Frequently Asked Questions file (FAQ) on the Civil War

URL of this document, retrieved 3/5/1995


Archive-name: civil-war-usa/faq
Last-modified: 1994/9/19
Version: 2.05

alt.war.civil.usa FAQ v2.05 (19 September 1994)

This is a collection of answers to frequently asked questions in
alt.war.civil.usa (and some not-so-frequently, too!) and is posted
on or about the 20th of each month. It was compiled by Justin M.
Sanders ( who tried to be as complete
and accurate as possible, but who is definitely human and has
probably made several errors.

Please send comments, suggestions, or corrections to the address above.

The topics covered are (a plus means a new entry, an asterisk means a
    revised entry):
Part 0: alt.war.civil.usa and other net stuff
    Q0.1:  What is this group anyway?
    Q0.2:  Are the FAQ and Reading List archived somewhere?
    Q0.3:  Where can I find Civil War images, documents, and so
          forth on-line?
Part 1: The beginning of the War
    Q1.1:  When did state X secede?
    Q1.2:  Was there a declaration of war or something?
    Q1.3:  What were the populations of the states at the outbreak of
          the war?
Part 2: Battles and fighting forces
    Q2.1:  What are the alternate names of various battles?
    Q2.2:  Who were the U.S. Generals at the out-break of the war, and
          who were the first Generals appointed after the war began?
    Q2.3:  Who were the first C.S. Generals appointed?
    Q2.4:  What were the naval ranks during the Civil War?
    Q2.5:  What were the organization and strengths of various units
          in the armies?
    Q2.6:  What is the difference between grapeshot and canister?
   +Q2.7:  How did prisoner exchanges and paroles work?
Part 3: The end of the War
    Q3.1:  When did the war end?
    Q3.2:  If the rebel states were never considered legally out of the
          Union, how was Reconstruction justified?
Part 4: Genealogy and Unit Histories
    Q4.1:  My ancestor fought in the war-- how do I find out about
          his service?
   *Q4.2:  How can I find information about a particular regiment?
Part 5: Miscellaneous
    Q5.1:  What is the "Stars and Bars"?
    Q5.2:  What changes to the U.S. flag occurred during the war?
    Q5.3:  How was the state of West Virginia created?
    Q5.4:  What war records did the post-war presidents have?
    Q5.5:  What are the various alternate names for the war?
   *Q5.6:  What are good books on the war?
    Q5.7:  How can I get the soundtrack to Ken Burn's "Civil War"?
    Q5.8:  Who was the last surviving veteran of the Civil War?
    Q5.9:  Did U.S. Grant and R.E. Lee both own slaves and free them?
    Q5.10:  What is the recipe for hardtack?

Part 0: alt.war.civil.usa and net stuff

Q0.1:  What is this group anyway?
      The USENET newsgroup alt.war.civil.usa was created in the Spring
      of 1992 at the suggestion of Patrick L. Dunn (Thanks!).
      The charter of alt.war.civil.usa reads:
         The purpose of this group is the discussion of topics
      related to the United States Civil War (1861-65).  Topics can
      involve military, political, social, economic or other factors
      which impacted upon this period of history.  This newsgroup will
      also serve as a source of information, assistance, or referral
      for persons seeking guidance via responses from more
      knowledgeable subscribers.

Q0.2:  Are the FAQ and Reading List archived somewhere?
      Yes, the latest versions of the FAQ and Reading List are
      available for anonymous ftp at:  /pub/usenet/alt.war.civil.usa/U.S._Civil_War_FAQ

Q0.3:  Where can I find Civil War images, documents, and so forth on-line?
      [This is a particularly new section which will probably change
       a lot in coming months.  Your humble FAQ maintainer asks the
       net cruisers among you to keep him notified of changes and
         A large collection of e-texts relating to the Civil War
      including the Confederate Constitution, secession ordinances,
      Lincoln's Inaugurals, the Emancipation Proclamation, lists of
      CS Navy ships, the autobiography of CSA Gen. D.H. Maury, plus
      images of famous people on both sides are available at the
      anonymous ftp archive site   /pub/history/military/civil_war_usa
          (Lincoln things are under /pub/history/political/united_states)
      For those who can use WWW and related services, Brian Boyle is
      providing a central Civil War URL
      which links to many of the documents mentioned above.  The
      Library of Congress also has a Civil War image collection for
      WWW at the URL

Part 1: The beginning of the War

Q1.1:  When did state X secede?
      Before Lincoln's call for troops, the following states seceded:
      1. South Carolina, Convention passed Ordinance of Secession,
         20 Dec 1860
      2. Mississippi, Convention passed Ordinance of Secession, 9 Jan 1861
      3. Florida, Convention passed Ordinance of Secession, 10 Jan 1861
      4. Alabama, Convention passed Ordinance of Secession, 11 Jan 1861
      5. Georgia, Convention passed Ordinance of Secession, 19 Jan 1861
      6. Louisiana, Convention passed Ordinance of Secession, 26 Jan 1861
      7. Texas, Convention passed Ordinance of Secession, 1 Feb 1861, to
         take effect 2 Mar 1861 provided it was ratified by the voters
         on 23 Feb 1861.  Texas admitted to the Confederacy, 2 Mar 1861.
      After Lincoln's call for troops on 15 Apr 1861, the following
      states seceded:
      8. Virginia, Convention rejected secession 4 Apr 1861, Convention
         passed Ordinance of Secession 17 Apr 1861 and ratified C.S.A.
         Constitution, both subject to ratification of voters 23 May 1861.
         Virginia admitted to CSA 7 May 1861.
      9. Arkansas, Convention rejected secession ordinance on 18 Mar 1861
         and called for referendum in August, Convention passed Ordinance
         of Secession 6 May 1861.  Arkansas admitted to C.S.A. 20 May 1861.
      10. North Carolina, Voters rejected calling a Convention 28 Feb 1861,
          Legislature called Convention 1 May 1861, Convention passed
          Ordinance of Secession 20 May 1861.  North Carolina provisionally
          admitted to CSA 17 May 1861.
      11. Tennessee, Voters rejected calling a Convention 9 Feb 1861,
          On 6 May 1861 Legislature passed "Declaration of
          Independence" and ratification of CSA Constitution subject
          to referendum on 8 June 1861.  Tennessee admitted to CSA
          17 May 1861.
      The following two states never seceded via any mechanism provided
      by a legitimate government:
      12. Missouri, Convention rejected secession 9 Mar 1861, rump
          legislature passed Ordinance of Secession 31 Oct 1861 and
          requested admission to CSA.  Missouri admitted to CSA
          28 Nov 1861.
      13. Kentucky, southern sympathizers called for convention Oct 1861,
          Convention passed Ordinance of Secession 18 Nov 1861. Kentucky
          admitted to the CSA 10 Dec 1861.
      Sources: Civil War Day-by-Day; Official Records, Ser. IV, Vol 1.

