Archive-name: civil-war-usa/faq Last-modified: 1994/9/19 Version: 2.05 alt.war.civil.usa FAQ v2.05 (19 September 1994) This is a collection of answers to frequently asked questions in alt.war.civil.usa (and some not-so-frequently, too!) and is posted on or about the 20th of each month. It was compiled by Justin M. Sanders (email@example.com) who tried to be as complete and accurate as possible, but who is definitely human and has probably made several errors. Please send comments, suggestions, or corrections to the address above. The topics covered are (a plus means a new entry, an asterisk means a revised entry): Part 0: alt.war.civil.usa and other net stuff Q0.1: What is this group anyway? Q0.2: Are the FAQ and Reading List archived somewhere? Q0.3: Where can I find Civil War images, documents, and so forth on-line? Part 1: The beginning of the War Q1.1: When did state X secede? Q1.2: Was there a declaration of war or something? Q1.3: What were the populations of the states at the outbreak of the war? Part 2: Battles and fighting forces Q2.1: What are the alternate names of various battles? Q2.2: Who were the U.S. Generals at the out-break of the war, and who were the first Generals appointed after the war began? Q2.3: Who were the first C.S. Generals appointed? Q2.4: What were the naval ranks during the Civil War? Q2.5: What were the organization and strengths of various units in the armies? Q2.6: What is the difference between grapeshot and canister? +Q2.7: How did prisoner exchanges and paroles work? Part 3: The end of the War Q3.1: When did the war end? Q3.2: If the rebel states were never considered legally out of the Union, how was Reconstruction justified? Part 4: Genealogy and Unit Histories Q4.1: My ancestor fought in the war-- how do I find out about his service? *Q4.2: How can I find information about a particular regiment? Part 5: Miscellaneous Q5.1: What is the "Stars and Bars"? Q5.2: What changes to the U.S. flag occurred during the war? Q5.3: How was the state of West Virginia created? Q5.4: What war records did the post-war presidents have? Q5.5: What are the various alternate names for the war? *Q5.6: What are good books on the war? Q5.7: How can I get the soundtrack to Ken Burn's "Civil War"? Q5.8: Who was the last surviving veteran of the Civil War? Q5.9: Did U.S. Grant and R.E. Lee both own slaves and free them? Q5.10: What is the recipe for hardtack? Answers Part 0: alt.war.civil.usa and net stuff Q0.1: What is this group anyway? The USENET newsgroup alt.war.civil.usa was created in the Spring of 1992 at the suggestion of Patrick L. Dunn (Thanks!). The charter of alt.war.civil.usa reads: The purpose of this group is the discussion of topics related to the United States Civil War (1861-65). Topics can involve military, political, social, economic or other factors which impacted upon this period of history. This newsgroup will also serve as a source of information, assistance, or referral for persons seeking guidance via responses from more knowledgeable subscribers. Q0.2: Are the FAQ and Reading List archived somewhere? Yes, the latest versions of the FAQ and Reading List are available for anonymous ftp at: rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet/alt.war.civil.usa/U.S._Civil_War_FAQ /pub/usenet/alt.war.civil.usa/U.S._Civil_War_Reading_List Q0.3: Where can I find Civil War images, documents, and so forth on-line? [This is a particularly new section which will probably change a lot in coming months. Your humble FAQ maintainer asks the net cruisers among you to keep him notified of changes and errors.] A large collection of e-texts relating to the Civil War including the Confederate Constitution, secession ordinances, Lincoln's Inaugurals, the Emancipation Proclamation, lists of CS Navy ships, the autobiography of CSA Gen. D.H. Maury, plus images of famous people on both sides are available at the anonymous ftp archive site byrd.mu.wvnet.edu /pub/history/military/civil_war_usa (Lincoln things are under /pub/history/political/united_states) For those who can use WWW and related services, Brian Boyle is providing a central Civil War URL http://www.digimark.net/bdboyle/index.html which links to many of the documents mentioned above. The Library of Congress also has a Civil War image collection for WWW at the URL http://rs6.loc.gov/amhome.html Part 1: The beginning of the War Q1.1: When did state X secede? Before Lincoln's call for troops, the following states seceded: 1. South Carolina, Convention passed Ordinance of Secession, 20 Dec 1860 2. Mississippi, Convention passed Ordinance of Secession, 9 Jan 1861 3. Florida, Convention passed Ordinance of Secession, 10 Jan 1861 4. Alabama, Convention passed Ordinance of Secession, 11 Jan 1861 5. Georgia, Convention passed Ordinance of Secession, 19 Jan 1861 6. Louisiana, Convention passed Ordinance of Secession, 26 Jan 1861 7. Texas, Convention passed Ordinance of Secession, 1 Feb 1861, to take effect 2 Mar 1861 provided it was ratified by the voters on 23 Feb 1861. Texas admitted to the Confederacy, 2 Mar 1861. After Lincoln's call for troops on 15 Apr 1861, the following states seceded: 8. Virginia, Convention rejected secession 4 Apr 1861, Convention passed Ordinance of Secession 17 Apr 1861 and ratified C.S.A. Constitution, both subject to ratification of voters 23 May 1861. Virginia admitted to CSA 7 May 1861. 