Data modeling, a way to structure and organize data, is wildly applied in different industries because it can be used easily by databases. Early modeling and analysis help companies to understand their needs and problems with potential solutions. According to American National Standards Institute (ANSI for short), data models can be a conceptual model, a logical model, or a physical model. In real business world, since the goal of modeling always changes, the data modeling turns out to be very important, especially in the early designing phase (Muller, 2009). Also, during the process, communication and precision are two key benefits that make a data model crucial.
This paper will discuss what kind of role data modeling plays in system analysis, what a high level data model is, why it is important in system analysis, and how agile data modeling develops in system analysis.
What is data modeling?
Data model is created as representation of the information requirements of an organization. Data model functions as an effective communication tool for discussions with users; it also serves as a blueprint for the database system. A data model, therefore, acts as a bridge from real work information to database storing relevant data content. Blueprints are created at several different levels of detail; from the high-level requirements, to the basic architectural layout or to the detailed wiring and plumbing designs.
The blueprint analogy is often used because there are many parallels between blueprints, which many people are familiar with, and a data model, which few people outside of IT have seen. The most obvious parallel is that a blueprint translates a very complex and technical undertaking into a set of visual diagrams that a layperson can understand (Hoberman, Burbank and Bradley, 2009). This is the goal of a data model.
Origins of Data Modeling
About forty years ago, the early days of data processing, the entire focus of system development revolved around automating tedious manual business processes. The elimination of slow manual processes was the key driver. During the system development life cycle (SDLC for short), the main effort was to produce a set of programs that automated a business process (Kabeli and Peretz, 2003).
With the development of technology, the complex changing business environment increase the complexity of information system, which makes the old way of conducting the information system analysis hardly to satisfy the current and future requirements ( Zhenfeng and Lin, 2009).
Nowadays, the system analysis process consists of two main activities: data modeling and functional modeling. While traditional development methodologies usually emphasize functional modeling through dataflow diagrams (DFDs), object-oriented (OO) methodologies emphasize data modeling through class diagrams (Kabeli and Peretz, 2003).
The role of data modeling in system analysis
One question first came into my mind is why we model data. The goal of the data model is to make sure that the all data objects required by the database are completely and accurately represented. Because the data model uses easily understood notations and natural language, it can be reviewed and verified by the end-users.
The data model is also important to the database developers who employ it as a "blueprint" to build the physical database. The information contained in the data model will be used to define the relational tables, primary and foreign keys, stored procedures, and triggers. A poorly designed database will require more time in the long-term (Webpage, zazanetwork.com). Without careful analyze the system, you may create a data model that omits data required to create critical reports, produces results that are incorrect or inconsistent, and is unable to accommodate changes in the user's requirements. If your data model is wrong, your application might not do what users want.
Figure How data models deliver benefit
What makes data modeling important?
There are two core characteristics of a data model that make it so valuable: communication and precision (Blaha, 2007). Because data model is a representation of the information requirements of an organization, it must truly reflect the data requirements of an enterprise. Every aspect of the data of the company’s business operations must be indicated clearly and precisely in the data model. A data model serves as a means for communication with users or domain experts. It is also a blueprint for the proposed database system for the organization. The design and analysis of the system must focus on these two aspects.
Data models at information levels
In Hoberman’s book (Data Modeling for the Business),
he used a hypothetical example to explained what the data models at
different information levels would look like. In his example, he asked
his architect to design a small vacation home with a nice front porch.
In his house example, he applied several layers of diagrams: a very high-level data diagram (also called External Data Model) to align on the scope of the project (Figure 1 and Figure 2), a high-level picture to ensure that we had the same vision of the house (Figure3- conceptual level), then a more detailed layout of the architecture or (Figure 4- logical level), and finally a detailed, technical design diagram of the physical infrastructure (Figure 5- physical level).
External Data Model (Very high level picture)The external data model is a depiction of the database system from the viewpoints of individual user groups. An external model (or view) looks at the world from a particular perspective, for a particular purpose. There are many possible external views of the world: they may overlap, and do not have to be compatible. In particular, external views are an appropriate place to hold the data requirements for a particular business context and the rules that apply to it. The data models of most applications today take a view of the world from the perspective of that application, and so are external models (Ponniah, 2007).
Figure 1 – A small, Wooden House with a Front Porch (Very high level)
Figure 2- A small, Wooden House with a Front Porch (Very high level)
Figure 3 - Blueprint and Data Diagram at a High Level (Architect’s Sketch of House)
In conclusion, conceptual model is an
underlying or neutral model that is capable of supporting any valid
(and perhaps changing) external view that falls within its scope.
