,” Duke Law Journal 1989, no. 6 (1989), 1,421-1,531.

Jonathan D. Caspar, "The Supreme Court and National Policy Making," APSR 70 (September, 1976): 50-63.

Charles D. Shipan, Designing Judicial Review (U of Michigan Press, 1997)

Jack Knight and Lee Epstein. On the Struggle for Judicial Supremacy. Law and Society Review 30, 1 (1996): 87-120


Christopher Tomlins and Michael Grossberg, eds., The Cambridge History of Law in America. Volume 1, Early America (1580–1815); Volume 2, The Long Nineteenth Century (1789–1920); Volume 3, The Twentieth Century and After (1920–) (Cambridge UP, 2008)

Mary Bilder, The Transatlantic Constitution: Colonial Legal Culture and the Empire (Harvard UP, 2004)

Sean Farhang, The Litigation State: Public Regulation and Private Lawsuits in the United States (Princeton UP, 2010)

Robert A. Kagan, "Adversarial Legalism and American Government”, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 10:3 (June, 1991), 369-406

Robert A. Kagan and Lee Axelrad, "Adversarial Legalism: An International Perspective," in Pietro S. Nivola, ed., Comparative Disadvantages? Social Regulations and the Global Economy (Brookings, 1997).

Lawrence M. Friedman, A History of American Law (Simon and Schuster, 1973)

Ken I. Kersch, Constructing Civil Liberties: Discontinuities in the Development of American Constitutional Law (Cambridge UP, 2004)

James Willard Hurst, Law and Social Order in the United States (Cornell University Press, 1977) and Law and the Conditions of Freedom in the Nineteenth Century United States (University of Wisconsin Press, 1956)

Karen Orren, Belated Feudalism: Labor, the Law, and Liberal Development in the United States (Cambridge UP, 1992)

Morton J. Horowitz, The Transformation of American Law, 1780-1860 (Harvard UP, 1977).

David P. Currie, The Constitution in the Supreme Court 2 vols. (1985 and 1990)

Kevin J. McMahon, Nixon’s Court: His Challenge to Judicial Liberalism and its Political Consequences (U of Chicago Press, 2011)

Thomas M. Keck, The Most Activist Supreme Court in History: The Road to Modern Judicial Conservatism (U of Chicago Press, 2004).

Gerald N. Rosenberg, The Hollow Hope: Can Courts Bring About Social Change? (U of Chicago Press, 1991).

Peter Karsten, Heart versus Head: Judge-Made Law in Nineteenth Century America (North Carolina UP, 1997)

Stephen L. Wasby, The Supreme Court (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1978) and The Impact of the United States Supreme Court: Some Perspectives (Dorsey, 1970)

Jamil Zainaldin, Law in Antebellum Society: Legal Change and Economic Expansion (Knopf, 1983)

Henry J. Abraham, Justices and Presidents: A Political History of Appointments to the Supreme Court (Oxford, 1974)

Bruce H. Kalk, The Machiavellian Nominations: Richard Nixon's Southern Strategy and the Struggle for the Supreme Court, 1968-70 (U of North Carolina Press, 1992)

Richard L. Pacelle, Jr. The Transformation of the Supreme Court's Agenda: From the New Deal to the Reagan Administration (Westview: 1991).

Richard J. Pacelle, Between Law & Politics: The Solicitor General and the Structuring of Race, Gender, and Reproductive Rights Litigation (Texas A&M UP, 2003)

John B. Gates, The Supreme Court and Partisan Realignment (Westview, 1992).

Mark V. Tushnet. 1994. Making Civil Rights Law: Thurgood Marshall and the Supreme Court, 1936-1961 (Oxford UP, 1995)

Sheldon Goldman, Picking Federal Judges: Lower Court Selection from Roosevelt Through Reagan (Yale UP, 1997)

Congressional Quarterly's Guide to the U.S. Supreme Court

Journals: Judicature / Law and Society

Critical Legal Theory

Robert Gordon, "Critical Legal Histories," Stanford Law Review 36:1 (January, 1984), 57-126

Alan Hunt, "The Ideology of the Law: Advances and Problems in Recent Applications of the Concept of ideology to the Analysis of Law," Law and Society Review 19:1 (1985): 11-37

Roberto Mangabeira, The Critical Legal Studies Movement (Harvard, 1983).


Primary Sources and Data

American Presidential Election Results / Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections

Interuniversity Consortium on Political Science Research (ICPSR)

D.B. Johnson, ed., National Party Platforms, Rev. Ed., Vol I: 1840-1956, and Vol II: 1960-1976 (University of Illinois Press, 1978)

Richard M. Scammon, ed., America at the Polls, 1920-1964 (University of Pittsburgh Press, 1965)

Richard M. Scammon and Alice McGillivray, America at the Polls II (CQ Press, 1988)

Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., and Fred L. Israel, eds., History of American Presidential Elections, 1789-1984 (Chelsea, 1984).

Congressional Quarterly, National Party Conventions, 1831-1992 (Congressional Quarterly, 1995)

Congressional Quarterly, Presidential Elections, 1789-1992 (Congressional Quarterly, 1995)

CQ Guide to U.S. Elections, Second ed. (CQ Press, 1985).

Thomas T. Mackie and Richard Rose, The International Almanac of Electoral History, Third ed. (CQ Press, 1991)

Political Parties


Maurice Duverger, Political Parties (Wiley, 1951)

V.O. Key, Politics, Parties, and Pressure Groups (Thomas Y. Crowell, 1964).

Richard Hofstadter, The Idea of a Party System (U of California Press, 1969)

Samuel J. Eldersveld, Political Parties in American Society (Rand McNally, 1964).

Leon D. Epstein, Political Parties in the American Mold (U of Wisconsin Press, 1986)

John Aldrich, Why Parties? The Origin and Transformation of Party Politics in America (Chicago, 1995) and Why Parties? A Second Look (U of Chicago Press, 2011)

Martin Shefter, Political Parties and the State: The American Historical Experience (Princeton, 1994).

David R. Mayhew, Placing Parties in American Politics (Princeton University Press, 1986) and Parties and Policies: How the American Government Works (Yale UP,  2008)

John Gerring, Party Ideologies in America, 1828-1996 (Cambridge UP, 1998)

Sean M. Theriault, The Power of the People: Congressional Competition, Public Attention, and Voter Retribution (Ohio University Press, 2005)

Mark D. Brewer and Jeffrey M. Stonecash, Dynamics of American Political Parties (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009)

John F. Bibby and L. Sandy Maisel, Two Parties -- Or More? The American Party System (Boulder: Westview Press, 1998)

Byron E. Shafer, ed. Partisan Approaches to Postwar American Politics (Chatham House / Seven Bridges Press, 1998)

Joseph A. Schlesinger, Political Parties and the Winning of Office (Michigan, 1995).

Everett C. Ladd, American Political Parties (Norton, 1970)

Charles Beard, The American Party Battle (Macmillan, 1929)


U.S. Party System Development

William Nisbet Chambers, Political Parties in a New Nation: The American Experience, 1776-1809 (Oxford UP, 1963)

Joseph Charles, The Origins of the American Party System: Three Essays (Williamsburg, VA: Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1956).

Richard Hofstadter, The Idea of a Party System: The Rise of Legitimate Opposition in the United States, 1780-1840 (University of California Press, 1969)

John Hoadley, Origins of American Political Parties, 1789-1803 (1986)

 John Nelson, Jr., Liberty and Property: Political Economy and Policymaking in the New Nation, 1789-1812 (1987)

Howard L. Reiter, "Why Did the Whigs Die (and Why Didn't the Democrats)?: Evidence from National Nominating Conventions," Studies in American Political Development 10:2 (Fall, 1996), 185-222.

Gerald Leonard, The Invention of Party Politics: Federalism, Popular Sovereignty, and Constitutional Development in Jacksonian Illinois  (U of North Carolina Press, 2014)

Scott C. James. “Patronage Regimes and American Party Development from ‘The Age of Jackson’ to the Progressive Era,” British Journal of Political Science 38:1 (January 2006): 39-60

 Joel H. Silbey, The Partisan Imperative: The Dynamics of American Politics Before the Civil War (Oxford, 1985)

Michael F. Holt, Political Parties and American Political Development from the Age of Jackson to the Age of Lincoln (LSU Press, 1992) and The Rise and Fall of the American Whig Party: Jacksonian Politics and the Onset of the Civil War (Oxford UP, 1999).

 Joel H. Silbey, The American Political Nation, 1838-1893 (Stanford UP, 1991)

Daniel Klinghard, The Nationalization of American Political Parties, 1880-1896 (Cambridge UP, 2010)

Scott C. James, Presidents, Parties, and the State: A Party System Perspective on Democratic Regulatory Choice, 1884-1936 (Cambridge UP, 2000)

Michael E. McGerr, The Decline of Popular Politics: The American North, 1865-1928 (Oxford UP, 1986)

John Coleman, Party Decline In America: Policy, Politics, and The Fiscal State.  Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 1996.

John C. Green and Paul S. Herrnson, eds. Responsible Partisanship? The Evolution of American Political Parties Since 1950 (University Press of Kansas, 2003)

Everett Carl Ladd, Jr. and Charles D. Hadley, Transformations of the American Party System (Norton, 1978)

A. James Reichley, The Life of the Parties: A History of American Political Parties (Free Press, 1992)

Geoffrey Layman, The Great Divide: Religious and Cultural Conflict in American Party Politics (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002)

Philip A. Klinkner, The Losing Parties: One-Party National Committees, 1956-1993 (Yale UP, 1994)

Margaret Weir, The Social Divide: Political Parties and the Future of Activist Government (Washington: Brookings Institution, 1998)


Alan I. Abramowitz, The Disappearing Center: Engaged Citizens, Polarization, and American Democracy (Yale UP, 2011)

Morris P. Fiorina and Samuel J. Abrams, Disconnect: the Breakdown of Representation in American Politics (U of Oklahoma Press, 2009).

Seth Masket, No Middle Ground: How Informal Party Organizations Control Nominations and Polarize Legislatures (U of Michigan Press, 2011).



Jules Witcover, Party of the People: A History of the Democrats (Random House, 2003)

William Nisbet Chambers, The Democrats, 1789-1964: A Short History of a Popular Party (Von Nostrand, 1964).

Lance Banning, The Jeffersonian Persuasion: Evolution of a Party Ideology (Cornell UP, 1978)

Eugene Perry Link,  Democratic-Republican Societies, 1790-1800 (Columbia UP, 1942)

Alfred F. Young, The Democratic-Republicans of New York: The Origins, 1763-1797 (U of North Carolina, 1967)

Paul Goodman, The Democratic-Republicans of Massachusetts: Politics in a Young Republic (Harvard UP, 1964)

Noble E. Cunningham, Jr. The Jeffersonian Republicans: The Formation of Party Organization, 1789-1801 (U of North Carolina Press, 1957) and The Jeffersonian Persuasion in Power: Party Operations, 1801-1809 (U of North Carolina Press, 1963)

Yonatan Eyal, The Young America Movement and the Transformation of the Democratic Party, 1828–1861 (Cambridge UP, 2007)

Lee Benson, The Concept of Jacksonian Democracy: New York as a Test Case (Princeton UP, 1961).

Martin H. Quitt, Stephen A. Douglas and Antebellum Democracy (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012)

Robert W. Johannsen, Stephen A. Douglas (Oxford UP, 1973)

Jean H. Baker, Affairs of Party: The Political Culture of Northern Democrats in the Mid-Nineteenth Century (Cornell UP, 1983).

William Gilette, Retreat from Reconstruction, 1869-1879 (Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1979)

Lawrence Grossman, The Democratic Party and the Negro: Northern and National Politics, 1868-92 (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1976)

Edward L. Gambill, Conservative Ordeal, Northern Democrats and Reconstruction, 1865-1868 (Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 1981)

Michael Perman, The Road to Redemption : Southern Politics, 1869-1879 (Chapel Hill, NC : University of North Carolina Press, 1984).

Joel H. Silbey, A Respectable Minority : the Democratic Party in the Civil War Era, 1860-1868 (New York : Norton, 1977) 

Michael L. Benedict, "Southern Democrats in the Crisis of 1876-1877: A Reconsideration of Reunion and Reaction," Journal of Southern History 46 (November 1980): 489-524

Alan Ware, The Democratic Party Heads North, 1877-1962 (Cambridge UP, 2006)

David Burner, The Politics of Provincialism: The Democratic Party in Transition, 1918-1932 (Harvard UP, 1986).

Douglas B. Craig, After Wilson: The Struggle for the Democratic Party, 1920-1934 (U of North Carolina Press, 1992).

Daniel Scroop, Mr. Democrat: Jim Farley, the New Deal, and the Making of American Politics (U of Michigan Press, 2006)

Kristi J. Andersen, The Creation of a Democratic Majority, 1928-1936 (U of Chicago Press, 1979)

David Plotke, Building a Democratic Political Order: Reshaping American Liberalism in the 1930s and 1940s (Cambridge UP, 1996)

Taylor Dark, The Unions and the Democrats: An Enduring Alliance (Cornell UP, 1999)

Steven M. Gillon, The Democrats' Dilemma: Walter F. Mondale and the Liberal Legacy (Columbia UP, 1992).


Federalists, Whigs & Republicans

Michael F. Holt, The Rise and Fall of the American Whig Party: Jacksonian Politics and the Onset of the Civil War (Oxford UP, 1999).