Q1.2:  Was there a declaration of war or something?
      1.  The United States never declared war.  This was in keeping with
          its position that the rebel states did not form a new nation,
          rather they were states in which a rebellion was taking place.
          Abraham Lincoln issued a Proclamation that an insurrection
          existed in the states of SC, GA, FL, AL, MS, LA, and TX on
          15 Apr 1861 (Messages & Papers of the Presidents,V,p3214).
      2.  The Confederate States passed "An Act recognizing the existence
          of war between the United States and the Confederate States" on
          6 May 1861.  This act exempted MD, NC, TN, KY, AR, MO, DE, and
          the territories of AZ and NM, and the Indian Territory south of
      Sources: McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom; Official Records, Ser. IV,
          Vol. 1

Q1.3: What were the populations of the states at the outbreak of the war?

      The following statistics are from J.C.G. Kennedy, Supt. of Census,
      _Population of the United States in 1860_ (Washington, G.P.O., 1864)

      State    White   Free Colored  Slave    Total[1]   Military[2]
        AL    526,271      2,690    435,080    964,201     99,967
        AR    324,143        144    111,115    435,450     65,231
        CA    323,177      4,086          0    379,994    169,975
        CT    451,504      8,627          0    460,147     94,411
        DE     90,589     19,829      1,798    112,216     18,273
        FL     77,747        932     61,745    140,424     15,739
        GA    591,550      3,500    462,198  1,057,286    111,005
        IL  1,704,291      7,628          0  1,711,951    375,026
        IN  1,338,710     11,428          0  1,350,428    265,295
        IA    673,779      1,069          0    674,913    139,316
    [3] KS    106,390        625          2    107,206     27,976
        KY    919,484     10,684    225,483  1,155,684    180,589
        LA    357,456     18,647    331,726    708,002     83,456
        ME    626,947      1,327          0    628,279    122,238
        MD    515,918     83,942     87,189    687,049    102,715
        MA  1,221,432      9,602          0  1,231,066    258,419
        MI    736,142      6,799          0    749,113    164,007
        MN    169,395        259          0    172,023     41,226
        MS    353,899        773    436,631    791,305     70,295
        MO  1,063,489      3,572    114,931  1,182,012    232,781
        NH    325,579        494          0    326,073     63,610
    [4] NJ    646,699     25,318         18    672,035    132,219
        NY  3,831,590     49,005          0  3,880,735    796,881
        NC    629,942     30,463    331,059    992,622    115,369
        OH  2,302,808     36,673          0  2,339,511    459,534
        OR     52,160        128          0     52,465     15,781
        PA  2,849,259     56,949          0  2,906,215    555,172
        RI    170,649      3,952          0    174,620     35,502
        SC    291,300      9,914    402,406    703,708     55,046
        TN    826,722      7,300    275,719  1,109,801    159,353
        TX    420,891        355    182,566    604,215     92,145
        VT    314,369        709          0    315,098     60,580
    [5] VA  1,047,299     58,042    490,865  1,596,318    196,587
        WI    773,693      1,171          0    775,881    159,335
     Territories                                           76,214 (all terr.)
        CO     34,231         46          0     34,277
        DK      2,576          0          0      4,837
        NE     28,696         67         15     28,841
    [6] NV      6,812         45          0      6,857
    [7] NM     82,979         85          0     93,516
        UT     40,125         30         29     40,273
        WA     11,138         30          0     11,594
        DC     60,763     11,131      3,185     75,080     12,797

      The bottom line:
                White    Free Colored   Slave     Total     Military
      Union*  21,475,373   355,310     432,650  22,339,989  4,559,872
      CSA      5,447,220   132,760   3,521,110   9,103,332  1,064,193
       *includes MO and KY, DC, and territories

      The following statistics are from J.C.G. Kennedy, Supt. of Census,
      _Preliminary Report on the Eighth Census, 1860_ (Washington,
      G.P.O., 1862)
      The Five Civilized Tribes
        Tribe     White   Free Colored  Slave    Indian[8]
        Choctaw    802        67        2,297    18,000 (est.)
        Cherokee   713        17        2,504    22,000 (est.)
        Creek      319       277        1,651    15,000 (est.)
        Chickasaw  146        13          917     5,000 (est.)
        Seminole     8        30            0     5,000 (est.)
          Total                                  65,680

      The following statistics are from J.C.G. Kennedy, Supt. of Census,
      _Agriculture in the United States in 1860_ (Washington: G.P.O.,
      1864) [ratios calculated by JMS]
       State   Slave-   Slaveholders/    slaves/
               holders   white pop. (%)   slaveholder
        AL      33,730      6.4             12.9
        AR      11,481      3.5              9.7
        DE         587      0.65             3.1
        FL       5,152      6.6             12.0
        GA      41,084      6.9             11.2
        KY      38,645      4.2              5.8
        LA      22,033      6.1             15.0
        MD      13,783      2.7              6.3
        MS      30,943      8.7             14.1
        MO      24,320      2.3              4.7
        NC      34,658      5.5              9.6
        SC      26,701      9.2             15.1
        TN      36,844      4.4              7.5
        TX      21,878      5.2              8.3
        VA      52,128      5.0              9.4
        Total  393,967      4.9 [9]         10.0
       The number for slaveholders includes just the slaveholder, not
       the spouse or children.  An average family size was about 5, so
       the percentages above may be multiplied by 5 to arrive at the
       usual rule of thumb that about 25% of Southern households owned

      [1] Total includes other racial/ethnic groups.
      [2] White males aged 18-45
      [3] KS became a state in 1861; it was a territory during the Census.
      [4] "Slaves" are "colored apprentices for life."
      [5] Includes the present state of WV
      [6] NV became a state in 1864.
      [7] White includes "half-breeds."
      [8] Only the total Indian population was given the report.  The
          breakdown by tribe is estimated from the slave/Indian ratio
          reported for each tribe.
      [9] White population used was the total of the 15 states in the

Part 2: Battles and fighting forces

Q2.1:  What are the alternate names of various battles?
        Union                    Confederate
      Bull Run, VA              Manassas       21 July 1861
      Wilsons Creek, MO         Oak Hills      10 Aug 1861
      Logan's Cross Roads, VA   Mill Springs   19 Jan 1862
      Pea Ridge, AR             Elkhorn Tavern 6-8 Mar 1862
      Pittsburg Landing, TN     Shiloh         6-7 Apr 1862
      Bull Run, VA (2nd)        Manassas       29-30 Aug 1862
      Antietam, MD              Sharpsburg     17 Sept 1862
      Chapell Hills, KY         Perryville     8 Oct 1862
      Stones River, TN          Murfreesboro   30 Dec 1862-2 Jan 1863
      Elk Creek, Ind. Terr.     Honey Springs  17 July 1863
      Sabine Cross Roads, LA    Mansfield       8 Apr 1864
      Opequon Creek, VA         Winchester     19 Sept 1864

Q2.2:  Who were the U.S. Generals at the out-break of the war, and who
        were the first Generals appointed after the war began?
          [Contributed by Carlton Andrews (]