In the example above in Figure 3, the architect drew a high level picture to show what he had in mind for the house – that it would have a front porch, be big enough to sleep a large number of people, etc. For data, we use a high- level data model (which is also called conceptual data model) to clarify what information is important, how basic concepts are defined, and how these concepts related with each other. The high level picture helps gathering business requirements and clarifying understanding of basic concepts.
The conceptual data model is at a high and general level intended mainly as a communication tool with the user community. It is also considered as a diagram identifying the business concepts (entities) and the relationships between these concepts in order to gain, reflect, and document understanding of the organization’s business, from a data perspective. The conceptual data model is important and widely used in the early stage of requirements analysis for information systems (Tang and Zhao, 2009, page 37). The construction of a conceptual data model in the early stage of software development is quite commonly practiced among industries.
A Conceptual data model usually takes the form of an Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) or Object Role Model (ORM). The conceptual data model typically does not contain attributes. Some scholars also consider conceptual data model like a picture on the puzzle box that provides the vision of what the information puzzle should look like at the end of the day, regardless of whether your solution is a Data Warehouse, SOA, ERP, Master Data Management, or OLTP (web source, Stiglich).
Figure 4 –Data Diagram at the logical level
In logical level, for the building architect,
this means drawing out detailed floor plans to show the layout of the
house, the size and function of the rooms, and how the rooms fit
together. In data modeling, we have more detailed levels of the diagram
to show the layout of the data, the size and type of the data, and how
various objects related to each other (Hoberman, Burbank and Bradley,
The logical level shows more details while incorporating business logic and business rules. A logical data model is normally created by a data modeler or data architect, but a business person needs to be heavily involved to make sure that the rules and definitions are represented correctly (Hoberman, Burbank and Bradley, 2009).
Figure 5 – Data Diagram at the Physical Level
The physical level indicates the technical
details for implementation as a database or data structure. In practice,
physical model represents a way in which data is physically stored.
There may be many valid physical models for a conceptual model. The
requirement is that a physical model must be able to support the
In practice, the data models in different information levels would also show as below. There are several data models at the various levels of information- external data model, conceptual data model, logical data model, and physical data model. Figure 6 shows the data models at different information levels (Ponniah, 2007).
Figure 6 - Data models at different information levels (Ponniah, 2007)
Compare Top-down approach with Bottom-up approach
The top-down approach of starting with a very high level design and moving successively into more detail is one way of looking at data design in an organization (Hoberman, Burbank and Bradley, 2009). This approach begins with purely a business need perspective. For example, if a new system is built from scratch and there were business experts eager to participate in the project, a top-down approach would be appropriate. The business should aim for the whole picture. Ideas are accepted even if you know there is no way to deliver the requirement in today’s application environment. You build an initial high-level data model by studying the systems that the business is using today. It can include operational systems that run the day-to-day business or it can contain reporting systems that allow the business to view how well the organization is doing.
The bottom-up approach, on the other hand, temporarily ignores what the business needs and instead focuses on the existing systems environment. Sometimes, we are often building on top of existing systems, it’s more common to start from the bottom-up approach which is similar to trying to visualize what the house is supposed to look like when only the physical wiring diagrams are shown (Hoberman, Burbank and Bradley, 2009). In practice, if there is minimal business resources available and ample systems documentation, and the purpose of the model is to understand an existing application, a bottom-up approach is ideal (Burbank, 2010).
Considering the system analysis process is a constant loop of reconciling what the business needs with what information is available, many companies employed hybrid approach now. The hybrid approach is iterative and usually completes the initial information gathering step by starting with some top-down analysis and then some bottom-up analysis, and then some top-down analysis, etc., until the information gathering is complete. For instance, if a new system is being planned, or an upgrade to an existing system and business expertise is available and required, a hybrid approach is best (Burbank, 2010).
A high level data model conveys the core concepts and principles of an organization in a simple way, using concise descriptions (Hoberman, Burbank and Bradley, 2009). The key to a high level data model is simplicity. But it should be clear enough so that a nontechnical person can understand it. In another word, the purpose of the high level data model is to describe complex information in a simply way, using a concise description, not a vague one. One of the advantages of developing the high level model is that it facilitates arriving at common terminology and definitions of the concepts and principles.
Creating a common understanding, common goals, scope and context of core concepts of the business across functional areas is critical to system analysis and the future success of data management. It is important to information systems analysis that managing the data in organizations by understanding of information and the business rules that define your organization.