Lewis L. Gould, Grand Old Party: A History of the Republicans (Random House, 2003)

William E. Gienapp, The Origins of the Republican Party, 1852-1856 (Oxford UP, 1987)

Eric Foner, Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil War (Oxford UP, 1995)

Earle Dudley Ross, The Liberal Republican Movement (Henry Holt & Co., 1919)

Richard L. McCormick, The Party Period and Public Policy: American Politics from the Age of Jackson to the Progressive Era (Oxford, 1986)

Melanie Susan Gustafson, Women and the Republican Party, 1854-1924 (U of Illinois Press, 2001)

Edward O. Frantz, The Door of Hope: Republican Presidents and the First Southern Strategy, 1877-1933 (University Press of Florida, 2011)

Clyde P. Weed, The Nemisis of Reform: The Republican Party During the New Deal (Columbia UP, 1994)

Timothy N. Thurber, Republicans and Race (UP of Kansas, 2013)

David W. Reinhard, The Republican Right since 1945 (UP of Kentucky, 1983)

Earl Black and Merle Black, The Rise of Southern Republicans (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press / Harvard UP, 2002)

David Lublin, The Republican South: Democratization and Partisan Change (Princeton UP, 2004)

Nicholas A. Valentino and David O. Sears, “Old Times There Are Not Forgotten: Race and Partisan Realignment in the Contemporary South,” American Journal of Political Science, 49:3 (July 2005): 672-688

Joseph A. Aistrup, The Southern Strategy Revisited: Republican Top-Down Advancement in the South (UP of Kentucky, 2015)

Roger M. Olien, From Token to Triumph: The Texas Republicans, 1920-1978 (SMU Press, 1982)

Joel D. Aberbach and Gillian Peele (eds), Crisis of Conservatism? The Republican Party, the Conservative Movement, and American Politics after Bush  (Oxford UP, 2011)


Third Parties

Steven J. Rosenstone, Roy L. Behr, and Edward H. Lazarus, Third Parties in America, 2nd ed. (Princeton UP, 1996).

Reinhard O. Johnson. The Liberty Party, 1840-1848: Antislavery Third-Party Politics in the United States. (Louisiana State UP, 2009).

Tyler Anbinder, Nativism and Slavery: The Northern Know Nothings and the Politics of the 1850s (Oxford UP, 1992)

John R. Mulkern, The Know-Nothing Party in Massachusetts: The Rise and Fall of a People's Movement (Northeastern UP, 1990)

Jean H. Baker, Ambivalent Americans: The Know-Nothing Party in Maryland (Johns Hopkins UP 1977)

W. Darrel Overdyke, The Know-Nothing Party in the South (Louisiana State UP, 1950)

Lawrence Goodwyn, The Populist Moment: A Short History of the Agrarian Revolt in America (Oxford UP, 1978)

Michael Kazin, The Populist Persuasion: An American History (Basic Books, 1995)

Sidney M. Milkis, Theodore Roosevelt, the Progressive Party, and the Transformation of American Democracy (University Press of Kansas, 2009)


Comparative Parties

Robert Dahl, ed., Political Oppositions in Western Democracies (Yale UP, 1966)

Arend Lijphardt, Electoral Systems and Party Systems: A Study of Twenty-Seven Democracies, 1945-1990 (Oxford UP, 1994).

Pradeep Chhibber and Ken Kollman, The Formation of National Party Systems: Federalism and Party Competition in Canada, Great Britain, India, and the United States (Princeton UP, 2004).

Wolfgang C. Müller and Kaare Strøm, Policy, Office or Votes? How Political Parties in Western Europe Make Hard Decisions (Cambridge UP, 1999)

Birol A. Yesilada, ed. Comparative Political Parties and Party Elites: Essays in Honor of Samuel J. Eldersveld (U of Michigan Press, 1999)

Frank P. Belloni and Dennis C. Beller, eds., Faction Politics: Political Parties and Factionalism in Comparative Perspective (ABC-Clio, 1978)

Pradeep Chhibber and Ken Kollman, The Formation of National Party Systems: Federalism and Party Competition in Canada, Great Britain, India, and the United States (Princteton UP, 2004)




V.O. Key, Jr., "A Theory of Critical Elections," Journal of Politics 17 (1955), 3-18; and "Secular Realignment and the Party System," Journal of Politics 21 (May, 1959): 198-210.

James L. Sundquist, Dynamics of the Party System: Alignment and Realignment of Political Parties in the United States, Second Edition (Brookings, 1983).

Walter Dean Burnham, "The Changing Shape of the American Political Universe" APSR 59:1 (March, 1965), 7-28 and Critical Elections and the Mainsprings of American Politics (Norton, 1970)

William Nisbet Chambers and Walter Dean Burnham, eds., The American Party Systems: Stages of Political Development  (Oxford UP, 1975)

Paul Kleppner et al, The Evolution of American Electoral Systems  (Praeger 1981)

Byron E. Shafer, ed. The End of Realignment? Interpreting American Electoral Eras (U of Wisconsin, 1991)

David R. Mayhew, Electoral Realignments: A Critique of an American Genre (Yale UP, 2002)

Daniel Schlozman, When Movements Anchor Parties: Electoral Alignments in American History (Princeton UP 2015)

 Jerome M. Clubb, William H. Flanigan, and Nancy H. Zingale, Partisan Realignment: Voters, Parties, and Government in American History (Sage, 1980)

Edward G. Carmines, John P. McIver, and James A. Stimson, "Unrealized Partisanship: A Theory of Delalignment," Journal of Politics 49 (May): 376-400

Russell J. Dalton, Scott C. Flanagan, and Paul Allen Beck, eds. Electoral Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies: Realignment or Dealignment? (Princeton UP, 1984)

John Petrocik, Party Coalitions: Realignment and the Decline of the New Deal Party System (U of Chicago Press, 1981)

Joel H. Silbey, Alan S. Bogue, and William H. Flanigan, eds. The History of American Electoral Behavior (Princeton, 1978)

Richard Hofstadter, "A Constitution Against Parties: Madisonian Pluralism and the Anti-Party Tradition," Government and Opposition 4:3 (Summer, 1969), 345-366).

Paul Kleppner, The Third Electoral System, 1853-1892: Parties, Voters, and Political Cultures (U of North Carolina Press, 1979).

David G. Lawrence, The Collapse of the Democratic Majority: Realignment, Dealignment, and Electoral Change from Franklin Roosevelt to Bill Clinton (Westview, 1997).


Voting & Elections

Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., ed., History of American Presidential Elections (Chelsea House, 1971)

Nelson W. Polsby and Aaron Wildavsky, Presidential Elections: Strategies and Structures of American Politics, 11th ed. (Rowman & Littlefield, 2003)

Paul Kleppner, Who Voted? The Dynamics of Electoral Turnout, 1870-1980 (Praeger, 1982)

Richard Franklin Bensel, The American Ballot Box in the Mid-Nineteenth Century (Cambridge UP, 2004)

Roy G. Saltman, The History and Politics of Voting Technology: In Quest of Integrity and Public Confidence (Palgrave Macmillan, 2005).

Raymond Wolfinger and Steven J. Rosenstone, Who Votes? (Yale UP, 1980)

Steven J. Rosenstone and John Mark Hansen, Mobilization, Participation, and Democracy in America (MacMillan, 1993)

Mark Lawrence Korhnbluh, Why America Stopped Voting: The Decline of Participatory Democracy and the Emergence of Modern American Politics (New York UP, 2000)

 Paul Kleppner, Who Voted? The Dynamics of Electoral Turnout, 1870-1980 (Praeger, 1982)

Angus Campbell, et al., The American Voter. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1960.

Norman Nie, et al., The Changing American Voter. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976.

Warren E. Miller and J. Merrill Shanks, The New American Voter (Harvard UP, 1996)


Suffrage, Elections, Initiative & Referenda (see also Gender)

Alexander Keyssar, The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States (Basic Books, 2000)

J. Morgan Kousser, The Shaping of Southern Politics: Restrictions and the Establishment of the One-Party South, 1880-1910 (Yale University Press, 1974) and Colorblind Justice: Minority Voting Rights and the Undoing of the Second Reconstruction (U of North Carolina Press, 1999)

Donald W. Rogers, ed., Voting And The Spirit Of American Democracy : Essays On The History Of Voting And Voting Rights In America (U of Illinois Press, 1992)

Chilton Williamson, American Suffrage: From Property to Democracy (Princeton UP, 1960)

Kirk H. Porter, A History of Suffrage in the United States (U of Chicago, 1918)

Leon E. Aylesworth, "The Passing of Alien Suffrage," APSR 25 (February, 1931): 114-116.

Scott C. James and Brian L. Lawson, "The Political Economy of Voting Rights Enforcement in America's Gilded Age: Electoral College Competition, Partisan Commitment, and the Federal Election Law," APSR 93:1 (March 1999): 115-131.

Richard M. Valelly, The Two Reconstructions: The Struggle for Black Enfranchisement (U of Chicago Press, 2004)

Chandler Davidson and Bernard Grofman, Quiet Revolution in the South: The Impact of the Voting Rights Act, 1965-1990 (Princeton UP, 1994)

Alexander J. Bott, Handbook of United States Election Laws and Practices (Greenwood, 1990).

Bernard Grofman and Arend Lijphart, Electoral Laws and Their Consequences (Agathon, 1986)


Thomas E. Cronin, Direct Democracy: The Politics of Initiative, Referendum, and Recall (Harvard University Press, 1999).

Daniel A. Smith and Caroline J. Tolbert, Educated by Initiative: the Effects of Direct Democracy on Citizens and Political Organizations in the American States (U of Michigan Press, 2004)

John G. Matsusaka, For the Many or the Few: The Initiative, Public Policy, and American Democracy (U of Chicago Press, 2004).

Richard J. Ellis, Democratic Delusions: The Initiative Process in America (UP of Kansas, 2002)

David Broder, Democracy Derailed: Initiative Campaigns and the Power of Money (Harvest Books, 2001)

David D. Schmidt , Citizen Lawmakers: The Ballot Initiative Revolution (Temple UP, 1989)


Charles Tilly, Social Movements, 1768–2004 (Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers, 2004)

Sidney Tarrow, Power in Movement: Collective Action, Social Movements and Politics (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994)

David S. Meyer and Suzanne Staggenborg, “Movements, Countermovements, and the Structure of Political Opportunity,” American Journal of Sociology 101: 6 (May 1996)


Brian Balogh, The Associational State: American Governance in the Twentieth Century (U of  Pennsylvania Press, 2015)

John P. Heinz, Edward O. Laumann, Robert L. Nelson, and Robert H. Salisbury, The Hollow Core: Private Interests in National Policy Making (Harvard UP, 1993)

Richard Harris and Daniel Tichenor, “Organized Interests and American Political Development,” Political Science Quarterly, 117:4 (Winter 2002-2003): 587-612

Frank R. Baumgartner, Jeffrey M. Berry, Marie Hojnacki, David C. Kimball, and Beth L. Leech, Lobbying and Policy Change: Who Wins, Who Loses, and Why (U of Chicago Press, 2009)

Frank R. Baumgartner and Beth L. Leech, Basic Interests: The Importance of Groups in Politics and in Political Science (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998).

Jack L. Walker, Mobilizing Interest Groups in America (U of Michigan Press, 1991)

Mark Petracca, The Politics of Interests: Interest Groups Transformed (Westbview, 1992).

Martin J. Smith, Pressures, Power and Policy: Policy Networks and State Autonomy in Britain and the United States (U of Pittsburgh, 1994)

Kay Lehman Schlozman and John T. Tierney, Organized Interests and American Society (Harper and Row, 1985)

Gene M. Grossman and Elhanan Helpman, Special Interest Politics (MIT Press, 2002)

Gerald Gamm and Robert D. Putnam, "The Growth of Voluntary Assocaitions in America, 1840-1940," Journal of Interdisciplinary History 29:4 (1999): 511-557

Elisabeth Clemens, The People’s Lobby: Organizational Innovation and the Rise of Interest Group Politics in the United States, 1890-1925 (U of Chicago Press, 1997)

Elizabeth Sanders, Roots of Reform: Farmers, Workers, and the American State, 1877-1917 (U of Chicago Press, 1998)

Theda Skocpol, Diminished Democracy: From Membership to Management in American Civic Life (U of Oklahoma Press, 2003).

 Lucy G. Barber, Marching on Washington: The Forging of an American Political Tradition (University of California Press, 2002).

Andrew McFarland, ""Interest Groups and Political Time," British Journal of Political Science 21 (1991): 257-284.

Jeffrey Berry, The Interest Group Society, 3rd. ed. (Longman, 1997)

Arthur F. Bentley, The Process of Government (1908; Belknap, 1967)

U.S. Senate, Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary, Hearings on Maintenance of a Lobby to Influence Legislation, 63 Cong. 1 sess., (Washington: GPO, 1913)

Mary Parker Follett, The New State (1918)

E. Pendleton Herring, Group Representation Before Congress (Johns Hopkins, 1929)

David B. Truman, The Governmental Process (Knopf, 1951)

Earl Latham, The Group Basis of Politics (Cornell UP, 1952).

E.E. Schattschneider, The Semi-Sovereign People (Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1960)

Charles E. Lindblom, The Intelligence of Democracy (Free Press, 1963)

Grant McConnell, Private Power and American Democracy (Alfred Knopf, 1966).

James Q. Wilson, Political Organizations (Basic, 1973)

Hugh Heclo, "Issue Networks and the Executive Establishment," in Anthony King, ed., The New American Political System (Washington: American Enterprise Institute, 1978), pp. 87-124

Henry S. Kariel, "Pluralism," in International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (Macmillan, 1968)

Robert H. Salisbury, "Why No Corporatism in America?" in Philippe C. Schmitter and Gerhard Lembruch, eds., Trends Toward Corporatist Intermediation (Sage, 1979).

Robert H. Salisbury, "Interest Representation: The Dominance of Institutions," APSR 78:1 (March, 1984) 64-76.