9. Arkansas, Convention rejected secession ordinance on 18 Mar 1861 and called for referendum in August, Convention passed Ordinance of Secession 6 May 1861. Arkansas admitted to C.S.A. 20 May 1861. 10. North Carolina, Voters rejected calling a Convention 28 Feb 1861, Legislature called Convention 1 May 1861, Convention passed Ordinance of Secession 20 May 1861. North Carolina provisionally admitted to CSA 17 May 1861. 11. Tennessee, Voters rejected calling a Convention 9 Feb 1861, On 6 May 1861 Legislature passed "Declaration of Independence" and ratification of CSA Constitution subject to referendum on 8 June 1861. Tennessee admitted to CSA 17 May 1861. The following two states never seceded via any mechanism provided by a legitimate government: 12. Missouri, Convention rejected secession 9 Mar 1861, rump legislature passed Ordinance of Secession 31 Oct 1861 and requested admission to CSA. Missouri admitted to CSA 28 Nov 1861. 13. Kentucky, southern sympathizers called for convention Oct 1861, Convention passed Ordinance of Secession 18 Nov 1861. Kentucky admitted to the CSA 10 Dec 1861. Sources: Civil War Day-by-Day; Official Records, Ser. IV, Vol 1. Q1.2: Was there a declaration of war or something? 1. The United States never declared war. This was in keeping with its position that the rebel states did not form a new nation, rather they were states in which a rebellion was taking place. Abraham Lincoln issued a Proclamation that an insurrection existed in the states of SC, GA, FL, AL, MS, LA, and TX on 15 Apr 1861 (Messages & Papers of the Presidents,V,p3214). 2. The Confederate States passed "An Act recognizing the existence of war between the United States and the Confederate States" on 6 May 1861. This act exempted MD, NC, TN, KY, AR, MO, DE, and the territories of AZ and NM, and the Indian Territory south of KS. Sources: McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom; Official Records, Ser. IV, Vol. 1 Q1.3: What were the populations of the states at the outbreak of the war? The following statistics are from J.C.G. Kennedy, Supt. of Census, _Population of the United States in 1860_ (Washington, G.P.O., 1864) State White Free Colored Slave Total Military AL 526,271 2,690 435,080 964,201 99,967 AR 324,143 144 111,115 435,450 65,231 CA 323,177 4,086 0 379,994 169,975 CT 451,504 8,627 0 460,147 94,411 DE 90,589 19,829 1,798 112,216 18,273 FL 77,747 932 61,745 140,424 15,739 GA 591,550 3,500 462,198 1,057,286 111,005 IL 1,704,291 7,628 0 1,711,951 375,026 IN 1,338,710 11,428 0 1,350,428 265,295 IA 673,779 1,069 0 674,913 139,316  KS 106,390 625 2 107,206 27,976 KY 919,484 10,684 225,483 1,155,684 180,589 LA 357,456 18,647 331,726 708,002 83,456 ME 626,947 1,327 0 628,279 122,238 MD 515,918 83,942 87,189 687,049 102,715 MA 1,221,432 9,602 0 1,231,066 258,419 MI 736,142 6,799 0 749,113 164,007 MN 169,395 259 0 172,023 41,226 MS 353,899 773 436,631 791,305 70,295 MO 1,063,489 3,572 114,931 1,182,012 232,781 NH 325,579 494 0 326,073 63,610  NJ 646,699 25,318 18 672,035 132,219 NY 3,831,590 49,005 0 3,880,735 796,881 NC 629,942 30,463 331,059 992,622 115,369 OH 2,302,808 36,673 0 2,339,511 459,534 OR 52,160 128 0 52,465 15,781 PA 2,849,259 56,949 0 2,906,215 555,172 RI 170,649 3,952 0 174,620 35,502 SC 291,300 9,914 402,406 703,708 55,046 TN 826,722 7,300 275,719 1,109,801 159,353 TX 420,891 355 182,566 604,215 92,145 VT 314,369 709 0 315,098 60,580  VA 1,047,299 58,042 490,865 1,596,318 196,587 WI 773,693 1,171 0 775,881 159,335 Territories 76,214 (all terr.) CO 34,231 46 0 34,277 DK 2,576 0 0 4,837 NE 28,696 67 15 28,841  NV 6,812 45 0 6,857  NM 82,979 85 0 93,516 UT 40,125 30 29 40,273 WA 11,138 30 0 11,594 DC 60,763 11,131 3,185 75,080 12,797 The bottom line: White Free Colored Slave Total Military Union* 21,475,373 355,310 432,650 22,339,989 4,559,872 CSA 5,447,220 132,760 3,521,110 9,103,332 1,064,193 *includes MO and KY, DC, and territories The following statistics are from J.C.G. Kennedy, Supt. of Census, _Preliminary Report on the Eighth Census, 1860_ (Washington, G.P.O., 1862) The Five Civilized Tribes Tribe White Free Colored Slave Indian Choctaw 802 67 2,297 18,000 (est.) Cherokee 713 17 2,504 22,000 (est.) Creek 319 277 1,651 15,000 (est.) Chickasaw 146 13 917 5,000 (est.) Seminole 8 30 0 5,000 (est.) Total 65,680 The following statistics are from J.C.G. Kennedy, Supt. of Census, _Agriculture in the United States in 1860_ (Washington: G.P.O., 1864) [ratios calculated by JMS] State Slave- Slaveholders/ slaves/ holders white pop. (%) slaveholder AL 33,730 6.4 12.9 AR 11,481 3.5 9.7 DE 587 0.65 3.1 FL 5,152 6.6 12.0 GA 41,084 6.9 11.2 KY 38,645 4.2 5.8 LA 22,033 6.1 15.0 MD 13,783 2.7 6.3 MS 30,943 8.7 14.1 MO 24,320 2.3 4.7 NC 34,658 5.5 9.6 SC 26,701 9.2 15.1 TN 36,844 4.4 7.5 TX 21,878 5.2 8.3 VA 52,128 5.0 9.4 Total 393,967 4.9  10.0 The number for slaveholders includes just the slaveholder, not the spouse or children. An average family size was about 5, so the percentages above may be multiplied by 5 to arrive at the usual rule of thumb that about 25% of Southern households owned slaves. Notes:  Total includes other racial/ethnic groups.  