                      USA Generals  -  Prior to Army Expansion

          Name                       Rank  *Commission Date    Age 7/1/61
          ----                       ----   --------------    ----------
          Winfield Scott             M.G.   6/25/1841                75
          John Ellis Wool            B.G.   6/25/1841                77
          David Emanuel Twiggs       B.G.   6/30/1846
                [Twiggs was dismissed 3/1/1861 for handing/surrendering all
                 men and equipment in Texas to the state of Texas]
          William Selby Harney       B.G.   6/14/1858                60
                [Harney went to Europe rather than fight for either side]
          Joseph E. Johnston      QM-B.G.   6/28/1860  [staff appt.]
          Edwin Vose Sumner          B.G.   3/16/1861                64

                      ARMY EXPANSION May 1861

                      Regular Commissions
          George Brinton McClellan   M.G.   5/14/1861                34
          John Charles Fremont       M.G.   5/14/1861                48
          Henry Wager Halleck        M.G.   5/19/1861                46
          Joseph K. F. Mansfield     B.G.   5/06/1861                57
          Irvin McDowell             B.G.   5/14/1861                42
          Robert Anderson            B.G.   5/15/1861                56
          William Starke Rosecrans   B.G.   5/16/1861                41

                      Volunteer Commissions
          John Adams Dix             M.G.   5/16/1861                62
          Nathaniel Prentiss Banks   M.G.   5/16/1861                45
          Benjamin Franklin Butler   M.G.   5/16/1861                42
          37 officers                B.G.   5/17/1861

          * Commission Date is date to rank from, not date appointed.

Q2.3:  Who were the first C.S. Generals appointed?
      [31 Aug 1861 will be the cut-off date for this answer.]
      Generals in the CS Army (all were appointed on 31 Aug 1861, to
      date from the date given below):
        Samuel Cooper                     16 May 1861 (Adjt & Insp. Gen)
        Albert Sidney Johnston            30 May 1861
        Robert Edward Lee                 14 Jun 1861
        Joseph Eggleston Johnston          4 Jul 1861
        Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard 21 Jul 1861
      Prior to 16 May 1861, the highest rank in the CS Regular Army was
      Brigadier General (5 were authorized):
        Samuel Cooper                     16 Mar 1861 (Adjt & Insp. Gen)
        Robert Edward Lee                 14 May 1861
        Joseph Eggleston Johnston         14 May 1861

      In addition to the CS Regular Army, there was the Provisional
      Army (PACS).  Which had the ranks of Brigadier and Major General.
      Major Generals (PACS):
        David Emanuel Twiggs  22 May 1861
        Leonidas Polk         25 Jun 1861
      The first Brigadier General (PACS) was
        Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard  1 Mar 1861
        at least 35 others appointed between Mar and Aug 1861
      The rank of Lieutenant General was authorized for the PACS
      on 18 Sep 1862.

Q2.4:  What were the naval ranks during the Civil War?
      From: roy_wells@qm.vitalink.COM (Roy H. Wells)
         Here is a short  discourse from a friend and fellow
      re-enactor, Richard Staley (who commands the 69th NY
      Infantry in the NCWA):

      Todd's American Military Equippage: 1851-1870 lists naval ranks
      during the CW as:
        Admiral (grade created for David Farragut 25 July, 1866)
        Vice Admiral (grade created 21 December, 1864, Farragut being the
                first to hold this rank)
        Flag Officer (title created 16 July, 1862)
        Commodore (courtesy title until 16 July, 1862 when the grade was
                formally adopted)
        Lieut. Commander (grade created 16 July, 1862)
        Master (grade existed throughout the period;  originally "sailing
                master"; became a commissioned rank in 1862 and after the
                period was changed to Lieutenant Junior Grade.)
        Ensign (title for a passed Midshipman after 16 July, 1862)
        Passed Midshipman (Midshipman who had passed his examination for
                promotion to Lieutenant;  called Ensign after 1862 although
                the term continued in use.)
        Midshipman (grade given undergraduates of the U.S. Naval Academy;
                not strictly in the line of the Navy in the latter part of
                the century).
        Master's Mate
        Shipped or Rated Master's Mate (usually a warrant officer).

Q2.5:  What were the organization and strengths of various units in the
     [Compiled with the assistance of:
      Stephen Schmidt  and
      Dominic J. Dal Bello ]

     (A good source of information is Richard Zimmermann, _Unit
     Organizations of the Civil War_.)

        First, always remember that most Civil War units in the field
     were only at anywhere between 20% to 40% of their full strength.
     Thus, while in theory a company contained 100 men, and would be
     recruited at that size, by the time they reached the army they'd
     be down to 60 or so and after the first battle down to 40 or so.
     The full-strength sizes are given below, so remember to knock
     them down by 50% or more when reading about units engaged in
        Second, due to casualties among the officers, frequently units
     would find themselves commanded by an officer one or two grades
     below the rank he should have for the job (e.g., a regiment
     commanded by a lieutenant colonel or major).
        Third, keep in mind that in the early stages of the war and in
     the more remote areas (such as the Trans-Mississippi), unit
     organizations tended to deviate more from the norm.  What follows
     will be the ideal, your mileage may vary.

     I. Infantry.

     The basic unit is the company, commanded by a captain
        100 men = 2 platoons = 4 sections = 8 squads
     A company has the following officers (commissioned and non-coms):
        Captain (1), 1st. Lieut. (1),  2nd. Lieut. (1)
        1st Sgt. (1), Sgts. (4) and Corporals (8).
     When the company was divided into platoons, the captain commanded
     one and the 1st Lt. the other.  There was a sergeant for each
     section, and a corporal for each squad.  The 1st Sgt. "ran" the
     whole company.

     Battalions and regiments were formed by organizing companies
     together. In the volunteers (Union and Confederate), 10 companies
     would be organized together into a regiment.  The regiment was
     commanded by a colonel. A regiment has the following staff (one
     of each):
       Col.; Lt. Col.; Major; Adjutant (1st Lt); Surgeon (maj.);
       Asst Surgeon (capt.); Quartermaster (lieut); Commissary (lieut);
       Sgt-Major; Quartermaster Sgt.
     There were also volunteer organizations containing less than 10
     companies: if they contained from 4-8 companies, they were called
     battalions, and usually were commanded by a major or lieutenant
        The (Union) Regular regts organized before the war (1st-10th)
     were 10 company regiments like the volunteers.  When the NEW
     Regular regts. were authorized, a different organization was
     used. The new Regular regts were organized 8 companies to a
     battalion and 2 battalions to the regiment. Thus new Regular
     regts contained 16 companies.  These regiments frequently fought
     as battalions rather than as single regiments.  However, often
     the 2nd battalion could not be recruited up to strength, in which
     case they fought as a single regiment.