The Data Modeling Integration
The concept of linking or mapping among different design levels is critical to data modeling. The ability to link your high level data models to the lower level data models that control your business rules and ultimately the database systems that run the organization is the key to this integration (Hoberman, Burbank and Bradley, 2009). In a typical data warehouse implementation, once you have established the logical data model, you still need to spend a significant amount of time in designing and building aggregates, joins, views, star schemas, etc.Agile Development and Data Modeling
Agile software development challenges the traditional way of software development and project management. Continuous customer-centric requirements reprioritization is essential in successfully performing agile software development (Racheva and Daneva, 2010). In rapidly changing environments, changing requirements and tight schedule constraints require software developers to take a different approach toward the process of software development (Cao, 2005).
The historical benchmark of best practices is known as the “waterfall approach” to software projects. The waterfall approach was originally described by Winston Royce in a 1970 paper (Royce, 1970) on managing the development of large software systems. Its recommendations would be familiar to most simulation practitioners as it features the more-or-less traditional steps of Requirements, Design, Construction, Integration, Testing, Installation and Maintenance. One of the biggest complaints of the Waterfall methodology is a lack of communication with the customer beyond the introductory stages. This organized and methodical approach has been successful in the construction of complex, mission-critical software applications in many industries. However, the waterfall approach has been criticized over the years (Parnas & Clements 1986; Weisert 2003) for being inflexible, and other development methodologies have emerged as a response (Sawyer and Brann, 2008).
What makes the agile modeling approach appropriate for data modeling? Why not use the waterfall approach, or a modified waterfall to allow for some iteration? This is because, in the real world, the requirements for a simulation can and do change during the course of the project, and agile approaches are designed to help manage that change. The customer’s priorities may change (Sawyer and Brann, 2008).
Agile and traditional development approaches divided the software market into two competing parties; each has its strengths and weaknesses. A new proposed Hybrid model that combines both methodologies to overcome their weaknesses and make use of their strengths resulting in a mature and a professional software model ( Zaki and Moawad, 2010).
The proposed model consists of six phases 1) inception, 2) planning, 3) iterative assessment, 4) iterative building, 5) production, and 6) closure, which will be carried out starting from the project’s initiation till the final delivery as shown in figure7( Zaki and Moawad, 2010).
Figure 7- The Hybrid Disciplined Agile Software Process Model
The model starts with the “inception phase” that is entitled with respect to the rational unified process (RUP) first phase, sharing the big picture idea but differs in the details. (Kruchten, 2000) It’s the initiation phase were all the aspects of the project is being gathered, discussed and measured. By the end of the “inception phase”, the team will have a good starting knowledge to build the initial high level plan through the second phase, the “planning phase”. Building the plan is simply prioritizing the features and assigning their effort estimates, and finally breaking down the project into sets of iterations. Once the plan is submitted and agreed upon, then starts the first “iterative assessment” activity. Through the assessment activity all the agile issues and concerns are listed and measured through the different aspects evaluation activities of the project, which will be elaborated in more details through the next section. The benefits behind such assessment are customizing and disciplining the model according to the current project’s aspects ( Zaki and Moawad, 2010).
Following this is the “building phase”, or in other words, the “construction phase”. It is the phase where the actual work is carried out. Each and every feature is being analyzed and built deeply. As a single iteration ends an “iterative assessment” activity starts to reflect the changes and tune the process. Next is the “production phase” which is reached when the product is mature enough to face its users. Finally, the “closure phase”, all the reaming activities are finalized for closing the project ( Zaki and Moawad, 2010).
The software analysis process consists of two main activities: data modeling and functional modeling. While traditional development methodologies usually emphasize functional modeling via dataflow diagrams (DFDs), object-oriented (OO) methodologies emphasize data modeling via class diagrams. Agile data modeling approach using UML includes various techniques for both data and functional modeling which can be utilized in various ways. In fact, different methodologies utilize data modeling and process modeling techniques have advantages and disadvantages.
In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, there is not any standard method or model that allows us to model all aspects of a data warehouse (Mora and Trujillo, 2004). The data model is a crucial section of the system analysis, which is the core of the data warehousing. A data model is a plan for building a database. To be effective, it must be simple enough to communicate to the end user. The data structure required by the database yet detailed enough for the database design to use to create the physical structure. In this integrated modeling environment, modelers can construct, integrate, and share new models.
In sum, determining which of the four types of data models will work should be best based on the purpose of the model and the available resources. Choosing either a top-down, bottom-up or hybrid approach, and hence, must be based on the purpose of the model and the available resources.
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