White males aged 18-45  KS became a state in 1861; it was a territory during the Census.  "Slaves" are "colored apprentices for life."  Includes the present state of WV  NV became a state in 1864.  White includes "half-breeds."  Only the total Indian population was given the report. The breakdown by tribe is estimated from the slave/Indian ratio reported for each tribe.  White population used was the total of the 15 states in the table. Part 2: Battles and fighting forces Q2.1: What are the alternate names of various battles? Union Confederate Bull Run, VA Manassas 21 July 1861 Wilsons Creek, MO Oak Hills 10 Aug 1861 Logan's Cross Roads, VA Mill Springs 19 Jan 1862 Pea Ridge, AR Elkhorn Tavern 6-8 Mar 1862 Pittsburg Landing, TN Shiloh 6-7 Apr 1862 Bull Run, VA (2nd) Manassas 29-30 Aug 1862 Antietam, MD Sharpsburg 17 Sept 1862 Chapell Hills, KY Perryville 8 Oct 1862 Stones River, TN Murfreesboro 30 Dec 1862-2 Jan 1863 Elk Creek, Ind. Terr. Honey Springs 17 July 1863 Sabine Cross Roads, LA Mansfield 8 Apr 1864 Opequon Creek, VA Winchester 19 Sept 1864 Q2.2: Who were the U.S. Generals at the out-break of the war, and who were the first Generals appointed after the war began? [Contributed by Carlton Andrews (firstname.lastname@example.org)] USA Generals - Prior to Army Expansion Name Rank *Commission Date Age 7/1/61 ---- ---- -------------- ---------- Winfield Scott M.G. 6/25/1841 75 John Ellis Wool B.G. 6/25/1841 77 David Emanuel Twiggs B.G. 6/30/1846 [Twiggs was dismissed 3/1/1861 for handing/surrendering all men and equipment in Texas to the state of Texas] William Selby Harney B.G. 6/14/1858 60 [Harney went to Europe rather than fight for either side] Joseph E. Johnston QM-B.G. 6/28/1860 [staff appt.] Edwin Vose Sumner B.G. 3/16/1861 64 ARMY EXPANSION May 1861 ----------------------- Regular Commissions George Brinton McClellan M.G. 5/14/1861 34 John Charles Fremont M.G. 5/14/1861 48 Henry Wager Halleck M.G. 5/19/1861 46 Joseph K. F. Mansfield B.G. 5/06/1861 57 Irvin McDowell B.G. 5/14/1861 42 Robert Anderson B.G. 5/15/1861 56 William Starke Rosecrans B.G. 5/16/1861 41 Volunteer Commissions John Adams Dix M.G. 5/16/1861 62 Nathaniel Prentiss Banks M.G. 5/16/1861 45 Benjamin Franklin Butler M.G. 5/16/1861 42 37 officers B.G. 5/17/1861 * Commission Date is date to rank from, not date appointed. Q2.3: Who were the first C.S. Generals appointed? [31 Aug 1861 will be the cut-off date for this answer.] Generals in the CS Army (all were appointed on 31 Aug 1861, to date from the date given below): Samuel Cooper 16 May 1861 (Adjt & Insp. Gen) Albert Sidney Johnston 30 May 1861 Robert Edward Lee 14 Jun 1861 Joseph Eggleston Johnston 4 Jul 1861 Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard 21 Jul 1861 Prior to 16 May 1861, the highest rank in the CS Regular Army was Brigadier General (5 were authorized): Samuel Cooper 16 Mar 1861 (Adjt & Insp. Gen) Robert Edward Lee 14 May 1861 Joseph Eggleston Johnston 14 May 1861 In addition to the CS Regular Army, there was the Provisional Army (PACS). Which had the ranks of Brigadier and Major General. Major Generals (PACS): David Emanuel Twiggs 22 May 1861 Leonidas Polk 25 Jun 1861 The first Brigadier General (PACS) was Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard 1 Mar 1861 at least 35 others appointed between Mar and Aug 1861 The rank of Lieutenant General was authorized for the PACS on 18 Sep 1862. Q2.4: What were the naval ranks during the Civil War? From: email@example.com.COM (Roy H. Wells) Here is a short discourse from a friend and fellow re-enactor, Richard Staley (who commands the 69th NY Infantry in the NCWA): Todd's American Military Equippage: 1851-1870 lists naval ranks during the CW as: Admiral (grade created for David Farragut 25 July, 1866) Vice Admiral (grade created 21 December, 1864, Farragut being the first to hold this rank) Flag Officer (title created 16 July, 1862) Commodore (courtesy title until 16 July, 1862 when the grade was formally adopted) Captain Commander Lieut. Commander (grade created 16 July, 1862) Lieutenant Master (grade existed throughout the period; originally "sailing master"; became a commissioned rank in 1862 and after the period was changed to Lieutenant Junior Grade.) Ensign (title for a passed Midshipman after 16 July, 1862) Passed Midshipman (Midshipman who had passed his examination for promotion to Lieutenant; called Ensign after 1862 although the term continued in use.) Midshipman (grade given undergraduates of the U.S. Naval Academy; not strictly in the line of the Navy in the latter part of the century). Master's Mate Shipped or Rated Master's Mate (usually a warrant officer). Q2.5: What were the organization and strengths of various units in the armies? [Compiled with the assistance of: Stephen Schmidt