Jerry Israel, Building the Organizational Society: Essays on Associational Activities in Modern America (Free Press, 1972).

Donald H. Haider, When Governments Come to Washington: Governors, Mayors, and Intergovernmental Lobbying (Free Press, 1974)

Gary Mucciaroni, Reversals of Fortune: Public Policy and Private Interests (Brookings, 1994)

Kim McQuaid, Uneasy Partners: Big Business in American Politics, 1945-1990 (Johns Hopkins, 1994)

Melvyn Dubofsky, The State and Labor in Modern America (U of North Carolina, 1994)

Julie Greene, Pure and Simple Politics: The American Federation of Labor and Political Activism, 1881-1917 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998)

Political Corruption, Machines, Patronage

Peter DeLeon, Thinking About Corruption (M.E. Sharpe, 1993).

Susan Rose-Ackerman, Corruption: A study in political economy (NY: Academic Press, 1978).

Zephyr Teachout, Corruption in America: From Benjamin Franklin’s Snuff Box to Citizens United (Harvard UP, 2014)

Suzanne Garment, Scandal: The Culture of Mistrust in American Government (Random House, 1991)

Frank Anechiarico and James B. Jacobs, The Pursuit of Absolute Integrity: How Corruption Control Makes Government Ineffective (U of Chicago Press, 1996)

James C. Scott, "Corruption, Machine Politics, and Political Change," APSR 63 (1969): 1142-58.

Kathleen Kemp, "Accidents, Scandals, and Political Support for Regulatory Agencies," Journal of Politics 46:2 (1984): 401-427

Abraham S. Eisenstadt, ed. Before Watergate: Problems of Corruption in American Society (Brooklyn College Press, 1978)

Richard R. John, Spreading The News:  The American Postal System From Franklin To Morse (Cambridge:  Harvard University Press, 1995)

Mark W. Summers, The Plundering Generation: Corruption and The Crisis Of The Union, 1849-1861 (Oxford UP, 1987) and The Era of Good Stealings (Oxford UP, 1992)

Margaret Susan Thompson, The "Spider Web: Congress and Lobbying in the Age of Grant (Cornell UP, 1985).

Richard White, "Information, Markets, and Corruption: Transcontinental Railroads in the Gilded Age," Journal of American History 90:1 (June 2003): 19-43.Beth A. Rosenson, The Shadowlands of Conduct: Ethics and State Politics (Georgetown UP, 2005)

Alan Lessoff, The Nation and its City: Politics, "Corruption," and Progress in Washington, D.C., 1861-1902 (Johns Hopkins, 1994)

Martin Shefter, "Party and Patronage: Germany, Italy, and England," Politics and Society 7 (1977), 404-451.

Lyle W. Dorsett, Franklin D. Roosevelt and the City Bosses (Kennikat Press, 1977)

Stephen P. Erie, Rainbow's End: Irish Americans and the Dilemmas of Urban Machine Politics, 1840-1945 (University of California Press, 1988)

Kenneth D. Ackerman, Boss Tweed: The Rise and Fall of the Corrupt Pol Who Conceived the Soul of Modern New York (Carrol & Graf, 2005)

Roger Biles, Big City Boss in Depression and War: Mayor Edward J. Kelly of Chicago (Northern Illinois University Press, 1984).

Campaign Finance

Anthony Gierzynski, Money Rules: Financing Elections in America (Westview Press, 2000)

 Richard L. McCormick, "The Discovery that Business Corrupts Politics: A Reappraisal of the Origins of Progressivism," American Historical Review 86: (1981) 247-274.

Charles Francis Adams, Jr., and Henry Adams, Chapters of Erie and other Essays (Boston, 1871)

George W. Berge, The Free Pass Bribery System (Lincoln, NB, 1905).

Paul S. Reinisch, American Legislators and Legislative Methods (NY, 1907).

James K. Pollock, Jr., Party Campaign Funds (Alfred Knopf, 1926)

Earl K. Sikes, State and Federal Corrupt-Practices Legislation (Duke UP,1928)

Louise Overacker, Money in Elections (Macmillan: 1932)

Michael J. Webber, New Deal Fat Cats: Business, Labor, and Campaign Finance in the 1936 Presidential Election (Fordham UP, 2000)

Jasper Shannon, Money in Politics (Random House, 1959)

Alexander Heard, The Costs of Democracy (U of North Carolina Press, 1960) - (see bibliography)

Arnold Heidenheimer, ed., Comparative Political Finance: The Financing of Party Organizations and Election Campaigns (D.C. Heath, 1970)

Herbert Alexander, Money in Politics (Public Affairs, 1972)

 Frank Sorauf, Money in American Elections (Scott, Foresman / Little, Brown, 1988) and Inside Campaign Finance: Myths and Realities (Yale, 1992)

Clifford W. Brown, Lynda W. Powell, and Clyde Wilcox, Serious Money: Fundraising and Contributions in Presidential Nonination Campaigns (Cambridge, 1995)

Robert E. Mutch, Buying the Vote:  A History of Campaign Finance Reform (Oxford UP, 2014)

Robert C. Post, Citizens Divided:  Campaign Finance Reform and the Constitution (Harvard UP, 2014)

Public Opinion

William G. Mayer, The Changing American Mind: How and Why American Public Opinion Changed between 1960 and 1988 (Michigan, 1992).

Susan Herbst, Numbered Voices: How Opinion Polling Has Shaped American Politics (Chicago, 1993)

Jean M. Converse, Survey Research in the United States: Roots and Emergence, 1890-1960 (1987)

Michael J. Korzi, "Lapsed Memory? The Roots of American Public Opinion Research," Polity 33:1 (Fall 2000)

Richard Jensen, "American Election Analysis: A Case History of Methodological Innovation and Diffusion," in S.M. Lipset, ed., Politics and the Social Sciences (1969), 226-243.

Claude E. Robinson, Straw Votes (1932)

Robert S. Erikson, Gerald C. Wright, and John P. McIver, Statehouse Democracy: Public Opinion and Policy in the American States (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994).

Political Culture and Ideology

Rogers Smith, Civic Ideals: Conflicting Visions of Citizenship in U.S. History (Yale UP, 1997) and "Beyond Tocqueville, Myrdal, and Hartz: The Multiple Traditions in America," APSR 87:3 (1993), 549-566.

James Morone, Hellfire Nation: The Politics of Sin in American History  (Yale UP, 2003)

Dennis J. Coyle and Richard J. Ellis, eds., Politics, Policy, and Culture (Westview, 1994)

Warren Susman, Culture as History (Pantheon 1985)

Louis Hartz, The Liberal Tradition in America (Harcourt, Brace, 1955)

David A. Hollinger and Charles Capper, eds., The American Intellectual Tradition: A Sourcebook, 2 vols., 3rd ed. (Oxford UP, 1997).

Robert H. Wiebe, Self-Rule: A Cultural History of American Democracy (Chicago, 1995)

Andrew Robertson; The Language of Democracy: Political Rhetoric in the United States and Britain, 1790-1900 (Cornell, 1995)

John P. Diggins, The Promise of Pragmatism (U of Chicago, 1994)

Seymour Martin Lipset, The First New Nation: The United States in Historical Perspective (Basic Books, 1963)

Werner Sombart, Why is There No Socialism in the United States? (ME Sharpe, 1976)

Seymour Martin Lipset, Continental Divide: The Values and Institutions of the United States and Canada (NY: Routledge, 1990).

Robert Kelley, "Ideology and Political Culture From Jefferson to Nixon, The American Historical Review 82:3 (June, 1987), 531-562.

Carol Nackenoff, The Fictional Republic: Horatio Alger and American Political Discourse (Oxford, 1994)

James T. Kloppenberg, Uncertain Victory: Social Democracy and Progressivism in European and American Thought, 1870-1920 (Oxford UP, 1986)

 Michael Kammen, People of Paradox: An Inquiry Concerning the Origins of American Civilization (Knopf, 1972)

Richard M.Coughlin, Ideology, Public Opinion, and Welfare Policy: Attitudes Towards Taxing and Spending in Industrialized Societies (University of California, 1980).

Margaret S. Archer, Culture and Agency: The Place of Culture in Social Theory (Cambridge University Press, 1988).

Gary M. Klass, "Explaining America and the Welfare State: An Alternative Theory," British Journal of Political Science 15:4 (October, 1985), 427-450

Anthony King, "Ideas, Institutions, and the Policies of Governments: A Comparative Analysis" British Journal of Political Science 3:3-4 (June and October, 1973), 291-313, 409-423.

Daniel J. Elazar, The American Mosaic: The Impact of Space, Time, and Culture on American Politics (Westview, 1993)

J. Richard Piper, Ideologies and Institutions: American Consevative and Liberal Governance Prescriptions since 1933 (Rowman and Littlefield, 1997).

The South

Susanna Delfino, Michele Gillespie, and Louis M. Kyriadoudes, eds., Southern Society and Its Transformations, 1790-1860 (U of Missouri Press, 2011)

David M. Potter, The South and the Sectional Conflict (Louisiana State UP, 1968)

Avery O. Craven, The Growth of Southern Nationalism, 1848-1861 (Louisiana State UP, 1953)

Drew Gilpin Faust, The Creation of Confederate Nationalism (LSU Press, 1988)

Peter Kolchin, A Sphinx on the American Land: The Nineteenth-Century South in Comparative Perspective (Baton Rouge, LA:  Louisiana State University Press, 2003)

C. Vann Woodward, The Origins of the New South, 1877-1912 (LSU Press, 1951)

V.O. Key, Southern Politics: In State and Nation (Knopf, 1949)

Nicol C. Rae, Southern Democrats (Oxford UP, 1994)

Michael Perman, Pursuit of Unity: A Political History of the American South (U of North Carolina Press, 2010)

Charles W. Eagles, ed., Is There a Southern Political Tradition? Essays and Commentaries (UP of Mississippi, 1996).

John B. Boles and Evelyn Tyhomas Nolan, eds., Interpreting Southern History: Historiographical Essays in Honor of Sanford W. Higginbotham

Natalie J. Ring,  The Problem South: Region, Empire, and the New Liberal State, 1880-1930  (U of Georgia Press, 2012).

Roger Biles, The South and the New Deal (U of Kentucky Press, 1994)

Sean Farhang and Ira Katznelson, “The Southern Imposition: Congress and Labor in the New Deal and Fair Deal,” Studies in American Political Development 19 (Spring 2005), 1–30

Ira Katznelson, Kim Geiger and Daniel Kryder, "Limiting Liberalism: The Southern Veto in Congress: 1933-1950," Political Science Quarterly (1993): 108: 283-306.

Kari Frederickson, The Dixiecrat Revolt and the End of the Solid South, 1932–1968 (U of North Carolina Press, 2001)

Gavin Wright, Old South, New South (Basic Books, 1986)

Matthew D. Lassiter and Joseph Crespino, eds., The Myth of Southern Exceptionalism, (Oxford UP, 2009)

George B. Tindall, The Emergence of the New South, 1913-1945

James Alex Baggett. The Scalawags: Southern Dissenters in the Civil War and Reconstruction (Louisiana State UP, 2003).

Stephen Kantrowitz, Ben Tillman and the Reconstruction of White Supremacy (U of North Carolina Press, 2000)

James C. Cobb, Industrialization and Southern Society, 1877-1984 (UP of Kentucky, 1984)

Christopher J. Manganiello, Southern Water, Southern Power: How the Politics of Cheap Energy and Water Scarcity Shaped a Region (U of North Carolina Press, 2015)

Micahel O'Brien, The Idea of the American South, 1920-1941 (Johns Hopkins, 1979)

Karen L. Cox, Dreaming of Dixie: How the South Was Created in American Popular Culture (U of North Carolina Press, 2011) 

Eugene J. Genovese, The Southern Tradition: The Achievement and Limitations of Southern Conservatism (Cambridge UP, 1994)

Ronald D. Ellers, Miners, Millhands, and Mountaineers: Industrialization of the Appalachian South, 1880-1930 (U of Tennessee Press, 1982)

Bruce J. Schulman, From Cotton Belt to Sunbelt: Federal Policy, Economic Development, & the Transformation of the South, 1938-1980 (Duke UP, 1995).