     A brigade is formed from 3 to 6 regiments and commanded by a
     brigadier general.  The South tended to use more regiments than
     the North, thus having bigger brigades.  At some times in the
     war, some artillery would be attached to the infantry brigade:
     see the Artillery section below. Each brigade would also have a
     varying number of staff officers.

     A division is commanded by a major general and is composed of
     from 2 to 6 brigades. In the North usually 3 or 4, but in the
     South normally 4 to 6. Thus, a Southern division tended to be
     almost twice as large as its Northern counterpart, if the
     regiments are about the same size. At some times in the war, some
     artillery or, less often, cavalry might be attached: see the
     Cavalry and Artillery sections below. Each division would also
     have a varying number of staff officers.

     A corps is commanded by a major general (Union) or a lieutenant
     general (Confederate) and is composed of from 2 to 4 divisions.
     Again the North tended to have 2 or 3, while the South had 3 or 4.
     Each corps would also have a varying number of staff officers.

     Corps within a geographic department were aggregated into armies.
     The number of corps in an army could vary considerably: sometimes
     an army would contain only 1 corps and other times as many as 8.
     Armies were commanded by major generals in the North, and usually
     by full generals in the South. Corps and armies usually had some
     artillery and cavalry attached: again, see below.  Each army
     would also have a varying number of staff officers.

     To summarize, the nominal strengths and commanding officers were:
     UNIT       MEN  Commander  Example NAME
     Company    100  Captain    Co. A, B-K (not J, looks like I)
     Regiment  1000  Colonel    5th N.Y. Infantry
     Brigade   4000  Brig Genl  3rd Brigade (US) **
     Division 12000  Maj. Genl  Cleburne's Division (CS) **
     Corps    36000  Maj. Genl* IIIrd Corps (US) **
     Army            Maj. Genl+ Army of Tennessee (CS) ++
      * or Lt. Gen. in the South
      + or Gen. in the South
      ** Numerical designation was used in the North, the Commander's
         name was typically used in the South, e.g. Forrest's Corps
      ++ The South mainly used the name of the area or state where the
         army operated.  Rivers were used primarily as names in the
         North, e.g. Army of the Cumberland.

     II. Cavalry.

     The basic unit is the troop or company, organized pretty much the
     same way as an infantry company.  The nominal strength was 100.
     If the troop dismounted for battle, 1 man in 4 would stay behind
     to guard the horses.

     In the Union volunteers, 12 cavalry troops form a regiment
     commanded by a colonel.  The Confederate Cavalry used a 10
     company regiment. Again, the (Union) Regulars had a different
     organization: in the Regular units 2 troops form a squadron, 2
     squadrons form a battalion, and 3 battalions form a regiment.
     And again, there were groups of 4-8 companies of volunteer
     cavalry which are called battalions.
        Initially, each Union cavalry regiment was assigned to an
     infantry division.  The Confederates brigaded their cavalry
     together. The Union eventually adopted this organization as well.
     As the war progressed, both sides formed cavalry divisions (again
     the South took the lead).  The North also formed cavalry corps,
     and the South later also adopted this innovation.

     III. Artillery

     The basic unit of artillery is the battery, which has 4 to 6
     guns, is commanded by a captain, and has 4 lieutenants, 12 or so
     noncoms, and 120 or so privates. It typically had 4 guns in the
     South and 6 guns in the North. Batteries were a subdivided into
     gun crews of 20 or so, and into sections of 2 gun crews, 2 or 3
     sections per battery. A gun crew was commanded by a sergeant and
     a section by a lieutenant.

     At the start of the war, each side assigned one battery attached
     to each infantry brigade, plus an artillery reserve under the
     army commander. By mid-1862, larger organizations were used.  The
     basic unit contained 3 or 4 batteries of artillery; it was called
     a battalion in the South and a brigade in the North (same unit,
     just a different name) and it was commanded by a colonel,
     lieutenant colonel, or major.

     After 1862, it was typical for each infantry division to have an
     artillery battalion attached, and each corps or army to have a
     reserve of two to five battalions. Each division's artillery
     usually fought along side the infantry, while the corps/army
     reserves were used to form the massed batteries. The artillery
     reserve was commanded by a brigadier general or colonel.

     IV. Other Units

     The Confederacy also organized a number of units known as
     legions. They were mixed-arms units, usually containing 6-8
     companies of infantry, 2-3 companies of cavalry, and a couple
     artillery pieces. Generally as soon as they reached the
     battlefield they were broken apart, the infantry forming a
     battalion, the cavalry being reassigned to some other unit, and
     the artillery joining the reserve.  Sometimes the infantry
     retained the name legion, more frequently it got renamed to

     Both sides had a rudimentary Marine Corps which fought along the
     Atlantic coast. The US Marines contained about 3,000 men and were
     organized into companies. There doesn't seem to have been any
     organization higher than that: they rarely operated in larger
     units than a few companies anyway. The Confederate Marines had a
     strength of about 300 men organized in four companies and was
     nominally commanded by a colonel.

     The Union organized some "heavy artillery" units, regiments
     containing 10 artillery batteries (about 1800 men) which had
     training both as infantry and as artillerists.  They were
     organized in much the same way as infantry units, but were quite
     a bit larger to provide enough men to run the guns.  Originally
     raised to man the defenses of Washington, in 1864 they joined the
     Grant's army, and then served more as infantry.

     Both sides raised special regiments of engineers. They were
     organized similarly to the infantry regiments and were expert in
     building forts, entrenchments, bridges, and similar military
     construction. They were combatants but usually didn't do any
     fighting, instead continued to work on construction even when
     under fire.

     Both sides raised special sharpshooter units. The Confederate
     units tended to be independent companies, but the Union raised
     two sharpshooter regiments (Berdan's 1st and 2nd US
     Sharpshooters). These regiments were organized as infantry.
     Usually they were assigned to skirmish duty, or they would be
     allowed to roam around the battlefield to find good positions
     from which to shoot at enemy officers in the rear.

Q2.6:  What is the difference between grapeshot and canister?
     Here is a list of the various ammunitions used in the war.
     References are:
     [1] "Ammunition", in Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th ed (1911).
     [2] F.T. Miller, ed., "Photographic History of the Civil War,"
         vol. 5, "Forts and Artillery" (1957 edition).
     [3] "Historical Times Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Civil War"

     The main division is between shot (did not carry its own explosive
     charge) and shell (carried an explosive charge).