and Dominic J. Dal Bello ] (A good source of information is Richard Zimmermann, _Unit Organizations of the Civil War_.) First, always remember that most Civil War units in the field were only at anywhere between 20% to 40% of their full strength. Thus, while in theory a company contained 100 men, and would be recruited at that size, by the time they reached the army they'd be down to 60 or so and after the first battle down to 40 or so. The full-strength sizes are given below, so remember to knock them down by 50% or more when reading about units engaged in battles. Second, due to casualties among the officers, frequently units would find themselves commanded by an officer one or two grades below the rank he should have for the job (e.g., a regiment commanded by a lieutenant colonel or major). Third, keep in mind that in the early stages of the war and in the more remote areas (such as the Trans-Mississippi), unit organizations tended to deviate more from the norm. What follows will be the ideal, your mileage may vary. I. Infantry. COMPANY. The basic unit is the company, commanded by a captain 100 men = 2 platoons = 4 sections = 8 squads A company has the following officers (commissioned and non-coms): Captain (1), 1st. Lieut. (1), 2nd. Lieut. (1) 1st Sgt. (1), Sgts. (4) and Corporals (8). When the company was divided into platoons, the captain commanded one and the 1st Lt. the other. There was a sergeant for each section, and a corporal for each squad. The 1st Sgt. "ran" the whole company. BATTALION and REGIMENT. Battalions and regiments were formed by organizing companies together. In the volunteers (Union and Confederate), 10 companies would be organized together into a regiment. The regiment was commanded by a colonel. A regiment has the following staff (one of each): Col.; Lt. Col.; Major; Adjutant (1st Lt); Surgeon (maj.); Asst Surgeon (capt.); Quartermaster (lieut); Commissary (lieut); Sgt-Major; Quartermaster Sgt. There were also volunteer organizations containing less than 10 companies: if they contained from 4-8 companies, they were called battalions, and usually were commanded by a major or lieutenant colonel. The (Union) Regular regts organized before the war (1st-10th) were 10 company regiments like the volunteers. When the NEW Regular regts. were authorized, a different organization was used. The new Regular regts were organized 8 companies to a battalion and 2 battalions to the regiment. Thus new Regular regts contained 16 companies. These regiments frequently fought as battalions rather than as single regiments. However, often the 2nd battalion could not be recruited up to strength, in which case they fought as a single regiment. BRIGADE A brigade is formed from 3 to 6 regiments and commanded by a brigadier general. The South tended to use more regiments than the North, thus having bigger brigades. At some times in the war, some artillery would be attached to the infantry brigade: see the Artillery section below. Each brigade would also have a varying number of staff officers. DIVISION A division is commanded by a major general and is composed of from 2 to 6 brigades. In the North usually 3 or 4, but in the South normally 4 to 6. Thus, a Southern division tended to be almost twice as large as its Northern counterpart, if the regiments are about the same size. At some times in the war, some artillery or, less often, cavalry might be attached: see the Cavalry and Artillery sections below. Each division would also have a varying number of staff officers. CORPS. A corps is commanded by a major general (Union) or a lieutenant general (Confederate) and is composed of from 2 to 4 divisions. Again the North tended to have 2 or 3, while the South had 3 or 4. Each corps would also have a varying number of staff officers. ARMIES. Corps within a geographic department were aggregated into armies. The number of corps in an army could vary considerably: sometimes an army would contain only 1 corps and other times as many as 8. Armies were commanded by major generals in the North, and usually by full generals in the South. Corps and armies usually had some artillery and cavalry attached: again, see below. Each army would also have a varying number of staff officers. To summarize, the nominal strengths and commanding officers were: UNIT MEN Commander Example NAME Company 100 Captain Co. A, B-K (not J, looks like I) Regiment 1000 Colonel 5th N.Y. Infantry Brigade 4000 Brig Genl 3rd Brigade (US) ** Division 12000 Maj. Genl Cleburne's Division (CS) ** Corps 36000 Maj. Genl* IIIrd Corps (US) ** Army Maj. Genl+ Army of Tennessee (CS) ++ * or Lt. Gen. in the South + or Gen. in the South ** Numerical designation was used in the North, the Commander's name was typically used in the South, e.g. Forrest's Corps ++ The South mainly used the name of the area or state where the army operated. Rivers were used primarily as names in the North, e.g. Army of the Cumberland. II. Cavalry. COMPANY or TROOP. The basic unit is the troop or company, organized pretty much the same way as an infantry company. The nominal strength was 100. If the troop dismounted for battle, 1 man in 4 would stay behind to guard the horses. BATTALION and REGIMENT. In the Union volunteers, 12 cavalry troops form a regiment commanded by a colonel. The Confederate Cavalry used a 10 company regiment. Again, the (Union) Regulars had a different