Susanna Delfino and Michele Gillespie, eds., Global Perspectives on Industrial Transformation in the American South (U of Missouri Press, 2005)

Joseph E. Lowndes, From the New Deal to the New Right: Race and the Southern Origins of Modern Conservatism (Yale UP, 2008)

Robert Mickey, Paths Out of Dixie: The Democratization of Authoritarian Enclaves in America's Deep South, 1944-1972 (Princeton UP, 2015)

Tami J. Friedman, “Exploiting the North-South Differential: Corporate Power, Southern Politics, and the Decline of Organized Labor after World War II,” Journal of American History, 95 (Sept. 2008), 323–348


Kevin Phillips, The Emerging Republican Majority (Arlington House, 1969)

Jane Dailey, Glenda Elizabeth Gilmore, and Bryant Simon, eds., Jumpin’ Jim Crow: Southern Politics from Civil War to Civil Rights (Princeton UP, 2000)

Dan T. Carter, The Politics of Rage: George Wallace, The Origins of the New Conservatism, and the Transformation of Southern Politics (Simon & Schuster; 1995)

Earl Black and Merle Black, Politics and Society in the South (Harvard UP, 1987)

Byron E. Shafer and Richard Johnston, The End of Southern Exceptionalism: Class, Race, and Partisan Change in the Postwar South (Harvard UP, 2006)

Jack Bass, The Transformation of Southern Politics: Social Change and Political Consequence since 1945 (U of Georgia Press, 1995)

Kevin M. Kruse, White Flight: Atlanta and the Making of Modern Conservatism (Princeton UP, 2005)

Chandler Davidson, and Bernard Grofman, Quiet Revolution in the South: The Impact of the Voting Rights Act, 1965-1990 (Princeton UP, 1994)

Mark D. Brewer and Jeffrey M. Stonecash, "Class, race issues, and declining white support for the Democratic Party in the South." Political Behavior 23:2 (2001): 131-155

Charles S. Bullock III and Mark J. Rozell, eds. The New Politics of the Old South: An Introduction to Southern Politics (5th ed. 2013)

Alexander P. Lamis, The Two-Party South (Oxford UP, 1990)

Alexander P. Lamis, ed., Southern Politics in the1990s (Louisiana State University Press, 1999)

Richard K. Scher, Politics in the New South: Republicanism, Race, and Leadership in the Twentieth Century, 2nd ed. (M.E. Sharpe, 1996)

Gareth Davies, "Richard Nixon and the Desegregation of Southern Schools" Journal of Policy History 19 (2007): 367-394

Joseph Crespino, In Search of Another Country: Mississippi and the Conservative Counterrevolution (Princeton UP, 2007)

Kevin M. Kruse, White Flight: Atlanta and the Making of Modern Conservatism (Princeton UP, 2005)

Matthew D. Lassiter, The Silent Majority: Suburban Politics in the Sunbelt South (Princeton UP, 2006)

Nicholas A. Valentino and David O. Sears, “Old Times There Are Not Forgotten: Race and Partisan Realignment in the Contemporary South,” American Journal of Political Science, 49:3 (July 2005): 672-688


Religion  (thanks to Tom Boehm for help in assembling this section)

Links to / University of Colorado - Colorado Springs Religion sites / The Association of Religion Data Archives

Sydney E. Ahlstrom, A Religious History of the American People, 2nd ed (Yale UP, 2004)

James A. Morone, Hellfire Nation: The Politics of Sin in American History (Yale UP, 2003) 

William G. McLoughlin, Revivals, Awakenings, and Reform (U of Chicago Press, 1978)

Mark A. Noll and Luke E. Harlow, Religion and American Politics: From the Colonial Period to the Present (Oxford UP, 2007)

Robert Booth Fowler, Allen D. Hertzke, Laura R. Olson, and Kevin R. den Dulk, Religion and Politics in America: Faith, Culture, and Strategic Choices 4th ed. (Westview Press, 2010)

Kenneth D. Wald and Allison Calhoun-Brown, Religion and Politics in the United States, 7th ed. (Rowman and Littlefield, 2014).

A. James Reichley, Religion in American Public Life (Brookings, 1985) and "Religion and the Future of American Politics." Political Science Quarterly 101:, 1986: 23-47

David C. Leege and Lyman A. Kellstedt, eds., Rediscovering the Religious Factor in American Politics (M.E. Sharpe, 1993)

John F. Witte and M. Christian Green, eds., Religion and Human Rights: An Introduction (Oxford UP, 2011)

John T. Noonan, Jr., The Lustre of Our Country: The American Experience of Religious Freedom (U of California Press, 2000)


Perry Miller, Errand into the Wilderness (Belknap Press, 1956) Perry Miller, Orthodoxy In Massachusetts 1630-1950 (Harvard UP, 1933)

Thomas S. Kidd, The Great Awakening: The Roots of Evangelical Christianity in Colonial America (Yale UP, 2007)

William McLoughlin, Revivals, Awakenings and Reform: An Essay on Religious and Social Change in America, 1607-1977 (U of Chicago Press, 1978)

George M. Marsden, Jonathan Edwards: A Life. (Yale UP, 2003) Frank Lambert, Inventing the “Great Awakening”(Princeton UP, 1999).

Edmund S. Morgan, The Puritan Dilemma: The Story of John Winthrop (Longman, 2006) and Roger Williams: The Church and the State (W. W. Norton, 2007)

Catherine A. Brekus, Strangers and Pilgrims: Female Preaching in America, 1740-1845 (U of North Carolina Press, 1998)

Paul Rasor and Richard E. Bond, eds., From Jamestown to Jefferson: The Evolution of Religious Freedom in Virginia (U of Virginia Press, 2011)


John W. Compton, The Evangelical Origins of the Living Constitution (Cambridge UP, 2014)

Frank Lambert, The Founding Fathers and the Place of Religion in America (Princton UP, 2003)

Louis Fisher, Religious Liberty in America: Political Safeguards (University Press of Kansas, 2002)

Perez Zagorin, How the Idea of Religious Toleration came to the West (Princeton UP, 2003)

Ray A. Billington, The Protestant Crusade, 1800–1860: A Study of the Origins of American Nativism (Macmillan, 1938)

John T. McGreevey, Catholicism and American Freedom: A History (W. W. Norton, 2003)

Sarah Barringer Gordon, The Mormon Question: Polygamy and Constitutional Conflict in Nineteenth Century America. (U of North Carolina Press, 2001)


Lydia Bean, The Politics of Evangelical Identity: Local Churches and Partisan Divides in the United States and Canada (Princeton UP 2014)

Daniel K. Williams, God’s Own Party: The Making of the Christian Right (Oxford UP, 2010) and  “Jerry Falwell’s Sunbelt Politics: The Regional Origins of the Moral Majority,” Journal of Policy History, 22 (Summer 2010), 125–147

 Darren Dochuk, From Bible Belt to Sunbelt: Plain-Folk Religion, Grassroots Politics, and the Rise of Evangelical Conservatism (WW Norton, 2011)

George M. Marsden, Fundamentalism and American Culture: The Shaping of Twentieth-Century Evangelicalism, 1870–1925, 2nd ed.(Oxford UP, 2006)

William Martin, With God on Our Side: The Rise of the Religious Right in America (New York, 1996)

Anne C. Loveland, American Evangelicals and the U.S. Military, 1942–1993 (LSU Press, 1996)

Kenneth J. Heineman, God Is a Conservative: Religion, Politics, and Morality in Contemporary America (NYU Press, 1998)

Steven P. Miller, Billy Graham and the Rise of the Republican South (U of Pennsylvania Press, 2009)

Bruce Ledewitz, American Religious Democracy: Coming to Terms with the End of Secular Politics (Praeger, 2007)

Jon Butler, “Jack-in-the-Box Faith: The Religion Problem in Modern American History,” Journal of American History 90:4 (March, 2004): 1357-1379

Donald C. Swift, Religion and the American Experience (M.E. Sharpe, 1998)

Nathan O. Hatch, The Democratization of American Christianity (Yale UP, 1989)

Richard J. Carwardine, Evangelicals and Politics in Antebellum America (U of Tennessee Press, 1997)

Mark Y. Hanley, Beyond a Christian Commonwealth: The Protestant Quarrel with the American Republic, 1830-1860 (U of North Carolina Press, 1994).

Ray Allen Billington, The Protestant Crusade, 1800-1860: A Study of the Origins of American Nativism (Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1938).

Oran P. Smith, The Rise of Baptist Republicanism (NYU Press, 1997)

John C. Green, Mark J. Rozell, and W. Clyde Wilcox, eds. The Christian Right in American Politics: Marching to the Millennium (Georgetown UP, 2003)

Joseph A. Varacalli, Bright Promise, Failed Community: Catholics and the American Public Order (Lexington Books, 2000)

Jonathan D. Sarna, American Judaism: A History (Yale UP, 2004)

William Bassett, Religious Organizations And The Law (Deerfield, IL: Clark Boardman Callaghan, 1997)

Beatty, Kathleen Murphy and Oliver Walter. 1989. "A Group Theory of Religion and Politics: The Clergy as Group Leaders." Western Political Quarterly 42 (March):129-146.

Robert N. Bellah, "Civil Religion in America." Daedalus, 1967.

_____. 1970. Beyond Belief: Essays on Religion in a Post-Traditional World. New York: Harper and Row.

Gaines M. Foster, Moral Reconstruction: Christian Lobbyists and the Federal Legislation of Morality, 1865-1920 (U of North Carolina Press, 2002).

Peter L. Benson and Dorothy L. Williams Religion on Capitol Hill: Myths and Realities (Harper & Row, 1982).

Loren P. Beth, The American Theory of Church and State (University of Florida Press, 1958).

Findlay, James F. Jr. 1990. "Religion and Politics in the Sixties: The Churches and the Civil Rights Act of 1964." Journal of American History (June): 66-92.

_____. 1993. Church People in the Struggle: The National Council of Churches and the Black Freedom Movement, 1950-1970. New York: Oxford University Press.

Symposium on Church Attendance in America, American Sociological Review 63:1 (February, 1998)

James T. Johnson, ed. The Bible in American Law, Politics, and Political Rhetoric (Philadelphia: Fortress Press)

Gail Gehrig, American Civil Religion: An Assessment. (Romeoville, IL: Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1979).

Gilbert, Christopher P. 1993. The Impact of Churches on Political Behavior: An Empirical Study. Westport, CN: Greenwood Press.

Green, John C. 1993. "Pat Robertson and the Latest Crusade: Religious Resources and the 1988 Presidential Campaign." Social Science Quarterly 74(March):157-168.

Green, John C. and James L. Guth. "The Christian Right in the Republican Party: The Case of Pat Robertson's Supporters." The Journal of Politics 50: 150-165.

Green, John C., James L. Guth, and Kevin Hill. 1993. "Faith and Election: The Christian Right in Congressional Campaigns 1978-1988." The Journal of Politics 55(February):80-91.

Greenawalt, Kent. 1995. Private Consciences and Public Reasons. New York: Oxford University Press.

Guth, James L. and John C. Green. 1990. "Politics in New Key: Religiosity and Participation Among Political Activists." Western Political Quarterly 43(March): 153-79.

_____. 1993. "Salience: The Core Concept?" In Rediscovering the Religious Factor in American Politics, David C. Leege and Lyman A. Kellstedt, eds. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe

Guth, James L., John C. Green, Lyman A. Kellstedt, and Corwin E. Smidt. 1995. "Faith and the Environment: Religious Beliefs and Attitudes on Environmental Policy." American Journal of Political Science 39(2): 364-82.

Hertzke, Allen D. 1988a. "American Religion and Politics: A Review Essay." Western Political Quarterly 41(December): 825-38.

_____. 1988b. Representing God in Washington: The Role of Religious Lobbies in the American Polity. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Hofrenning, Daniel J.B. 1995a. In Washington But Not Of It: The Prophetic Politics of Religious Lobbyists. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

_____. 1995b. "Into the Public Square: Explaining the Origins of Religious Interest Groups." The Social Science Journal 32(1): 35-48.

Huckfeldt, Robert, Eric Plutzer, and John Sprague. 1993. "Alternative Contexts of Political Behavior: Churches, Neighborhoods, and Individuals." The Journal of Politics 55(May):365-81.

Hutcheson, Richard G. 1988. God in the White House: How Religion Has Changed the Modern Presidency. New York: MacMillan.

 Ted G. Jelen, ed., Religion and Political Behavior in the United States (Praeger, 1989).

Ted G. Jelen,  "The Political Consequences of Religious Group Attitudes," The Journal of Politics 55(May, 1993): 178-90.

Jelen, Ted G., Corwin E. Smidt, and Clyde Wilcox. 1993. "The Political Effects of the Born-Again Phenomenon." In Rediscovering the Religious Factor in American Politics, David C. Leege and Lyman A. Kellstedt, eds. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe

Jelen, Ted G. and Clyde Wilcox. 1992. "The Effects of Religious Self-Identification on Support for the New Christian Right: An Analysis of Political Activists." The Social Science Journal 29(2): 199-210.

Kellstedt, Lyman A. and John C. Green. 1993. "Knowing God's Many People: Denominational Preference and Political Behavior." In Rediscovering the Religious Factor in American Politics, David C. Leege and Lyman A. Kellstedt, eds. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe

Kellstedt, Lyman A. and Corwin E. Smidt. 1993. "Doctrinal Beliefs and Political Behavior: Views of the Bible." In Rediscovering the Religious Factor in American Politics, David C. Leege and Lyman A. Kellstedt, eds. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe

Kessler, Sanford. "Tocqueville's Puritans: Christianity and the American Founding." The Journal of Politics 54(August): 776-92.

Layman, Geoffrey C. 1996. "The 'Culture Wars' in the States: Religious Polarization Among State Party Elites and State Electorates." Unpublished paper presented at the Midwest Political Science Association Meetings, Chicago.

Leege, David C. 1993. "Religion and Politics in Theoretical Perspective." In Rediscovering the Religious Factor in American Politics, David C. Leege and Lyman A. Kellstedt, eds. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe

Lienesch, Michael. 1983. "The Role of Political Millennialism in Early American Nationalism." Western Political Quarterly 36(September): 445-65.

Neuhaus, Richard John. 1984. The Naked Public Square: Religion and Democracy in America. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans.

O'Connor, Robert E. and Michael B. Berkman. 1995. "Religious Determinants of State Abortion Policy." Social Science Quarterly 76(June): 447-59.

Odegard, Peter H. 1928. Pressure Politics: The Story of the Anti-Saloon League. Columbia University Press. New York: Octagon Books, 1966.

Pierard, Richard V. and Robert D. Linder. 1988. Civil Religion and the Presidency. Grand Rapids, MI: Academie.

Rozell, Mark J. and Clyde Wilcox, eds. 1995. God at the Grass Roots: The Christian Right in the 1994 Elections. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Smidt, Corwin. 1988. "Evangelicals Within Contemporary American Politics: Differentiating Between Fundamentalist and Non-Fundamentalist Evangelicals." Western Political Quarterly 41(September): 601-20.