     For shot:
     1. solid shot-- the standard cannon ball (or bullet shape in the in
        case of a rifled gun)
     2. canister-- smaller shot placed in a sheet iron cylinder.  The
        cylinder disintegrated when the gun was fired.
     3. grape-- smaller shot layered between iron plates and held together
        by a central bolt. Presumably the bolt broke when the gun fired
        allowing the shot to scatter.  Examples of grape shot can be seen
        in [2] pp. 76, 76 and 191.
     4. quilted grapeshot-- small shot covered in canvass and tied up with
        rope which a gave it a quilted look.  An example of quilted shot
        can be seen in [2], p. 177.
     5. chain shot-- two shot joined by a chain.  Used to destroy rigging
        of sailing ships.
     6. bar shot-- two shot joined by a solid bar (like a dumbbell).  Used
        to destroy rigging to sailing ships.
     7. red hot shot-- shot heated before firing.  Used to start fires on

     For shell:
     1. standard shell-- hollow iron projectile filled with explosive
     2. shrapnel shell-- hollow iron projectile filled with explosive and
        with small solid shot which scattered upon explosion.  The
        spherical version of this was called "spherical case" or simply
        "case." The term "case" was also used for the name of the class of
        rounds which scattered small shot, thus canister, grape, and
        spherical case were all classified together as "case shot."
        (confusing, isn't it?)
     Shell was fitted with either a timed fuse (which ignited the charge
     after some fixed delay) or a percussion fuse (which ignited the
     charge upon impact).

     Standard solid shot and standard shell were primarily for destruction
     of materiel (viz. fortifications or ships).  Canister, grape, quilted
     shot and shrapnel were used against personnel.  However, there were
     also varieties of (non-shrapnel) shell designed for use against
     personnel (the hollow was shaped so the shell would split into a
     relatively few large pieces about the size of small shot).

+Q2.7:  How did prisoner exchanges and paroles work?
         Prisoner exchanges were a way for captors to avoid the
     responsibility and burden of guarding, housing, feeding, clothing, and
     providing medical care for POW's.
         Exchange of prisoners began with informal agreements between the
     commanders of the armies after particular battles, but the practice
     was codified by a cartel between the USA and CSA in July 1862.  The
     cartel was suspended by the US in May 1863, but individual commanders
     again arranged exchanges and paroles until the US called a halt to
     all exchanges in early 1864.  When the CSA agreed to correct some
     irregularities in its earlier exchanges, and when it agreed to treat
     captured black troops equally with whites, the 1862 cartel was again
     put into operation in early 1865.
         Commissioners of exchange were appointed by each government,
     and they exchanged and compared lists and computed how many on each
     side were to be exchanged.  There were official points where prisoners
     were to be taken for exchange:  City Point, VA in the East and
     Vicksburg in the West.  Equal ranks were exchanged equally, and
     higher ranks could be exchanged for some number of lower ranks
     according to an agreed upon list of equivalents (e.g. 1 colonel
     equaled 15 privates). If one side still had prisoners left, after the
     other side had exhausted its supply of prisoners by exchange, those
     excess prisoners would be released on parole.
         Paroled prisoners were returned to their side, but were prohibited
     by an oath of honor from taking up arms or performing any duty that
     soldiers normally performed (like garrison or guard duty) until they
     were properly exchanged.  Generally each side maintained parole camps
     where their paroled soldiers were kept while they awaited exchange,
     but in other cases the parolee was allowed to return home until
     [Sources: Boatner, Civil War Dictionary; Miller, ed, "Prisons and
     Hospitals", vol 8, Photographic History of the Civil War]

Part 3: The end of the War

Q3.1:  When did the war end?
      9 April 1865, Gen. R.E. Lee surrendered the Army of Northern
         Virginia at Appomattox Courthouse, VA
     26 April 1865, Gen. J.E. Johnston surrendered the Army of
         Tennessee et al. at Durham, NC
      4 May 1865, Gen. Richard Taylor surrendered Dept. of Alabama,
         Mississippi, and Eastern Louisiana at Citronelle, AL
     13 May 1865, engagement at Palmito Ranch, near Brownsville, TX,
         often taken to be the last engagement of the war
      2 June 1865, Gen. E.K. Smith surrendered the Trans-Mississippi
         Department at Galveston, TX (the surrender had been agreed to
         by Smith's representative, Lt Gen S.B. Buckner, in New Orleans
         on 26 May)
     23 June 1865, Brig. Gen. Stand Watie's troops in the Indian
         Territory surrendered at Doaksville.  Watie was the last
         general to surrender his troops.
     13 June 1865, Pres. Johnson proclaimed the insurrection in Tennessee
         at an end. (Messages and Papers of the Presidents, V, p3515)
      4 Nov 1865, The raider CSS Shenandoah surrendered in Liverpool to
         British authorities.  For several months after the surrender
         of ground forces, this last of the CSA's naval vessels had
         been burning USA shipping, with her captain, James I.
         Waddell, still thinking the war was in progress.  Her last
         fight was against a whaling fleet in the Bering Sea on 28 Jun
         1865. After this, the vessel was the object of a worldwide
         search.  On August 2, Waddell had contact with a British
         ship, whose captain informed him that the CSA was no more.
         With this in mind, he put guns below decks and sailed to
         England, where the ship was surrendered to the British
         Admiralty.  Upon the boarding of the vessel by British
         authorities, the last sovereign Confederate flag was furled.
         [contrib. by PDunn]
      2 Apr 1866, Pres. Johnson proclaimed the insurrection ended
         in all the former Confederate States except Texas.  This was
         his recognition of the legitimacy of the governments formed
         under his Reconstruction proclamation. (Mess. & Pap. V, p3627)
     20 Aug 1866, Pres. Johnson proclaimed that Texas had complied with
         the conditions of his Reconstruction proclamation and declared
         the insurrection in Texas at an end. (Mess. & Pap. V, p3632)

Q3.2:  If the rebel states were never considered legally out of the
       Union, how was Reconstruction justified?
          Although the states remained part of the U.S., they had no
      loyal governments, and the authority for the federal government
      to provide mechanisms to erect loyal state governments was derived
      from Article IV, Sec. 4 of the Constitution.  That section provides
      that the United States shall guarantee to each state a republican
      form of government.
          Another provision of the Constitution which is important was
      Article I, Sec. 5 which provides that each House of Congress shall
      be the judge of the qualifications of its members.  This allowed
      the Congress to refuse to seat delegations from former rebel states
      until the states had met the conditions of the Reconstruction Acts.
          The authoritative constitutional justification for reconstruction
      can be found in the Supreme Court's decision in Texas v. White
      (74 U.S. 227-243) delivered 12 Apr 1869.

Part 4: Genealogy and Unit Histories

Q4.1:  My ancestor fought in the war-- how do I find out about his service?
      First, here are two good reference books that contain much more
      information than can be given in this FAQ:
          George K. Schweitzer, Civil War Genealogy,
             available from: G.K. Schweitzer, 7914 Gleason  C-1136,
               Knoxville, TN 37919
          B.H. Groene, Tracing Your Civil War Ancestor
                       ISBN 0-345-36192-X
      An additional reference dealing in Confederate records is
         James C. Neagles, Confederate Research Sources: A Guide to
            Archive Collections (ISBN 0-916489-11-6, Ancestry Publications,
            P.O. Box 476, Salt Lake City, UT  84110)

      The basic information on your ancestor that you will need to know
      is his state, regiment, and (if possible) company, for example:
      Levi Lindsey Sanders, 6th Texas Cavalry (CSA), Company I.  If you don't
      know the regiment name, you can often find it in 19th century county
      histories for the county your ancestor lived in.  Also be careful
      with Confederate regiments; they were frequently referred to by
      the commander's name when they in fact had a numerical designation,
      for example: 2nd Texas Partisan Rangers a.k.a. Stone's Regiment
      a.k.a. Chisum's Regiment.  There are frequently indexes listing all
      the soldiers from a state which were published in the 19th century
      as well (this is almost without exception for the Union states, more
      rare for the Confederate states).  The National Archives has published
      a Consolidated Index to Compiled Confederate Service Records on
      microfilm which is available in many large historical libraries (the
      service records themselves are also frequently on microfilm at the
      library).  A useful bibliography of regimental and state histories
      is C.E. Dornbusch, Military Bibliography of the Civil War (4 vols).