organization: in the Regular units 2 troops form a squadron, 2 squadrons form a battalion, and 3 battalions form a regiment. And again, there were groups of 4-8 companies of volunteer cavalry which are called battalions. Initially, each Union cavalry regiment was assigned to an infantry division. The Confederates brigaded their cavalry together. The Union eventually adopted this organization as well. As the war progressed, both sides formed cavalry divisions (again the South took the lead). The North also formed cavalry corps, and the South later also adopted this innovation. III. Artillery BATTERY. The basic unit of artillery is the battery, which has 4 to 6 guns, is commanded by a captain, and has 4 lieutenants, 12 or so noncoms, and 120 or so privates. It typically had 4 guns in the South and 6 guns in the North. Batteries were a subdivided into gun crews of 20 or so, and into sections of 2 gun crews, 2 or 3 sections per battery. A gun crew was commanded by a sergeant and a section by a lieutenant. BATTALION or BRIGADE. At the start of the war, each side assigned one battery attached to each infantry brigade, plus an artillery reserve under the army commander. By mid-1862, larger organizations were used. The basic unit contained 3 or 4 batteries of artillery; it was called a battalion in the South and a brigade in the North (same unit, just a different name) and it was commanded by a colonel, lieutenant colonel, or major. ARTILLERY RESERVE. After 1862, it was typical for each infantry division to have an artillery battalion attached, and each corps or army to have a reserve of two to five battalions. Each division's artillery usually fought along side the infantry, while the corps/army reserves were used to form the massed batteries. The artillery reserve was commanded by a brigadier general or colonel. IV. Other Units LEGION. The Confederacy also organized a number of units known as legions. They were mixed-arms units, usually containing 6-8 companies of infantry, 2-3 companies of cavalry, and a couple artillery pieces. Generally as soon as they reached the battlefield they were broken apart, the infantry forming a battalion, the cavalry being reassigned to some other unit, and the artillery joining the reserve. Sometimes the infantry retained the name legion, more frequently it got renamed to battalion. MARINES. Both sides had a rudimentary Marine Corps which fought along the Atlantic coast. The US Marines contained about 3,000 men and were organized into companies. There doesn't seem to have been any organization higher than that: they rarely operated in larger units than a few companies anyway. The Confederate Marines had a strength of about 300 men organized in four companies and was nominally commanded by a colonel. HEAVY ARTILLERY. The Union organized some "heavy artillery" units, regiments containing 10 artillery batteries (about 1800 men) which had training both as infantry and as artillerists. They were organized in much the same way as infantry units, but were quite a bit larger to provide enough men to run the guns. Originally raised to man the defenses of Washington, in 1864 they joined the Grant's army, and then served more as infantry. ENGINEERS. Both sides raised special regiments of engineers. They were organized similarly to the infantry regiments and were expert in building forts, entrenchments, bridges, and similar military construction. They were combatants but usually didn't do any fighting, instead continued to work on construction even when under fire. SHARPSHOOTERS. Both sides raised special sharpshooter units. The Confederate units tended to be independent companies, but the Union raised two sharpshooter regiments (Berdan's 1st and 2nd US Sharpshooters). These regiments were organized as infantry. Usually they were assigned to skirmish duty, or they would be allowed to roam around the battlefield to find good positions from which to shoot at enemy officers in the rear. Q2.6: What is the difference between grapeshot and canister? Here is a list of the various ammunitions used in the war. References are:  "Ammunition", in Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th ed (1911).  F.T. Miller, ed., "Photographic History of the Civil War," vol. 5, "Forts and Artillery" (1957 edition).  "Historical Times Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Civil War" The main division is between shot (did not carry its own explosive charge) and shell (carried an explosive charge). For shot: 1. solid shot-- the standard cannon ball (or bullet shape in the in case of a rifled gun) 2. canister-- smaller shot placed in a sheet iron cylinder. The cylinder disintegrated when the gun was fired. 3. grape-- smaller shot layered between iron plates and held together by a central bolt. Presumably the bolt broke when the gun fired allowing the shot to scatter. Examples of grape shot can be seen in  pp. 76, 76 and 191. 4. quilted grapeshot-- small shot covered in canvass and tied up with rope which a gave it a quilted look. An example of quilted shot can be seen in , p. 177. 5. chain shot-- two shot joined by a chain. Used to destroy rigging of sailing ships. 