Stokes, Anson Phelps and Leo Pfeffer. 1964. Church and State in the United States. Revised one volume ed. New York: Harper and Row.

Usher, Douglas. 1996. "Republican Rules and Religious Right Takeovers: A Study of Convention Delegate Selection Rules and Outcomes, 1984-1992." Unpublished paper presented at the Midwest Political Science Association Meetings, Chicago.

Wald, Kenneth D., Lyman A. Kellstedt, and David C. Leege. 1993. "Church Involvement and Political Behavior." In Rediscovering the Religious Factor in American Politics, David C. Leege and Lyman A. Kellstedt, eds. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe

Wald, Kenneth D., Dennis E. Owen, and Samuel S. Hill, Jr. 1988. "Churches as Political Communities." American Political Science Review 82(June): 531-548 and "Political Cohesion in Churches." The Journal of Politics 52(February 1990): 197-215.

Wald, Kenneth D., and Corwin E. Smidt. 1993. "Measurement Strategies in the Study of Religion and Politics." In Rediscovering the Religious Factor in American Politics, David C. Leege and Lyman A. Kellstedt, eds. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe

Welch, Michael R. and David C. Leege. 1991. "Dual Reference Groups and Political Orientations: An Examination of Evangelically Oriented Catholics." American Journal of Political Science 35(February): 28-56.

Wilcox, Clyde. 1986. "Fundamentalists and Politics: An Analysis of the Effects of Differing Operational Definitions." The Journal of Politics 48: 1041-51.

Wildavsky, Aaron. 1987. "Choosing Preferences by Constructing Institutions: A Cultural Theory of Preference Formation." APSR 81: 3-21.

Wilson, John F. 1979. Public Religion in American Culture. Philadelphia: Temple UP.


Links to University of Maryland's Women's Studies Database / Rutgers University Center for American Women and Politics / University of Binghamton's Women and Social Movements in the United States, 1820-1940 site / NARA Pathfinder for Women's History / University of Colorado - Colorado Springs American Women's History / History of American Women Suffrage Exhibit, National Museum of Women's History

Link to History of American Women Suffrage Exhibit, National Museum of Women's History

Helene Silverberg, ed., Gender and American Social Science: The Formative Years (Princeton UP, 1998).

Paula Baker, "The Domestication of Politics: Women and American Political Society, 1780-1920," American Historical Review 89 (1984): 620-64, and The Moral Frameworks of Public Life: Gender, Politics, and the State in Rural New York, 1870- 1930 (1991)

Linda K. Kerber, "Separate Spheres, Female Worlds, Woman's Place: The Rhetoric of Women's History." Journal of American History 75 (1988): 9-39 and No Constitutional Right to Be Ladies: Women and the Obligations of Citizenship (Hill and Wang, 1998)

Joan C. Scott, "Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis." American Historical Review 91 (1986): 1053-1075

Jeanne Boydston, "Gender as a Question of Historical Analysis." Gender and History 20 (2008): 558-83

Dorothy E. McBride and Amy G. Mazur, The Politics of State Feminism: Innovation in Comparative Research (Temple UP, 2010)

Louise Chappell and Lisa Hill, eds. The Politics of Women’s Interests: New Comparative Perspectives (2006)

Barbara J. Nelson and NajmaChowdhury, eds., Women and Politics Worldwide, eds. (Yale UP, 1994).

Nancy F. Cott, The Grounding of Modern Feminism (Yale UP, 1987).

Sidney Verba, Kay Schlozman, and Nancy Burns, The Private Roots of Public Action: Gender, Equality, and Political Participation (Harvard UP, 2001)

Jo Freeman, A Room at a Time: How Women Entered Party Politics (Rowman & Littlefield, 2000)

Gail Bederman, Manliness and Civilization: Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880-1917. (U of Chicago, 1996)

Louise A. Tilly and Patricia Gurin, eds., Women, Politics, and Change (Russell Sage, 1992)


Linda K. Kerber, Alice Kessler-Harris, and Kathryn Kish Sklar, U.S. History as Women's History: New Feminist Essays (North Carolina, 1995)

Gail Collins, America's Women: 400 Years of Dolls, Drudges, Helpmates and Heroines (William Morrow, 2003)

Eileen McDonagh, The Motherless State: Women's Leadership and American Democracy (U of Chicago Press, 2009) and "Gender Politics and Political Change,” in Lawrence Dodd and Calvin Jillson, eds.  New Perspectives on American Politics (CQ Press, 1994)

Sandra F. VanBurkleo, "Belonging to the World": Women's Rights and American Constitutional Culture (Oxford UP, 2001)

Virginia Sapiro, The Political Integration of Women: Roles, Socialization, and Politics (U of Illinois Press, 1983) and Women in American Society: An Introduction to Women's Studies, 5th ed  Mayfield, 2003)

Lee Ann Banaszak, The Women's Movement Inside and Outside the State (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge UP, 2009)

Lee Ann Banaszak, Karen Beckwith and Dieter Rucht, eds., Women’s Movements Facing the Reconfigured State, (Cambridge UP, 2003)

Lisa Baldez, Why Women Protest (Cambridge UP, 2002)

Hendrik Hartog, Man and Wife in America: A History. (Harvard UP, 2000)

Nancy Cott, Public Vows: A History of Marriage and the Nation. (Harvard UP, 2002)

Kristin Celello, Making Marriage Work: A History of Marriage and Divorce in the Twentieth Century United States  (U of North Carolina Press, 2008)


Mary Beth Norton, Founding Mothers and Fathers: Gendered Power and the Forming of American Society (Knopf, 1996)

Julia Cherry Spruill, Women’s Life and Work in the Southern Colonies (W. W. Norton, 1998)

Kathleen Brown, Good Wives, Nasty Wenches, and Anxious Patriarchs: Gender, Race, and Power in Colonial Virginia. (U of North Carolina Press, 1996)

Mary Beth Norton, Liberty's Daughters: The Revolutionary Experience of American Women, 1750-1800, (Little, Brown, 1980)

Harriet B. Applewhite and Darlene G. Levy, eds., Women and Politics in the Age of the Democratic Revolution (U of Michigan Press, 1990)

 Elizabeth Evans, Weathering the Storm: Women of the American Revolution (Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975)

Joan R. Gundersen, To Be Useful to the World: Women in Revolutionary America, 1740-1790 (Twayne, 1996)

Ann M. Little, Abraham in Arms: War and Gender in Colonial New England (U of Pennsylvania Press, 2007)

Susan Juster, Disorderly Women: Sexual Politics and Evangelism in Revolutionary New England (Cornell UP, 1994)

William Henry Egle, Pennsylvania Women in the American Revolution (Polyanthos, 1972)

Cynthia Kierner, Southern Women in Revolution, 1776-1800 (U of South Carolina Press, 1998)


Bruce Dorsey, Reforming Men and Women: Gender in the Antebellum City (Cornell UP, 2002)

Rosemarie Zagarri, Revolutionary Backlash: Women and Politics in the Early American Republic (U of Pennsylvania Press, 2007)

Catherine Allgor, Parlor Politics: In Which the Ladies of Washington Help Build a City and a Government (UP of Virginia, 2000)

Nancy Isenberg, Sex and Citizenship in Antebellum America (U of North Carolina Press, 1998)

Anne M. Boylan, The Origins of Women’s Activism: New York and Boston, 1797-1840 (University of North Carolina Press, 2002).

Linda Kerber, Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America (U of North Carolina Press, 1980)

Judith Wellman, The Road to Seneca Falls: Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the First Woman's Rights Convention (U of Illinois Press, 2004)

Michael Grossberg, Governing the Hearth: Law and the Family in Nineteenth-Century America (U of North Carolina Press, 1985)

Lori D. Ginzberg, Women and the Work of Benevolence: Morality, Politics, and Class in the Nineteenth-Century United States (Yale UP, 1990)

Norma Basch, In the Eyes of the Law: Women, Marriage and Property in Nineteenth-Century New York (Cornell UP, 1982)

Michael D. Pierson, Free Hearts and Free Homes: Gender and American Antislavery Politics (U of North Carolina Press, 2003)

Julie Roy Jeffrey, The Great Silent Army of Abolition: Ordinary Women in the Antislavery Movement (U of North Carolina Press, 1998)

Glenda Elizabeth Gilmore,  Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896-1920 (U of North Carolina Press, 1996)

Leslie J. Regan, When Abortion Was a Crime: Women, Medicine, and Law in the United States, 1867-1973  (U of California Press, 1997)


Rebecca Edwards, Angels in the Machinery: Gender in American Party Politics from the Civil War to the Progressive Era (Oxford UP, 1997)

Theda Skocpol, Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Welfare Policy in the United States (Belknap Press, 1992)

Linda Gordon, Pitied but Not Entitled: Single Mothers and the History of Welfare (Free Press, 1994) and The Great Arizona Orphan Abduction (Harvard UP, 1999)

Linda K. Kerber, No Constitutional Right to be Ladies: Women and the Obligations of Citizenship (Hill & Wang, 1998).

Kathyrn Kish Sklar, Florence Kelley and the Nation's Work, 1830-1900 (Yale UP, 1995)

Florence Kelley in Chicago, Northwestern University

Annelise Orleck, Common Sense and a Little Fire: Women and Working-Class Politics in the United States, 1900-1965 (U of North Carolina Press, 1995)

Laura L. Lovett, Conceiving the Future: Pronatalism, Reproduction, and the Family in the United States, 1890-1938 (U of North Carolina Press, 2007)


Mari Jo Buhle and Paul Buhle, eds., The Concise History of Woman Suffrage (U of Illinois Press, 2005)

Michael Lewis Goldberg, An Army of Women: Gender and Politics in Gilded Age Kansas (Johns Hopkins UP, 2001)

Marjorie Spruill Wheeler, ed., One Woman, One Vote: Rediscovering the Woman Suffrage Movement (NewSage Press, 1995)

Lee Ann Banaszak, How Movements Succeed or Fail: Opportunity, Culture and the Struggle for Woman Suffrage (Princeton UP, 1996)

Suzanne M. Marilley, Woman Suffrage and the Origins of Liberal Feminism in the United States, 1820-1920 (Harvard, 1996)

Rebecca Mead, How the Vote Was Won: Woman Suffrage in the Western United States, 1868-1914 (New York UP, 2004)

Margaret Finnegan, Selling Suffrage: Consumer Culture and Votes for Women (Columbia UP, 1999)

Melanie Gustafson, Kristie Miller, and Elisabeth Israels Perry, We Have Come to Stay: American Women and Political Parties, 1880-1960 (U of New Mexico Press, 1999).

Sara Monoson, "The Lady and the Tiger: Women's Electoral Activism in New York City before Suffrage," Journal of Women's History (Fall, 1990): 100-135

Maureen A. Flanagan, "Gender and Urban Political Reform: The City Club and the Woman's City Club of Chicago in the Progressive Era," American Historical Review (October 1990): 1032-1050

Philip J. Ethington, "Recasting Urban Political History: Gender, the Public, the Household, and Political Participation in Boston and San Francisco during the Progressive Era,” Social Science History (Summer 1992): 301-33

Jean H. Baker, Votes for Women: The Struggle for Suffrage Revisited (Oxford University Press, 2002).

 Aileen Kraditor, The Ideas of the Woman Suffrage Movement, 1890-1920 (Norton, 1981)

 Beverly Beeton, Women Vote in the West: The Woman Suffrage Movement, 1869-1896 (Garland, 1986)

 Linda Ford, Iron-Jawed Angels: The Suffrage Militancy of the National Woman's Party, 1912-1920 (1991)

 Ellen C. DuBois, "Working Women, Class Relations, and Suffrage Militance: Harriot Stanton Blatch and the New York Woman Suffrage Movement, 1894-1909," Journal of American History (June 1987): 34-58

Allison L. Sneider, Suffragists in an Imperial Age: U.S. Expansion and the Woman Question, 1870-1929 (Oxford UP, 2008)


Susan E. Marshall, Splintered Sisterhood: Gender and Class in the Campaign against Woman Suffrage (Wisconsin, 1997)

Anne Firor Scott, The Southern Lady: From Pedestal to Politics 1830-1930 (U of Chicago Press, 1970)

Elisabeth I. Perry, Belle Moskowitz: Feminine Politics in the Age of Alfred E. Smith (most recent ed.: Northeastern UP, 2000)

Christine A. Lunardini, From Equal Suffrage to Equal Rights: Alice Paul and the National Woman's Party, 1910-1928 (New York University Press, 1986)

 Robyn Muncy, "Gender and Professionalization in the Origins of the U.S. Welfare State: The Careers of Sophonisba Breckenridge and Edith Abbott, 1890-1935," Journal of Policy History (1990): 290-315, and Creating a Female Dominion in American Reform, 1890-1935 (Oxford UP, 1991).


M. Margaret Conway, David Ahern, and Gertrude A. Steuernagel, Women and Political Participation (Congressional Quarterly, 1997).

Eleanor Flexnor, Century of Struggle: The Women’s Movement in the United States  (Belknap Press, 1966)

Ruth Rosen, The World Split Open: How the Modern Women's Movement Changed America. (Viking, 2000)

Kathleen C. Berkeley, The Women's Liberation Movement in America (Greenwood Press, 1999)

Catherine E. Rymph, Republican Women: Feminism and Conservatism from Suffrage through the Rise of the New Right (U of North Carolina Press, 2006)

Lois Lovelace Duke, ed. Women in Politics:  Outsiders or Insiders?  (Prentice-Hall, 1993)

Janet Martin, The Presidency and Women: Promise, Performance, and Illusion (Texas A&M UP, 2003)

Katherine H. Adams and Michael L. Keene, Alice Paul and the American Suffrage Campaign (U of Illinois Press, 2007).