      Assuming that you have the above information, you can obtain copies
      of your ancestor's service records by writing to the National
      Archives.  Write to:
          Reference Services Branch (NNIR),
          National Archives and Records Service,
          8th and Pennsylvania Ave, NW,
          Washington, DC 20408
      and request NATF Form 80.  You may wish to request 3 or more copies,
      especially if you are researching a Union veteran or multiple veterans.
      When you have the forms, fill one out as completely as possible and
      check "military service" (Schweitzer recommends that you write in red
      ink next to the veteran's name "Please send complete contents of
      files.")  If your ancestor fought for the Union, he may have a pension
      file; you may fill out a second Form 80 and check "pension record"
      (again Schweitzer recommends requesting the entire contents of the
      file).  (The National Archives will not have pension records for
      Confederate veterans, but some former Confederate state did give
      pensions and their archives may have the records, details can be
      found in the above references especially Neagles.)  Some weeks later,
      the Archives will send you a letter indicating what they have located
      and how much it will cost to copy it.

*Q4.2:  How can I find information about a particular regiment?
     For the Union side, the definite first place to look for a brief
     history of a regiment is
        F.H. Dyer, _A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion_, 2 vols.
     It contains, among lots of other useful information, brief
     histories of just about every Northern regiment.

     On the Confederate side, there is, unfortunately, no counterpart
     to Dyer's two-volume work.  For this reason, it may be best to
     go immediately to Dornbusch (see below).  However,
        C.E. Evans , _Confederate Military History_
     is a 13 volume work (a later reprint was expanded to 15 vols),
     and each volume deals with one or two of the Confederate States.
     There was no attempt to write a sketch on every regiment in every
     state, so there is no guarantee that your particular regiment
     will be mentioned.  Another source, for 6 of the Confederate
     States, is
        Stewart Sifakis, _Compendium of the Confederate Armies_(New
        York: Facts on File, 1991-), 5 vols. (maybe more).
     Known volumes in this series are for VA, TN, AL, FL and AR, and

     A useful bibliography of regimental histories, both North and
     South, is
        C.E. Dornbusch, _Military Bibliography of the Civil War_, 4
     It contains entries on books and articles which have been written
     about Civil War regiments through about 1987.

     Finally, you can consult the Index volume to the _Official
     Records of the Union and Confederate Armies_ and start wading
     through the O.R.  This may be your only alternative for
     particularly obscure units.  The index lists the regiments by
    *state.  It is a good idea to check the index for the name of the
    *regiment's commander and perhaps for the brigade commander.

     Keep in mind the regiment's place in the army structure.
     Histories of battles or campaigns may not mention every regiment,
     but they may mention the brigade or division the regiment is in.
     As an example, Ludwell Johnson's _Red River Campaign_ indexes
     very few regiments, but the brigade commanders are indexed and the
     brigades are shown on the maps.  The 2nd Texas Partisan Rangers
     was in Major's cavalry brigade and Green's division, so its
     activities can be inferred by following the action at the brigade
     or division level even though the regiment itself is not mentioned
     anywhere in the book.

Part 5: Miscellaneous

Q5.1:  What is the "Stars and Bars"?
      The "Stars and Bars" IS NOT the familiar "rebel" flag one
      sees adorning license plates and carried by the KKK-- that
      is the CS Naval Jack, based on the CS battle flag.
          The Stars and Bars design was approved by a committee
      of the Provisional Congress on 4 Mar 1861, but was never made
      official by law.  The bottom red stripe ran the entire length
      of the flag and was 6 units long and 1 unit wide.  Above it,
      and to the left was a blue square, 2 units on a side.  In the
      blue square, a circle of stars (one for each state, initially
      seven, to represent the original seven Confederate States,
      eventually thirteen).  To the right of the square, two stripes,
      white below, red above, each 1 unit wide and 4 units long.
         The Stars and Bars' similarity to the U.S. flag caused
      problems of mistaken identity at 1st Bull Run/Manassas, so a
      battle flag for the Army of Northern Virginia was designed.
      It was blue saltire ("X" shape) on a red SQUARE field.  On the
      saltire was placed stars equal to the number of Confederate
      States (in principle, eleven at the time of the initial design,
      but up to thirteen by the end of 1862).  This flag design was
      soon picked up by the other armies and branches of service.  The
      CS Navy flew an oblong version as a Naval Jack which is identical
      to the oblong "rebel" flags seen today.
         By a law approved 1 May 1863, a new national flag was
      adopted by the Confederate States-- the "Stainless Banner".
      It was a field of white twice as long as wide, in the upper
      left was the battle flag (square) with a side two-thirds the
      width of the field.  This flag had the drawback that when
      partially wrapped around the flagstaff, the non-white part
      was covered.  This made it look like a white flag of surrender.
      Furthermore, its length to width ratio of 2 to 1 made it an
      unusually long flag which exacerbated the problem.
         A law approved 4 Mar 1865, modified the "Stainless Banner"
      to correct its problems.  The revised flag was 10 units wide and
      15 units long.  In the upper left was an oblong battle flag 6
      units wide and 7 units long.  The field was white, as before,
      except on the fly end there was a vertical red bar 4 units wide.
      The above dimensions, in terms of units, are derived from the
      much more convoluted description given by the flag act.  This
      flag was the last national flag of the Confederacy.

Q5.2:  What changes to the U.S. flag occurred during the war?
      The admission of two states affected the U.S. flag during the
      war.  By the Flag Act of 1818, a new star was added on the 4 July
      following the admission of a state.  Stars were added on 4 July
      1861 for Kansas (admitted 29 Jan 1861, the 34th state) and
      on 4 July 1863 for West Virginia (admitted 20 June 1863, the 35th
      state).  Nevada, the 36th state, was admitted during the war
      on 31 Oct 1864, so its star was added 4 July 1865 after
      hostilities were over (more or less, see Q3.1).