6. bar shot-- two shot joined by a solid bar (like a dumbbell). Used to destroy rigging to sailing ships. 7. red hot shot-- shot heated before firing. Used to start fires on ships. For shell: 1. standard shell-- hollow iron projectile filled with explosive 2. shrapnel shell-- hollow iron projectile filled with explosive and with small solid shot which scattered upon explosion. The spherical version of this was called "spherical case" or simply "case." The term "case" was also used for the name of the class of rounds which scattered small shot, thus canister, grape, and spherical case were all classified together as "case shot." (confusing, isn't it?) Shell was fitted with either a timed fuse (which ignited the charge after some fixed delay) or a percussion fuse (which ignited the charge upon impact). Standard solid shot and standard shell were primarily for destruction of materiel (viz. fortifications or ships). Canister, grape, quilted shot and shrapnel were used against personnel. However, there were also varieties of (non-shrapnel) shell designed for use against personnel (the hollow was shaped so the shell would split into a relatively few large pieces about the size of small shot). +Q2.7: How did prisoner exchanges and paroles work? Prisoner exchanges were a way for captors to avoid the responsibility and burden of guarding, housing, feeding, clothing, and providing medical care for POW's. Exchange of prisoners began with informal agreements between the commanders of the armies after particular battles, but the practice was codified by a cartel between the USA and CSA in July 1862. The cartel was suspended by the US in May 1863, but individual commanders again arranged exchanges and paroles until the US called a halt to all exchanges in early 1864. When the CSA agreed to correct some irregularities in its earlier exchanges, and when it agreed to treat captured black troops equally with whites, the 1862 cartel was again put into operation in early 1865. Commissioners of exchange were appointed by each government, and they exchanged and compared lists and computed how many on each side were to be exchanged. There were official points where prisoners were to be taken for exchange: City Point, VA in the East and Vicksburg in the West. Equal ranks were exchanged equally, and higher ranks could be exchanged for some number of lower ranks according to an agreed upon list of equivalents (e.g. 1 colonel equaled 15 privates). If one side still had prisoners left, after the other side had exhausted its supply of prisoners by exchange, those excess prisoners would be released on parole. Paroled prisoners were returned to their side, but were prohibited by an oath of honor from taking up arms or performing any duty that soldiers normally performed (like garrison or guard duty) until they were properly exchanged. Generally each side maintained parole camps where their paroled soldiers were kept while they awaited exchange, but in other cases the parolee was allowed to return home until exchanged. [Sources: Boatner, Civil War Dictionary; Miller, ed, "Prisons and Hospitals", vol 8, Photographic History of the Civil War] Part 3: The end of the War Q3.1: When did the war end? 9 April 1865, Gen. R.E. Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox Courthouse, VA 26 April 1865, Gen. J.E. Johnston surrendered the Army of Tennessee et al. at Durham, NC 4 May 1865, Gen. Richard Taylor surrendered Dept. of Alabama, Mississippi, and Eastern Louisiana at Citronelle, AL 13 May 1865, engagement at Palmito Ranch, near Brownsville, TX, often taken to be the last engagement of the war 2 June 1865, Gen. E.K. Smith surrendered the Trans-Mississippi Department at Galveston, TX (the surrender had been agreed to by Smith's representative, Lt Gen S.B. Buckner, in New Orleans on 26 May) 23 June 1865, Brig. Gen. Stand Watie's troops in the Indian Territory surrendered at Doaksville. Watie was the last general to surrender his troops. 13 June 1865, Pres. Johnson proclaimed the insurrection in Tennessee at an end. (Messages and Papers of the Presidents, V, p3515) 4 Nov 1865, The raider CSS Shenandoah surrendered in Liverpool to British authorities. For several months after the surrender of ground forces, this last of the CSA's naval vessels had been burning USA shipping, with her captain, James I. Waddell, still thinking the war was in progress. Her last fight was against a whaling fleet in the Bering Sea on 28 Jun 1865. After this, the vessel was the object of a worldwide search. On August 2, Waddell had contact with a British ship, whose captain informed him that the CSA was no more. With this in mind, he put guns below decks and sailed to England, where the ship was surrendered to the British Admiralty. Upon the boarding of the vessel by British authorities, the last sovereign Confederate flag was furled. [contrib. by PDunn] 2 Apr 1866, Pres. Johnson proclaimed the insurrection ended in all the former Confederate States except Texas. This was his recognition of the legitimacy of the governments formed under his Reconstruction proclamation. (Mess. & Pap. V, p3627) 20 Aug 1866, Pres. Johnson proclaimed that Texas had complied