Political Science 3300, The American Presidency, April 4, 2012


The President and Congress

Congress was conceived as the center of American national government



1. Things the President Needs to Know About Congress


A.   Congress is essential for your success

It Controls Money & People


B.    Winning reelection and serving constituents is crucial for
  Congressional incumbents


C.    Members of Congress take a more short-term, parochial view than a president.


D.   Congress is hard to lead


    E. Congress expects the president to set the big agenda, including budgets ...
        but they'll make the final decisions themselves, thank you very much.




2. How Can You Get Congress to Cooperate with You?

    a. Help them win Reelection and Serve their Constituents


    b. Set the agenda


    c. Use the veto and the veto threat as needed


    d. Be popular


    e. Be from the same party the majorities represent


    f. Get some help from the leaders



3. Presidential Success in Congress: The record


       Different ways to score presidential success


The President and the Bureaucracy 


1.     Things the President Needs to Know About the Bureaucracy


    a. It's big and complicated 


    b. Administrators have power because they have expertise and discretion


    c. Civil Service makes it hard to control the people who work for you


    d. Bureaus have Allies



    e. The Problem of Communication



    f. You need the bureaucracy to succeed.



2. How have presidents tried to control the bureaucracy?


    The Cabinet


            Richard Nixon's effort to use Cabinet Government


            George W. Bush and the Cabinet


    The Growing role of vice-presidents


         Richard Cheney



    The President's Bureaucracy: The Executive Office of the President


       The White House Staff


       The Bureau of the Budget / Office of Management and Budget


      The National Security Council



   Presidents Struggles to Exercise more Control

        George W. Bush

        Richard Nixon