Marjorie Spruill Wheeler, New Women of the New South: The Leaders of the Woman's Suffrage Movement in the Southern States (Oxford UP, 1993)

Anna L. Harvey, Votes Without Leverage: Women in American Electoral Politics,1920-1970 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998)

Lois Scharf and Joan Jensen, Decades of Discontent: The Women's Movement, 1920-1940 (Greenwood Press, 1983)

Sandra Baxter and Majorie Lansing,  Women and Politics: The Invisible Majority (U of Michigan Press, 1980)

R. Darcy, Susan Welch, and Janet Clark, Women, Elections, and Representation (U of Nebraska Press 1994)

Sue Thomas, How Women Legislate  (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994)

Cindy Simon Rosenthal, ed. Women Transforming Congress (U of Oklahoma Press, 2003)

Lois W. Banner, Women in America: A Brief History (Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1974)

Susan Gluck Mezey, Elusive Equality: Women’s Rights, Public Policy, and the Law (Lynne Rienner, 2003).

Susan Atkins and Brenda Hoggett, Women and the Law (Basil Blackwell, 1984)

Joni Lovenduski and Pippa Norris, Gender and Party Politics (Sage, 1993) [Comparative].

Anne Phillips, Engendering Democracy (Penn State, 1991)

Lois Lovelace Duke, ed. Women in Politics: Outsiders or Insiders? (Prentice-Hall, 1993)

Catherine E. Rymph, Republican Women: Feminism and Conservatism from Suffrage through the Rise of the New Right (U of North Carolina Press, 2006).

Laura F. Edwards, Gendered Strife and Confusion: The Political Culture of Reconstruction (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997).

Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, African-American Women in the Struggle for the Vote, 1850-1920 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998).

Linda J. Lumsden, Rampart Women: Suffragists and the Right of Assembly (U of Tennessee, 1997).

Christine Bolt, The Women's Movements in the United States and Britain from the 1790s to the 1920s (1993)

Susan Ware, Beyond Suffrage: Women in the New Deal (Harvard UP, 1981)

Susan D. Becker, The Origins of the Equal Rights Amendment: American Feminism Between the Wars (Greenwood, 1981)

Suzanne Mettler, Dividing Citizens: Gender and Federalism in New Deal Public Policy (Cornell UP, 1998).

Eileen Boris, Home to Work: Motherhood and the Politics of Industrial Homework in the Unites States (Cambridge, 1994)


Susan M. Hartmann, From Margin to Mainstream: American Women and Politics Since 1960 (Temple, 1989)

Flora Davis, Moving the Mountain: The Women's Movement in America since 1960 (U of Illinois Press, 1999)

Sara Evans, Tidal Wave: How Women Changed America at Century's End (Free Press, 2004)

Leila J. Rupp and Verta Taylor, Survival in the Doldrums: The American Women's Rights Movement, 1945 to the 1960s (Oxford, 1987).

Cynthia Harrison, On Account of Sex: The Politics of Women's Issues, 1945-1968 (U of California Press, 1988)

Jo Freeman, The Politics of Women's Liberation: A Case Study of the Emerging Social Movement and Its Relation to the Policy Process (David McKay, 1975)

Jane Mansbridge, Why We Lost the ERA (Chicago UP, 1985)

Janet K. Boles, The Politics of the Equal Rights Amendment: Conflict and the Decision Process (Longman, 1979).

Gilbert Y. Steiner, Constitutional Inequality: The Political Fortunes of the Equal Rights Amendment (Brookings, 1985)

Joan Hoff-Wilson, ed. Rights of Passage: The Past and Future of the ERA (Indiana UP 1986).

David C. Nice, “State Opposition to the Equal Rights Amendment: Protectionism, Subordination, or Privatization?” Social Science Quarterly, 67:2 (June 1986), 315-328.

Mark R. Daniels and Robert E. Darcy, “As Time Goes By: The Arrested Diffusion of the Equal Rights Amendment,” Publius 15:4 (Autumn 1985): 51-60.

Sarah A. Soule and Susan Olzak, “When Do Movements Matter? The Politics of Contingency and the Equal Rights Amendment.” American Sociological Review, 69:4 (August . 2004): 473-497

Donald T. Critchlow, Phyllis Schlafly and Grassroots Conservatism: A Woman's Crusade (Princeton UP, 2005)


Elizabeth Adell Cook, Sue Thomas, and Clyde Wilcox, The Year of the Woman: Myths and Realities (Westview, 1993).

Edward T. James, Janet Wilson James, and Paul S. Boyer, eds., Notable American Women: A Biographical Dictionary, 3 vols (Harvard UP, 1971)

Barbara Sicherman and Carol Hurd Green, eds., Notable American Women: The Modern Period (Harvard, 1980).

Darlene Clark Hine, Elsa Barkley Brown, and Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, eds., Black Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia (Carlson Publishing, 1993).

Eileen Lorenzi McDonagh, "Abortion Rights Alchemy and the U.S. Supreme Court: What's Wrong and How to Fix It," Social Politics 1:2 (Summer 1994): 130-156 and Breaking the Abortion Deadlock: From Choice to Consent (New York: Oxford University Press).

Leslie J. Reagan, When Abortion Was a Crime: Women, Medicine, and Law in the United States, 1867-1973. (U of California, 1997)

 J. Stanley Lemons, The Woman Citizen: Social Feminism in the 1920's (University of Illinois, 1973)

Carol Gilligan, In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory in Women's Development (Harvard, 1982).

Deborah Rhode, Justice and Gender: Sex Discrimination and the Law (Harvard, 1989).

Elizabeth Wolgast, Equality and the Rights of Women (Cornell, 1980).

David Niven, The Missing Majority: The Recruitment of Women as State Legislative Candidates (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1998).


Journals: Social Politics (journal) / Signs (journal)


Thomas A. Foster, ed. Long before Stonewall: Histories of Same-Sex Sexuality in Early America (New York UP, 2007)

Rachel Hope Cleves, Charity and Sylvia: A Same-Sex Marriage in Early America (Oxford UP, 2014)


University of Colorado - Colorado Springs links to African-American History

Clayton E. Cramer, Black Demographic Data, 1790-1860 (Greenwood Press, 1997)

John Thornton, Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400–1800 (Cambridge UP, 1998)

Michael A. Gomez, Exchanging Our Country Marks: The Transformation of African Identities in the Colonial and Antebellum South (U of North Carolina Press, 1998)

Rogers M. Smith, Civic Ideals: Conflicting Visions of Citizenship in U.S. History (Yale UP, 1999)

Desmond S. King and Rogers M. Smith, "Racial Orders in American Political Development" (with Desmond S. King), American Political Science Review 99 (2005), 75-92 .

Robert C. Lieberman, Shaping Race Policy: The United States in Comparative Perspective (Princeton UP, 2005) and Shifting the Color Line: Race and the American Welfare State ( Harvard University Press, 1998).

Richard M. Valelly, The Two Reconstructions: The Struggle for Black Enfranchisement (U of Chicago Press, 2004) and Richard M. Valelly, "Party, Coersion, and Inclusion: The Two Reconstructions of the South's Electoral Policies," Politics & Society 21:1 (March, 1993): 37-68.

Thomas Adams Upchurch, Legislating Racism: The Billion Dollar Congress and the Birth of Jim Crow (UP of Kentucky 2004)

Desmond King, Separate and Unequal: African Americans and the US Federal Government, rev. ed. (Oxford UP, 2007)

Eric Schickler, Racial Realignment: The Transformation of American Liberalism, 1932-1965 (Princeton UP, 2016)

Gary Gerstle, American Crucible: Race and Nation in the Twentieth Century (Princeton UP, 2001)

Edward G. Carmines and James A. Stimson, Issue Evolution: Race and the Transformation of American Politics (Princeton UP, 1989)

Michael Goldfield, The Color of Politics: Race and the Mainsprings of American Politics (New Press, 1997), and “The Color of Politics in the United States: White Supremacy as the Main Explanation for the Peculiarities of American Politics from Colonial Times to the Present,” in Dominic LaCapra, ed., The Bounds of Race: Perspectives of Hegemony and Resistance (Cornell UP, 1991): 104-133

Donald G. Nieman, Promises to Keep: African-Americans and the Constitutional Order, 1776 to the Present (Oxford UP, 1991).

Matthew Frye Jacobson, Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race (Harvard UP, 1998).

Joseph E. Luders, The Civil Rights Movement and the Logic of Social Change (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009)

Theodore Rueter, ed. The Politics of Race: African Americans and the Political System (M.E. Sharpe, 1995).

Hanes Walton, Jr., ed., Black Politics and Black Political Behavior (Praeger, 1994)


Harold Cruse, The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual From its Origins to the Present (Morrow; 1967)

Adolph Reed Jr., W.E.B. Du Bois and American Political Thought: Fabianism and the Color Line (Oxford UP, 1997).

Robert J. Norrell, Up From History: The Life of Booker T. Washington (Harvard UP, 2009)

W.E.B. DuBois, Black Reconstruction: An Essay Toward a History of the Part Which Black Folk Played in an Attempt to Reconstruct Democracy in America, 1860-1880 (Harcourt, Brace, 1935)

 Jerrold M. Packard, American Nightmare: The History of Jim Crow (St. Martin's, 2002)

Grace Elizabeth Hale, Making Whiteness: The Cultural Segregation in the South, 1890-1940 (Pantheon, 1998).

 Richard Rothstein, The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America (Liveright, 2017)

Gwendolyn Mink, Old Labor and New Immigrants in American Political Development (Cornell UP, 1986)

Nancy J. Weiss, Farewell to the Party of Lincoln: Black Politics in the Age of FDR (Princeton UP 1983)

Desmond King, Making Americans: Immigration, Race, and the Origins of Diverse Democracy (Harvard UP, 2000)

Nicholas Lemann, The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How it Changed America (Knopf, 1991)

Daniel Kryder, Divided Arsenal: Race and the American State During World War II  (Cambridge UP, 2000)

Steven F. Lawson, Running for Freedom: Civil Rights and Black Politics in America Since 1941  (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991)

Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, “The Long Civil Rights Movement and the Political Uses of the Past,” Journal of American History 91, no. 4 (2005), 1233-1263

Robert Shogan, Harry Truman and the Struggle for Racial Justice (UP of Kansas, 2013)

William C. Berman, The Politics of Civil Rights in the Truman Administration (Ohio State UP, 1970)

James Patterson and James T. Patterson and James T. T. Patterson, Freedom Is Not Enough: The Moynihan Report and America's Struggle over Black Family Life--from LBJ to Obama (Basic Books 2010)

Hugh Davis Graham, The Civil Right Era: Origins and Development of National Policy, 1960-1972 (Oxford, 1990)

Hugh Davis Graham, ed., "Special Issue: Civil Rights", Journal of Policy History 6:1 (1994)

Devin Fergus, Liberalism, Black Power, and the Making of American Politics, 1965-1980  (U of Georgia Press, 2009)

Cedric Johnson, Revolutionaries to Race Leaders: Black Power and the Making of African American Politics  (U of Minnesota Press, 2007)

David J. Garrow, Protest at Selma: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (Yale, 1978) and Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (Morrow, 1986)

Taeku Lee, Mobilizing Public Opinion: Black Insurgency and Racial Attitudes in the Civil Rights Era (U of Chicago Press, 2002).

Charles M. Payne, I've Got the Light of Freedom: The Organizing Tradition and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle (U of California Press, 1995).

David Lublin, The Paradox of Representation: Racial Gerrymandering and Minority Interests in Congress (Princeton UP, 1997)

Thomas F. Jackson, From Civil Rights to Human Rights: Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Struggle for Economic Justice (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006)


Dennis Deslippe, Protesting Affirmative Action: The Struggle Over Equality After the Civil Rights Revolution (Baltimore: Johnson Hopkins University Press, 2012)

Frank Dobbin, Inventing Equal Opportunity  (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009)

Peter Wallenstein, Race, Sex, and the Freedom to Marry: Loving v. Virginia (UP of Kansas, 2014)

J. Morgan Kousser, Colorblind Justice: Minority Voting Rights and the Undoing of the Second Reconstruction (U of North Carolina Press, 1999)


Desmond S. King & Rogers M. Smith; Still a House Divided Race and Politics in Obama’s America  (Princeton UP 2013)

Marisa Abrajano & Zoltan L. Hajnal, White Backlash Immigration, Race, and American Politics (Princeton UP 2015)



The Atlantic Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Americas: A Visual Record

David Eltis, Stephen D. Behrendt, David Richardson, and Herbert S. Kleine, eds., The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade: A Database on CD-ROM (Cambridge UP, 2000)

Philip D. Curtin, The African Slave Trade: A Census (U of Wisconsin Press, 1969)

Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade (Simon & Schuster, 1997)

Robert William Fogel, Without Consent or Contract: The Rise and Fall of American Slavery (Norton, 1989)

David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge UP, 1999)

David Eltis, Frank D. Lewis, and Kenneth L. Sokoloff, eds., Slavery in the Development of the Americas (Cambridge UP, 2004)

Ira Berlin, Many Thousands Gone: the First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America (Belknap / Harvard, 1998), and Generations of Captivity : a History of African-American Slaves (Belknap / Harvard, 2003)

Edward E. Baptist, The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism (Basic Books, 2014)


Slavery and the Ratification of the Constitution

Edmund S. Morgan, American Slavery/American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia (W. W. Norton, 1975)

Daniel C. Littlefield, Rice and Slaves: Ethnicity and the Slave Trade in Colonial South Carolina (LSU Press, 1981)

Alan Taylor, The Internal Enemy: Slavery and War in Virginia, 1772–1832 (WW Norton, 2013)

Charles S. Aiken, The Cotton Plantation South Since the Civil War (Johns Hopkins UP, 1998)

Peter H. Wood, Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina from 1670 through the Stono Rebellion (Knopf, 1975)

Daniel J. Tortora, Carolina in Crisis: Cherokees, Colonists, and Slaves in the American Southeast, 1756-1763  (U of North Carolina Press, 2015)

Gavin Wright, The Political Economy of the Cotton South: Households, Markets, and Wealth in the Nineteenth Century (Norton, 1978), Old South, New South: Revolutions in the Southern Economy since the Civil War (Basic Books, 1986), and Slavery and American Economic Development (Louisiana State UP, 2006)

Walter Johnson, River of Dark Dreams: Slavery and Empire in the Cotton Kingdom (Belknap, 2013)

Joshua D. Rothman, Flush Times and Fever Dreams: A Story of Capitalism and Slavery in the Age of Jackson (U of Georgia Press, 2012)

George William Van Cleve, A Slaveholders’ Union: Slavery, Politics, and the Constitution in the Early American Republic (U Chicago Press, 2010)

Eric Williams, Capitalism and Slavery (U of North Carolina Press, 1994)

Robert Fogel and Stanley Engerman, Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery (1974)

Eugene D. Genovese, The Political Economy of Slavery: Studies in the Economy and Society of the Slave South (Pantheon, 1961)

Robert William Fogel, Without Consent or Contract: The Rise and Fall of American Slavery (W.W. Norton, 1989).