with the conditions of his Reconstruction proclamation and declared the insurrection in Texas at an end. (Mess. & Pap. V, p3632) Q3.2: If the rebel states were never considered legally out of the Union, how was Reconstruction justified? Although the states remained part of the U.S., they had no loyal governments, and the authority for the federal government to provide mechanisms to erect loyal state governments was derived from Article IV, Sec. 4 of the Constitution. That section provides that the United States shall guarantee to each state a republican form of government. Another provision of the Constitution which is important was Article I, Sec. 5 which provides that each House of Congress shall be the judge of the qualifications of its members. This allowed the Congress to refuse to seat delegations from former rebel states until the states had met the conditions of the Reconstruction Acts. The authoritative constitutional justification for reconstruction can be found in the Supreme Court's decision in Texas v. White (74 U.S. 227-243) delivered 12 Apr 1869. Part 4: Genealogy and Unit Histories Q4.1: My ancestor fought in the war-- how do I find out about his service? First, here are two good reference books that contain much more information than can be given in this FAQ: George K. Schweitzer, Civil War Genealogy, available from: G.K. Schweitzer, 7914 Gleason C-1136, Knoxville, TN 37919 B.H. Groene, Tracing Your Civil War Ancestor ISBN 0-345-36192-X An additional reference dealing in Confederate records is James C. Neagles, Confederate Research Sources: A Guide to Archive Collections (ISBN 0-916489-11-6, Ancestry Publications, P.O. Box 476, Salt Lake City, UT 84110) The basic information on your ancestor that you will need to know is his state, regiment, and (if possible) company, for example: Levi Lindsey Sanders, 6th Texas Cavalry (CSA), Company I. If you don't know the regiment name, you can often find it in 19th century county histories for the county your ancestor lived in. Also be careful with Confederate regiments; they were frequently referred to by the commander's name when they in fact had a numerical designation, for example: 2nd Texas Partisan Rangers a.k.a. Stone's Regiment a.k.a. Chisum's Regiment. There are frequently indexes listing all the soldiers from a state which were published in the 19th century as well (this is almost without exception for the Union states, more rare for the Confederate states). The National Archives has published a Consolidated Index to Compiled Confederate Service Records on microfilm which is available in many large historical libraries (the service records themselves are also frequently on microfilm at the library). A useful bibliography of regimental and state histories is C.E. Dornbusch, Military Bibliography of the Civil War (4 vols). Assuming that you have the above information, you can obtain copies of your ancestor's service records by writing to the National Archives. Write to: Reference Services Branch (NNIR), National Archives and Records Service, 8th and Pennsylvania Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20408 and request NATF Form 80. You may wish to request 3 or more copies, especially if you are researching a Union veteran or multiple veterans. When you have the forms, fill one out as completely as possible and check "military service" (Schweitzer recommends that you write in red ink next to the veteran's name "Please send complete contents of files.") If your ancestor fought for the Union, he may have a pension file; you may fill out a second Form 80 and check "pension record" (again Schweitzer recommends requesting the entire contents of the file). (The National Archives will not have pension records for Confederate veterans, but some former Confederate state did give pensions and their archives may have the records, details can be found in the above references especially Neagles.) Some weeks later, the Archives will send you a letter indicating what they have located and how much it will cost to copy it. *Q4.2: How can I find information about a particular regiment? For the Union side, the definite first place to look for a brief history of a regiment is F.H. Dyer, _A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion_, 2 vols. It contains, among lots of other useful information, brief histories of just about every Northern regiment. On the Confederate side, there is, unfortunately, no counterpart to Dyer's two-volume work. For this reason, it may be best to go immediately to Dornbusch (see below). However, C.E. Evans , _Confederate Military History_ is a 13 volume work (a later reprint was expanded to 15 vols), and each volume deals with one or two of the Confederate States. There was no attempt to write a sketch on every regiment in every state, so there is no guarantee that your particular regiment will be mentioned. Another source, for 6 of the Confederate States, is Stewart Sifakis, _Compendium of the Confederate Armies_(New York: Facts on File, 1991-), 5 vols. (maybe more). Known volumes in this series are for VA, TN, AL, FL and AR, and NC. A useful bibliography of regimental histories, both North and