Q5.3:  How was the state of West Virginia created?
           On 17 Apr 1861, the Va Secession Convention passed an
      ordinance of secession (to be ratified by the people).  A mass
      meeting was held in Clarksburg and called for a Convention of
      western/unionist counties to meet in Wheeling.  The 1st Wheeling
      Convention met 13 May 1861 with 425 delegates from 25 counties,
      it decided to adjourn until after the vote on the secession
      ordinance.  The ordinance of secession was ratified by popular
      vote on 23 May 1861 at which time new legislators were also
           The 2nd Wheeling convention met 11 June 1861 and included the
      western counties' members-elect to the VA legis.  On 19 June, the
      convention passed an ordinance "reorganizing" the state government
      (creating a "loyal" one), and on 20 June, Francis Pierpont was chosen
      governor.  On 1 July 1861, the members of the legislature elected on
      23 May and some holdovers from the old legislature met, finished the
      organization of the Reorganized state govt., and elected 2 U.S.
      Senators-- this government was recognized as legitimate by the U.S.
           On 6 Aug, the Wheeling convention reconvened, and on 20 Aug 1861
      passed an ordinance to divide the state.  The division ordinance was
      ratified by the people on 24 Oct.  From 26 Nov 1861 to 18 Feb 1862,
      the convention wrote a constitution for the proposed new state which
      was approved by the voters on 11 Apr 1862.  Lincoln signed the
      enabling act on 31 Dec 1862 which admitted W.VA on the condition that
      its constitution include a provision for the gradual abolition of
           The Convention reconvened yet again, and amended the state
      constitution to abolish slavery on 12 Feb 1863.  This amendment was
      approved by the voters on 26 Mar 1863.  Lincoln proclaimed (on 20
      Apr 1863) that W.Va would officially be admitted in 60 days.  During
      the interval, W VA elected new officers-- A.I. Boreman was elected 1st
      governor, and VA unionist government under Gov. Pierpont was moved to
      Alexandria.  On 20 June 1863, West Virginia was officially admitted
      to the Union.
           In 1866, Virginia repealed the act approving the division, and
      brought suit in the U.S. Sup. Crt. to have the division overturned.
      In particular, it wanted Berkeley and Jefferson Cos. returned.
      On 10 Mar 1866, Congress passed a joint resolution approving the
      previous transfer of the counties to W.Va.  In 1871 the Supreme
      Court decided in favor of W.Va., thus settling the matter of division.

      Source: Virginia and West Virginia articles in Encyclopaedia
      Britannica, 10th ed.

Q5.4:  What war records did the post-war presidents have?
      From: (Dominic J. Dal Bello)

      OK, I have looked up what the presidents after Lincoln and up
      to McKinley did in the war (from _The Complete Book of US
      Presidents_ or something like that.)

      ANDREW JOHNSON:  In March, 1862, President Lincoln appointed
      Johnson military governor of Tennessee with the rank of brigadier

      ULYSSES GRANT:  No intro necessary (lieut. general)

      RUTHERFORD B. HAYES:  served with the 23d Ohio Infantry from
      June, 1861, entering service as a major.  October '61: promoted
      to lt. colonel; Oct. '62 promoted to colonel, commanding the 23d.
      After Cedar Creek (Oct. '64), promoted to brigadier general of vols.
      Received one of the infinitely many brevets dated March 13, 1865
      to major general, vols.  Resigned June, 1865.

      JAMES GARFIELD:  Commissioned a lt. col in the 42nd Ohio,
      Aug. 1861, and promoted to Col. in November, '61.  Commanded the
      18th Brig. at Middle Creek, Jan. '62, defeating superior numbers,
      and was subsequently promoted to brigadier general.  January, 1863--
      appointed Chief of Staff to Rosecrans, "In a daring ride under
      enemy fire, during which his horse was wounded, he conveyed vital
      information from flank to flank.  For this he was promoted to major
      general."  Rosecrans said of him: "I feel much indebted to him for
      both counsel and assistance in the administration of this army...He
      possesses the instinct and energy of a great commander."  Elected to
      Congress in Sept., 1863 Garfield resigned in Dec., 1863.

      CHESTER A. ARTHUR:  Served in New York State militia from Feb. '58
      to Dec. '62, rising from brigade judge advocate to quartermaster
      genl.  In Jan, '61, appointed engineer-in-chief with rank of
      brigadier general.  Apr, '61, promote asst. QM genl; Feb '62 inspect.
      genl; July `62, QM general.  Spring `62 inspected NY troops in
      Virginia.  War Gov. Edwin D Morgan said: "He was my chief reliance
      in the duties of equipping and transporting troops and munitions of
      war.  In the position of Quarter Master General he displayed not
      only great executive ability and unbending integrity, but great
      knowledge of Army Regulations.  He can say No (which is important)
      without giving offense."

      GROVER CLEVELAND:  Drafted, but purchased a substitute.  Paid $150
      to George Brinske (or Benninsky), a 32-year-old Polish immigrant
      to serve in his place.

      BENJAMIN HARRISON:  17th Indiana Infantry, starting as a 2nd Lt in
      July, 1862.  Eventually rose to brigadier general.  "I am not a
      Julius Caesar, nor a Napoleon, but a plain Hoosier colonel, with no
      more relish for a fight than for a good breakfast and hardly so
      much."  Commanded a brigade under Hooker in the Atlanta campaign.
      Hooker recommended him for promotion to brigadier general for
      foresight, discipline and fighting spirit.

      WILLIAM McKINLEY:  23d Ohio Infantry from June 61 to July '65,
      starting out as a private.  April '62 commissary sergeant; for
      valor at Antietam (in getting rations to the men) promoted to 2nd
      Lt. commd'g Co. D, but put on Col. Rutherford Hayes' staff.  Feb 63,
      promoted 1st Lt.; July 64, promoted captain.  Served on staffs of
      George Crook and Winfield S Hancock.  March, 1865, breveted major.
      In uniform, cast his first vote in 1864 (for Lincoln).  Hayes said
      of him:  "Young as he was, we soon found that in the business of a
      soldier, requiring much executive ability, young McKinley showed
      unusual and unsurpassed capacity, especially for a boy of his age.
      When battles were fought or service was to be performed in warlike
      things, he always filled his place."

Q5.5:  What are the various alternate names for the war?
      From: (Patrick L Dunn)

      >From Davis, B. (1982).  -The Civil War: Strange and Fascinating Facts
      (Originally published as "Our Incredible Civil War).  ISBN 0-517-37151-0
      Chapter 13. Which War?
      pp. 79-80.

      The War for Constitutional Liberty
      The War for Southern Independence
      The Second American Revolution
      The War for States' Rights
      Mr. Lincoln's War
      The Southern Rebellion
      The War for Southern Rights
      The War of the Southern Planters
      The War of the Rebellion
      The Second War for Independence
      The War to Suppress Yankee Arrogance
      The Brothers' War
      The War of Secession
      The Great Rebellion
      The War for Nationality
      The War for Southern Nationality
      The War Against Slavery
      The Civil War Between the States
      The War of the Sixties
      The War Against Northern Aggression
      The Yankee Invasion
      The War for Separation
      The War for Abolition
      The War for the Union
      The Confederate War
      The War of the Southrons
      The War for Southern Freedom
      The War of the North and South
      The Lost Cause
      The War Between the States
      The Late Unpleasantness
      The Late Friction
      The Late Ruction
      The Schism
      The Uncivil War

      and of course....
      THE War, "as if the planet had not heard a shot fired in anger
        since '65."