Robert Pierce Forbes, The Missouri Compromise and Its Aftermath: Slavery and the Meaning of America (U of North Carolina Press, 2007).

Clayton E. Jewett and John O. Allen, Slavery in the South: A State-by-State History (Greenwood Press, 2004)

Stephanie M. H. Camp, Closer to Freedom: Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South (U of North Carolina Press, 2004)

Thomas Bender, ed., The Antislavery Debate Capitalism and Abolitionism as a Problem in Historical Interpretation (California, 1992)

Keith M. Stampp, The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South (Knopf, 1956)

Ernest Obadele-Starks, Freebooters and Smugglers: The Foreign Slave Trade in the United States after 1808 (U of Arkansas Press, 2007)

Stanley L. Engerman and Eugene Genovese, Race and Slavery in the Western Hemisphere: Quantitative Studies (Princeton UP, 1975).


Freedom Suits Case Files, 1814-1860, @ St. Louis Circuit Court Historical Records Project

David F. Ericson, Slavery in the American Republic: Developing the Federal Government, 1791–1861 (UP of Kansas, 2011)

Ira Berlin, The Long Emancipation: The Demise of Slavery in the United States (Harvard UP, 2015)

Matthew Mason, Slavery and Politics in the Early American Republic (U of North Carolina Press, 2006)

Mark V. Tushnet, Slave Law in the American South: State v. Mann in History and Literature (UP of Kansas, 2003)

Richard S. Newman, The Transformation of American Abolitionism: Fighting Slavery in the Early Republic (U of North Carolina Press, 2002)

Michael A. Gomez, Exchanging Our Country Marks: The Transformation of African Identities in the Colonial and Antebellum South (U of North Carolina Press, 1998)

Timothy Silver, A New Face on the Countryside: Indians, Colonists, and Slaves in South Atlantic Forests, 1500-1800 (Cambridge UP, 1990).

Edgar J. MacManus, Black Bondage in the North (Syracuse UP, 1973)

Gary B. Nash and Jean R. Soderlund, Freedom by Degrees: Emancipation in Pennsylvania and its Aftermath (Oxford University Press, 1991).

Theodore D. Weld, American Slavery As It Is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses (New York: American Anti-Slavery Society, 1839)

William J. Cooper, Jr. The South and the Politics of Slavery, 1828-1856 (LSU Press, 1978)

Bonnie Martin, ‘‘Slavery’s Invisible Engine: Mortgaging Human Property,’’ Journal of Southern History 76 (Nov. 2010), 817–866.

Thomas Bender, ed., The Antislavery Debate Capitalism and Abolitionism as a Problem in Historical Interpretation (California, 1992)

Stanley Harrold, Subversives: Antislavery Community in Washington, D.C., 1828-1865 (Louisiana State UP, 2003)

Julis Saville, The Work of Reconstruction: From Slave to Wage Laborer in South Carolina, 1860-1870 (Cambridge UP, 1994)

Leonard L. Richards, Who Freed the Slaves? The Fight over the Thirteenth Amendment (U of Chicago Press, 2015)


Juan González, Harvest of Empire: A History of Latinos in America (New York: Viking, 2000)

Marcelo Suarez-Orozco and Mariela Paez, Latinos: Remaking America (U of California Press, 2002)

David G. Gutiérrez, The Columbia History of Latinos in the United States since 1960 (Columbia UP, 2004)

Harry Pachon and Joan Moore Hispanics in the United States (Prentice-Hall, 1985)

John A. Garcia, Latino Politics in America: Community, Culture, and Interests, 2nd ed. (Rowman and Littlefield, 2011)

Rodolfo Espino, David L. Leal, and Kenneth J. Meier, Latino Politics: Identity, Mobilization, and Representation (U of Virginia Press 2008)

Lisa Garcia Bedolla, Latino Politics (Polity Press, 2009)

F. Chris García, Pursuing Power: Latinos and the Political System (U of Notre Dame Press, 1997)

Louis DeSipio, Counting on the Latino Vote: Latinos as a New Electorate (UP of Virginia, 1996)

Kim Geron, Latino Political Power (Lynne Rienne, 2005)

Carlos R. Soltero, Latinos and American Law: Landmark Supreme Court Cases (U of Texas Press, 2006)

Rudolfo Acuña, Occupied America: A History of Chicanos. 8th ed. (Pearson, 2014)

Manuel G. Gonzales, Mexicanos: A History of Mexicans in the United States (Indiana UP, 1999)

Zaragosa Vargas, Major Problems in Mexican American History (Houghton Mifflin, 1999)

Arnoldo De Leon and Richard Griswold del Castillo, North to Aztlán: A History of Mexican Americans in the United States. 2nd  ed. (Harlan Davidson, 2006)

Arnalda De Leon, The Tejano Community, 1836-1900 (U. of New Mexico Press, 1982) and They Called Them Greasers: Anglo Attitudes toward Mexicans in Texas, 1821-1900 (U of Texas Press, 1983)

David Weber, The Mexican Frontier, 1821-1846 (U of New Mexico Press, 1982) and The Spanish Frontier in North America (Yale UP, 1992)

Albert Camarillo, Chicanos in a Changing Society: From Mexican Pueblos to American Barrios in  Santa Barbara and Southern California, 1848-1930 (Harvard UP, 1979)

Lawrence A. Cardoso, Mexican Emigration to the United States, 1897-1931 (U of Arizona Press, 1980)

Samuel Truett and Elliott Young, eds., Continental Crossroads: Remapping U.S.-Mexico Borderlands History (Duke UP, 2004)

Juan Gómez-Quiñones, Chicano Politics: Realities and Promise (U of New Mexico Press, 1990)

Craig A. Kaplowitz, LULAC, Mexican Americans, and National Policy. (Texas A&M UP, 2005)

Mario Barrera, Race and Class in the Southwest: A Theory of Racial Inequality (U of Notre Dame Press, 1979)

Devra Weber, Dark Sweat, White Gold; California Farm Workers, Cotton, and the New Deal. (U of California Press, 1994)

Frank Bardacke, Trampling Out the Vintage: Cesar Chavez and the Two Souls of the United Farm Workers (Verso, 2011)

Rodolfo Rosales, The Illusion of Inclusion: The Untold Political Story of San Antonio (U of Texas Press, 2000)

Michael Innis-Jiménez, Steel Barrio: The Great Mexican Migration to South Chicago, 1915-1940 (NYU Press, 2013)


Clara E. Rodriguez and Virginia Sanchez Korrol, eds. Historical Perspectives on Puerto Rican Survival in the United States (Markus Wiener Publishers, 1980)

Lorrin Thomas, Puerto Rican Citizen: History and Political Identity in Twentieth-Century New York City (U of Chicago Press, 2011)

José Ramón Sánchez, Boricua Power: A Political History of Puerto Ricans in the United States (NYU Press, 2007)

Miguel Gonzalez-Pando, Cuban Americans (Greenwood Press, 1998)

Guillermo Grenier and Lisandro Perez, The Legacy of Exile: Cubans in the United States (Allyn and Bacon, 2003)

Ramona Hernandez and Silvio Torres-Saillant The Dominican Americans (Greenwood Press, 1998)

Maria Cristina Garcia, Seeking Refuge: Central American Migration to Mexico, United States and Canada (U of  California Press, 2006)


Native Americans

US National Archives Links to Indian/Native American History

The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas, 3 vols. (Cambridge UP, 1996-2000)

Charles C. Mann, 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus (Alfred A. Knopf, 2005)

Michael Leroy Oberg, Native America: A History (Wiley-Blackwell, 2010)

Eleanor Burke Leacock, and Nancy Oestreich Lurie, eds., North American Indians in Historical Perspective (Random House, 1971)

Donald Grinde, ed., Native Americans (CQ Press, 2002)

William C. Sturtevant, ed., Handbook of North American Indians (Smithsonian Institution Press, 1978-2008)

Alvin M. Josephy, 500 Nations: An Illustrated History of North American Indians (Knopf, 1994)

Colin G. Calloway, First Peoples: A Documentary Survey of American Indian History, 3rd ed. (Bedford/St. Martin's, 2008)

Roger L. Nichols, ed. The American Indian: Past and Present. 6th ed. (U of Oklahoma Press, 2008)

Peter C. Mancall and James H. Merrell, American Encounters: Natives and Newcomers from European Contact to Indian Removal, 2nd ed. (Routledge, 2007)

Robert F. Berkhofer, Salvation and the Savage: An Analysis of Protestant Missions and American Indian Response, I787-I862 (U of Kentucky Press, 1965) and The White Man's Indian: Images of the American Indian from Columbus to the Present (Alfred A. Knopf, 1978)


Francis Paul Prucha,  The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians, 2 Vols. (U of Nebraska Press, 1984). and Atlas of American Indian Affairs (U of Nebraska Press, 1990)

John R. Wunder, ed. Native Americans and the Law: Contemporary and Historical Perspectives on American Indian Rights, Freedoms, and Sovereignty. 6 vols. (Routledge Press, 1996) and "Retained by the People": A History of American Indians and the Bill of Rights (Oxford UP, 1994)

David E. Wilkins, and K. Tsianina Lomawaima, Uneven Ground: American Indian Sovereignty and Federal Law (U of Oklahoma Press, 2001)

Stuart Banner, How the Indians Lost Their Land: Law and Power on the Frontier (Harvard UP, 2005)

Brian W. Dippie, The Vanishing American: White Attitudes and U.S. Indian Policy (Wesleyan UP, 1982)

David E. Wilkins and Heidi Kiiwetinepinesiik Stark, American Indian Politics and the American Political System 3rd ed. (Rowman & Littlefield, 2010)


James Axtell, The Invasion Within: The Contest of Cultures in Colonial North America (Oxford UP, 1986) and Axtell, ed., The European and the Indian: Essays in the Ethnohistory of Colonial North America (Oxford UP, 1981)

Colin Calloway, New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the Remaking of Early America (Johns Hopkins UP, 1998)

Lindsay G. Robertson, Conquest by Law: How the Discovery of America Dispossessed Indigenous Peoples of Their Lands (Oxford UP, 2005)

Francis Jennings, The Invasion of America: Indians, Colonialism, and the Cant of Conquest (W. W. Norton, 1976)

Karen Ordahl Kupperman, Indians and English: Facing Off in Early America (Cornell UP, 2000)

Daniel K. Richter, Facing East from Indian Country: A Native History of Early America (Harvard UP, 2001)


Timothy J. Shannon, Indians and Colonists at the Crossroads of Empire: The Albany Congress of 1754 (Cornell UP, 2002)

Peter Silver, Our Savage Neighbors: How Indian War Transformed Early America (W. W. Norton, 2007)

Alfred Cave, The Pequot War (U of Massachusetts Press, 1996)

Gregory Dowd Evans, War under Heaven: Pontiac, the Indian Nations, and the British Empire (Johns Hopkins UP, 2002)

Colin G. Calloway, The American Revolution in Indian Country: Crisis and Diversity in Native American Communities (Cambridge UP, 1995)

Alan Taylor, The Divided Ground: Indians, Settlers, and the Northern Borderland of the American Revolution (Knopf, 2006)

Matthew Dennis, Cultivating a Landscape of Peace: Iroquois-European Encounters in Seventeenth-Century America (Cornell UP, 1993)

Daniel Richter, The Ordeal of the Longhouse: The Peoples of the Iroquois League in the Era of European Colonization (U of North Carolina Press, 1992)

Daniel P. Barr, Unconquered: The Iroquois League at War in Colonial America (Praeger, 2006)

Jane Merritt, At the Crossroads: Indians and Empires on a Mid-Atlantic Frontier 1700-1763 (U of North Carolina Press, 2003)

Fintan O’Toole, White Savage: William Johnson and the Invention of America (Faber and Faber, 2005)

James Merrell, Into the American Woods: Negotiators on the Pennsylvania Frontier (W. W. Norton, 1999)

Keith Egloff and Deborah Woodward, First People: The Early Indians of Virginia (U of Virginia Press, 2007)

Alan Gallay, The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717 (Yale UP, 2002)

Robbie Ethridge, From Chicaza to Chickasaw: The European Invasion and the Transformation of the Mississippian World, 1540-1715 (U of North Carolina Press, 2010)

Kathleen Duval, The Native Ground: Indians and Colonists in the Heart of the Continent (U of Pennsylvania Press, 2006)

Richard White, The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650–1850 (Cambridge UP, 1991)

Colin Calloway, The Shawnees and the War for America (Viking, 2007)

Colin G. Calloway, One Vast Winter Count: The Native American West before Lewis and Clark (U of Nebraska Press, 2003)

Elizabeth A. H. John, Storms Brewed in Other Men’s Worlds: The Confrontation of Indians, Spanish, and French in the Southwest, 1540-1795 (Texas A&M UP, 1975)

Edward H. Spicer, Cycles of Conquest: The Impact of Spain, Mexico, and the United States on the Indians of the Southwest, 1533-1960 (U of Arizona Press, 1962)

Ned Blackhawk, Violence over the Land: Indians and Empires in the Early American West (Harvard UP, 2006)


Stephen J. Rockwell, Indian Affairs and the Administrative State in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge UP, 2010)

Michael Paul Rogin, Fathers and Children: Andrew Jackson and the Subjugation of the American Indian (Vintage, 1975)

Ronald N. Satz, American Indian Policy in the Jacksonian Era (U of Nebraska Press, 1975)

Brian Hicks, Toward the Setting Sun: John Ross, the Cherokees and the Trail of Tears (Atlantic Monthly Press. 2011)

Robert A. Trennert, Alternative to Extinction: Federal Indian Policy and the Beginnings of the Reservation System, 1846-1951 (Temple UP, 1975)

Robert M. Utley, The Indian Frontier of the American West, 1846-1890 (U of New Mexico Press, 2003)

Gregory Evans Dowd, A Spirited Resistance: The North American Indian Struggle for Unity, 1745-1815 (Johns Hopkins UP, 1992)

Reginald Horsman, Expansion and American Indian Policy, 1783-1812 (Michigan State UP, 1967)

Francis Paul Prucha, American Indian Policy in the Formative Years: The Indian Trade and the Intercourse Acts, 1790-1834 (Harvard UP, 1962)

Anthony Wallace, Jefferson and the Indians: The Tragic Fate of the First Americans (Harvard UP, 1999)

Antony Wallace, The Long, Bitter Trail: Andrew Jackson and the Indians (Hill and Wang, 1993)

Michael D. Green, The Politics of Indian Removal: Creek Government and Society in Crisis (U of Nebraska Press, 1982)

Ronald N. Satz, American Indian Policy in the Jacksonian Era (U of Oklahoma Press, 2002)

Edmund Danziger, Indians and Bureaucrats: Administering the Reservation Policy during the Civil War (U of Illinois Press, 1974)


Dee Brown, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West (Holt, Reinhart and Winston, 1970)

Robert G. Athearn, William Tecumseh Sherman and the Settlement of the West (U of Oklahoma Press, 1956)

Richard Drinnon, Facing West: The Metaphysics of Indian-Hating and Empire-Building (U of Minnesota Press, 1980)

Jeffrey Ostler, The Plains Sioux and U.S. Colonialism from Lewis and Clark to Wounded Knee (Cambridge UP, 2004)

Robert M. Utley, The Indian Frontier of the American West, 1846-1890 (U of New Mexico Press, 1984)

P John P. Bowes, Exiles and Pioneers: Eastern Indians in the Trans-Mississippi West (Cambridge UP, 2007)

Pekka Hamalainen, The Comanche Empire (Yale UP, Press, 2008)

Gary Clayton Anderson, The Conquest of Texas: Ethnic Cleansing in the Promised Land, 1820-1875 (U of Oklahoma Press, 2005) and The Indian Southwest: Ethnogenesis and Reinvention (U of Oklahoma Press, 1999)

Gray H. Whaley, Oregon and the Collapse of Illahee: U.S. Empire and the Transformation of an Indigenous World, 1792-1859 (U of North Carolina Press, 2010)

Craig H. Miner, The Corporation and the Indian: Tribal Sovereignty and Industrial Civilization in Indian Territory, 1865-1907 (U of Missouri Press, 1976)

Francis Paul Prucha, American Indian Policy in Crisis: Christian Reformers and the Indian, 1865-1900 (U of Oklahoma Press, 1976)

Mark David Spence, Dispossessing the Wilderness: Indian Removal and the Making of the National Parks (Oxford UP, 1999)

Frederick E. Hoxie, A Final Promise: The Campaign to Assimilate the Indians, 1880-1920 (Cambridge UP, 1984)

David Rich Lewis, Neither Wolf nor Dog: American Indians, Environment, and Agrarian Change (Oxford UP, 1994).


Vine Deloria, ed. American Indian Policy in the Twentieth Century (U of Oklahoma Press, 1985)

Vine Deloria, Jr. and Clifford M. Lytle, American Indians, American Justice (U of Texas Press, 1983) and The Nations Within: The Past and Future of American Indian Sovereignty (Indian Reorganization Act) (Pantheon, 1984)

Graham D. Taylor, The New Deal and American Indian Tribalism: The Administration of the Indian Reorganization Act, 1934-45 (U of Nebraska Press, 1980)

Donald Fixico, Termination and Relocation: Federal Indian Policy, 1945-1960 (U of New Mexico Press, 1986) and The Urban Indian Experience in America (U of New Mexico Press, 2000)

Russel Lawrence Barsh and James Youngblood Henderson, The Road: Indian Tribes and Political Liberty (U of California Press, 1980)

Larry W. Burt, Tribalism in Crisis: Federal Indian Policy, 1953-1961 (U of New Mexico Press, 1982)

Stephen Cornell, The Return of the Native: American Indian Political Resurgence (Oxford UP, 1988)

Paul Chaat Smith and Robert Allen Warrior, Like a Hurricane: The Indian Movement from Alcatraz to Wounded Knee (New Press, 1996)

Steven Andrew Light and Kathryn R.L. Rand, Indian Gaming and Tribal Sovereignty: The Casino Compromise (UP of Kansas, 2005)

Paul C. Rosier, Serving Their Country: American Indian Politics and Patriotism in the Twentieth Century (Harvard UP, 2009)

Imre Sutton, ed., Irredeemable America: The Indians' Estate and Land Claims (Uof New Mexico Press, 1985)

W. Dale Mason, Indian Gaming: Tribal Sovereignty and American Politics (U of Oklahoma Press, 2000)

Jessica R. Cattelino, High Stakes: Florida Seminole Gaming and Sovereignty (Duke UP, 2008).



Ruth O'Brien, Crippled Justice: The History of Modern Disability Policy in the Workplace (U of Chicago Press, 2001)

Jacqueline Vaughn Switzer, Disabled Rights: American Disability Policy and the Fight for Equality (Georgetown UP, 2003)

Paul K. Longmore and Lauri Umansky, eds. The New Disability History: American Perspectives (NYU Press, 2001)

Susan M. Schweik, The Ugly Laws: Disability in Public (NYU Press, 2009)



Jonathan M. Ladd, Why Americans Hate the Media and How it Matters (Princeton University Press, 2012)

Timothy E. Cook, Governing With the News: The News Media as a Political Institution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998).

John T. Woolley, “Using Media-Based Data in Studies of Politics,” American Journal of Political Science  44:1 (January 2000): 156-173.

Andie Tucher, Froth and Scum: Truth, Beauty, Goodness, and the Ax Murderer in America's First Mass Medium (North Carolina, 1994)

 Jeffery A. Smith, Printers and Press Freedom: The Ideology of Early American Journalism (Oxford, 1987).

Thomas C. Leonard, The Power of the Press: The Birth of American Political Reporting (Oxford, 1986)

Mark Wahlgren Summers, The Press Gang: Newspapers and Politics, 1865-1878 (U of North Carolina, 1994)

James L. Aucoin, The Evolution of American Investigative Journalism (U of Missouri Press, 2005)

Edward J. Bliss, Jr., Now the News: The Story of Broadcast Journalism (Columbia University Press, 1992)

Lucas A. Powe, Jr., The Fourth Estate and the Constitution: Freedom of the Press in America (California, 1991)


The Development of Public Policy

David Brian Robertson and Dennis R. Judd, The Development of American Public Policy: The Structure of Policy Restraint (Glenview and Boston: Scott, Foresman / Little, Brown)

Paul Sabatier, ed., Theories of the Policy Process, 2nd ed (Westview Press, 2007)

Donald T. Critchlow, "A Prognosis of Policy History: Stunted - or Deceivingly Vital? A Brief Reply to Hugh Davis Graham," The Public Historian 15:4 (Fall, 1993), 53-62.

Ballard Campbell, Representative Democracy: Public Policy and Midwestern Legislatures in the Late Nineteenth Century (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980).

William W. Buzbee and Robert A. Schapiro, "Legislative Record Review," Stanford Law Review 54:1 (October, 2001): 87-161

Journal of Policy History

The Public Historian

Agenda Setting

The Policy Agendas Project

Frank R. Baumgartner and Bryan D. Jones, Agendas and Instability in American Politics 2nd ed (U of Chicago, 2009)

Frank R. Baumgartner and Bryan D. Jones, The Politics of Attention: How Government Prioritizes Problems (U of Chicago Press, 2005)

John Kingdon, Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies, 2nd ed. (Harper Collins, 1995)

David A. Rochefort and Roger W. Cobb. eds., The Politics of Problem Definition: Shaping the Policy Agenda (UP of Kansas, 1994)

Bryan D. Jones, Reconceiving Decision-making in Democratic Politics:  Attention, Choice, and Public Policy  (U of Chicago Press, 1994)

Calvin Mouw and Michael MacKuen, "The Strategic Agenda in Legislative Politics," APSR 86 (1992): 87-105

Frank R. Baumgartner, Christoffer Green-Pedersen, and Bryan D. Jones, eds. Comparative Studies of Public Agendas (Routledge, 2007)

 Legislating and Legislation

United States Statutes at Large, 1789-1875 online

Alin Fumurescu, Compromise: A Political and Philosophical History (Cambridge UP, 2013)

Jeffery A. Jenkins and Eric M. Patashnik, eds., Living Legislation Durability, Change, and the Politics of American Lawmaking (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012)

Charles R. Wise, The Dynamics of Legislation: Leadership and Policy Change in the Congressional Process (Jossey-Bass, 1991)

William N. Eskridge, Jr., and Philip P. Frickey, Cases and Materials on Legislation: Statutes and the Creation of Public Policy, 2nd ed. (West Publishing Co., 1995)

Richard Ekins, The Nature of Legislative Intent (Oxford UP, 2012)

Robert Katzmann, Judging Statutes (Oxford UP 2014)

Richard Rodriguez and Barry W. Weingast, “The Positive Political Theory of Legislative History: New Perspectives on the 1964 Civil Rights Act and Its Interpretation.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 151: 4 (April, 2003): 1417-1542.

Keith Krehbiel, Pivotal Politics: A Theory of U.S. Lawmaking (U of Chicago Press, 1998).



Eric M. Patashnik, Reforms at Risk: What Happens after Major Policy Changes are Enacted (Princeton UP, 2008)


Foreign Policy and National Security

Peter Trubowitz, Defining the National Interest: Conflict and Change in American Foreign Policy (U of Chicago Press, 1998) and Politics and Strategy: Partisan Ambition and American Statecraft (Princeton UP, 2011)

Ira Katznelson & Martin Shefter, eds., Shaped by War and Trade: International Influences on American Political Development (Princeton UP, 2002)

Walter L. Hixson, The Myth of American Diplomacy: National Identity and U.S. Foreign Policy (Yale UP, 2008)

William Appleman Williams, The Tragedy of American Diplomacy (World Publishing, 1959)

David R. Mayhew, "Wars and American Politics," Perspectives on Politics 3:3 (2005), 473-493

Richard H. Kohn, Eagle and Sword: The Federalists and the Creation of the Military Establishment in America, 1783-1802 (Free Press, 1975)

Edward M. Coffman, The Old Army: A Portrait of the American Army in Peacetime, 1784-1898 (Oxford UP, 1988)

Robert P. Saladin, War, the American State, and Politics since 1898 (Cambridge UP, 2011)

Douglas L. Kriner, After the Rubicon: Congress, Presidents, and the Politics of Waging War (U of Chicago Press, 2010)

Richard H. Kohn, Eagle and Sword: The Federalists and the Creation of the Military Establishment in America, 1783-1802 (Free Press, 1975)

Edward M. Coffman, The Old Army: A Portrait of the American Army in Peacetime, 1784-1898 (Oxford UP, 1988)

Bartholomew H. Sparrow, From the Outside In: World War II and the American State (Princeton UP, 1996)

Andrew J. Bacevich, ed. Long War: A New History of United States National Security Policy Since World War II (Columbia UP, 2007)

Fredrik Logevall and Campbell Craig, America’s Cold War: The Politics of Insecurity (Belknap, 2009)

Daniel Kryder, Divided Arsenal: Race and the American State During World War II (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000)

Aaron L. Friedberg, In the Shadow of the Garrison State: America’s Anti-Statism and its Cold War Grand Strategy (Princeton UP, 2000)

Melvyn P. Leffler, A Preponderance of Power: For the Soul of Mankind: The United States, the Soviet Union, and the Cold War (Stanford UP, 1993) and National Security, the Truman Administration, and the Cold War (Hill and Wang, 2007)

Michael Hogan, A Cross of Iron: Harry S. Truman and the Origins of the National Security State, 1945–1954 (Cambridge UP, 1998)

Andrew D. Grossman, Neither Dead Nor Red: Civilian Defense and American Political Development During the Early Cold War (Routledge, 2001)

Fredrik Logevall and Andrew Preston, eds., Nixon in the World: American Foreign Relations, 1968-1977 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008)

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