*Q5.6:  What are good books on the war?
      Steve Schmidt (whale@leland.Stanford.EDU) has compiled a
      recommended reading list which will be posted periodically as a
      supplement to this FAQ.
      Other lists are archived at

      in that directory are two files
        civ_war_biblio_1.txt, which is an annotated bibliography of
      Civil War bibliographies, and
        civ_war_biblio_2.txt, which is a bibliography of Civil War
      books arranged by subject, similar to Schmidt's, but without

Q5.7: How can I get the soundtrack to Ken Burn's "Civil War"?
      From Wayne J. Warf (
         The Civil War 
        Elektra Nonesuch #9 79256-2 copyright 1990
        ISBN# 0-681-92609-0

        Songs of the Civil War
        Produced by Ken Burns and Don DeVito
        Columbia #CK 48607
        Copyright 1991 by Sony Music Entertainment
        no ISBN# listed

Q5.8:  Who was the last surviving veteran of the Civil War?
      [from Paul Cowan (]
      1.  At the time of his death, Dec. 19, 1959, at age 117, Walter
      Washington Williams was accorded the honors of the last surviving
      veteran of the Civil War. Williams, who was granted the honorary
      title of "General" late in life, had been an enlisted man in the
      CSA. Williams spent the War as a forager for Hood's Texas Brigade
      and later served with Quantrill's Raiders. He claimed to have never
      fired a shot, but to have heard some.
      2. As there was some controversy over whether in fact Mr.
      Williams had served in the CSA, it is worth mentioning that the
      penultimate survivor was John Salling of Slant, Va., also a
      Confederate, who died March 19, 1959, in Kingsport, Tenn.
      3.  Albert Woolson of Minnesota was the last member of the Grand
      Army of the Republic to pass, and therefore is very likely the
      last survivor of the Union army.  Woolson was a Union drummer boy
      who died in 1956.
      4. The last surviving Civil War general was Union Brig.Gen.
      Adelbert Ames, who died in 1933 at age 97.
      5. The last surviving Confederate general was Lt. Gen. Simon
      Bolivar Buckner, who died in 1914 at age 90.
        Sources: Ron Kolakowski ( ); Stephen E. Brown
      (; _The Civil War Notebook_, by A.A.
      Nofi; _New York Times_ article, Dec. 19, 1959;_Civil War
      Dictionary_, by M.M. Boatner.

Q5.9:  Did U.S. Grant and R.E. Lee both own slaves and free them?
      [from Paul Cowan ( with amendments by JMS]
      1.  R. E. Lee personally owned at least one slave, an elderly
      house servant that he inherited from his mother.  It is said
      that Lee continued to hold the slave as a kindness, since he
      was too feeble to have made his way as a free man. Although it
      is commonly believed that Lee owned the Arlington Plantation and
      the associated slaves, these and two other plantations totalling
      over 1,000 slaves were the property of Lee's father-in-law, George
      Washington Parke Custis. Upon Mr. Custis's death in 1858, Lee did
      not personally inherit either the plantations or slaves, but was
      named the executor of the estate. Mr. Custis willed that his slaves
      should be freed within 5 years. Legal problems with the fulfillment
      of other terms of the will led Lee to delay in the execution of the
      terms of manumission until the latest specified date. As it happened,
      the Emancipation Proclamation went into effect before that date
      was reached.
      2.  In 1858, while attempting to make a go in civilian life as a
      farmer near St. Louis, Mo., U.S. Grant bought a slave named
      William Jones from his brother-in-law. Grant gave Jones his
      freedom within a year of the purchase, despite the fact the Grant
      desperately needed the money he might have recovered by selling
      him. Grant's wife owned about four slaves in her own name, and
      there is no record of these slaves having been freed prior to
      emancipation in Missouri in 1865.
        Sources: _Lee & Grant_, by Gene Smith; __The Civil War: Strange
      and Fascinating Facts_, by Burke Davis; _Let Us Have Peace:
      Ulysses S. Grant and Politics of War and Reconstruction_ by
      Brooks D. Simpson

Q5.10:  What is the recipe for hardtack?
     Recipes for hardtack vary from extremely simple to more elaborate.
     The simplest is:
         6 parts flour to 1 part water, mix, knead, roll out thin, and
         bake until hard.

     From: (Dominic J. Dal Bello)
      For about 10 crackers (1 ration):
        3 cups flour
        1 1/2 or so tsp baking soda
        1 1/2 tsp  salt
        water to form to a workable dough.
      Kneed the dough.  Crackers should be cut to about 3"x3" (although
      some contractors made 'em 5x5, even 7x7).  When you cut the
      dough, I have found that it should not "pull away" - if it does,
      it is still too wet.  With a nail, or similar object, punch
      about 16 holes in each cracker (4x4 pattern - although this was
      not the only way to do it).  Put in oven at about 375F for about
      50 minutes - this is what I find to work for me; different ovens
      may act differently.  In any event, it should be brownish on the
      bottom.  Your not "baking" cookies here, you are essentially
      trying to heat all the water out of the cracker.  Take out and
      cool. - they should get hard.
         "Evidence" indicates that hardtack was made with
      "self-rising" flour. If I recall right, however, no
      specifications have been found as to what the government actually
      called for. Some recipes call for oil, but I have found that it
      has no effect on the final product.  In any event, experiment
      with kneeding, etc., time to bake to get a final product which
      is a nice hard slab of flour.

     From: (Jeff Zurschmeide)
        2 cups flour
        1/2 cup buttermilk
        2 tbsp baking soda
        2 tbsp vegetable oil
        salt to taste
        water to consistency
      mix up well, (dry ingredients first, then wet) roll out thin,
      bake at 450 degrees about 15 minutes, or to tooth-breaking

     From Merle Kirck:
      We make it for our Living History programs. here it is:
        3 cups milk
        8 cups plain flour
        8 tbl spoons shortening (crisco)
        6 tea spoon brown sugar (opt)
        3 tea spoon salt
      mix, roll on floured board, to 1/2" thickness. cut into 3"
      squares, punch holes 3 rolls of 3 with ice pick, Lightly grease
      baking pan, Bake in oven 400 deg for 45 min or till golden brown,
      cool in open air. Don't store in plastic (no plastic in 1800's)
      because of moisture.
        This recipe is the same they used except the sugar. We have
      found that a good dose of cinnamon, and not cooking it as long is
      good eatin'

***End of alt.war.civil.usa FAQ
Justin M. Sanders            "Science is not so much an advance
Research Associate             toward Truth as it is a retreat
Physics Division, ORNL          from Ignorance."      --paraphrasing Wayne Throop

The Civil War and the Internet, Copyright 1995. R. Muns.