South, is C.E. Dornbusch, _Military Bibliography of the Civil War_, 4 vols. It contains entries on books and articles which have been written about Civil War regiments through about 1987. Finally, you can consult the Index volume to the _Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies_ and start wading through the O.R. This may be your only alternative for particularly obscure units. The index lists the regiments by *state. It is a good idea to check the index for the name of the *regiment's commander and perhaps for the brigade commander. Keep in mind the regiment's place in the army structure. Histories of battles or campaigns may not mention every regiment, but they may mention the brigade or division the regiment is in. As an example, Ludwell Johnson's _Red River Campaign_ indexes very few regiments, but the brigade commanders are indexed and the brigades are shown on the maps. The 2nd Texas Partisan Rangers was in Major's cavalry brigade and Green's division, so its activities can be inferred by following the action at the brigade or division level even though the regiment itself is not mentioned anywhere in the book. Part 5: Miscellaneous Q5.1: What is the "Stars and Bars"? The "Stars and Bars" IS NOT the familiar "rebel" flag one sees adorning license plates and carried by the KKK-- that is the CS Naval Jack, based on the CS battle flag. The Stars and Bars design was approved by a committee of the Provisional Congress on 4 Mar 1861, but was never made official by law. The bottom red stripe ran the entire length of the flag and was 6 units long and 1 unit wide. Above it, and to the left was a blue square, 2 units on a side. In the blue square, a circle of stars (one for each state, initially seven, to represent the original seven Confederate States, eventually thirteen). To the right of the square, two stripes, white below, red above, each 1 unit wide and 4 units long. The Stars and Bars' similarity to the U.S. flag caused problems of mistaken identity at 1st Bull Run/Manassas, so a battle flag for the Army of Northern Virginia was designed. It was blue saltire ("X" shape) on a red SQUARE field. On the saltire was placed stars equal to the number of Confederate States (in principle, eleven at the time of the initial design, but up to thirteen by the end of 1862). This flag design was soon picked up by the other armies and branches of service. The CS Navy flew an oblong version as a Naval Jack which is identical to the oblong "rebel" flags seen today. By a law approved 1 May 1863, a new national flag was adopted by the Confederate States-- the "Stainless Banner". It was a field of white twice as long as wide, in the upper left was the battle flag (square) with a side two-thirds the width of the field. This flag had the drawback that when partially wrapped around the flagstaff, the non-white part was covered. This made it look like a white flag of surrender. Furthermore, its length to width ratio of 2 to 1 made it an unusually long flag which exacerbated the problem. A law approved 4 Mar 1865, modified the "Stainless Banner" to correct its problems. The revised flag was 10 units wide and 15 units long. In the upper left was an oblong battle flag 6 units wide and 7 units long. The field was white, as before, except on the fly end there was a vertical red bar 4 units wide. The above dimensions, in terms of units, are derived from the much more convoluted description given by the flag act. This flag was the last national flag of the Confederacy. Q5.2: What changes to the U.S. flag occurred during the war? The admission of two states affected the U.S. flag during the war. By the Flag Act of 1818, a new star was added on the 4 July following the admission of a state. Stars were added on 4 July 1861 for Kansas (admitted 29 Jan 1861, the 34th state) and on 4 July 1863 for West Virginia (admitted 20 June 1863, the 35th state). Nevada, the 36th state, was admitted during the war on 31 Oct 1864, so its star was added 4 July 1865 after hostilities were over (more or less, see Q3.1). Q5.3: How was the state of West Virginia created? On 17 Apr 1861, the Va Secession Convention passed an ordinance of secession (to be ratified by the people). A mass meeting was held in Clarksburg and called for a Convention of western/unionist counties to meet in Wheeling. The 1st Wheeling Convention met 13 May 1861 with 425 delegates from 25 counties, it decided to adjourn until after the vote on the secession ordinance. The ordinance of secession was ratified by popular vote on 23 May 1861 at which time new legislators were also elected. The 2nd Wheeling convention met 11 June 1861 and included the western counties' members-elect to the VA legis. On 19 June, the convention passed an ordinance "reorganizing" the state government (creating a "loyal" one), and on 20 June, Francis Pierpont was chosen governor. On 1 July 1861, the members of the legislature elected on 23 May and some holdovers from the old legislature met, finished the organization of the Reorganized state govt., and elected 2 U.S. Senators-- this government was recognized as legitimate by the U.S. On 6 Aug, the Wheeling convention reconvened, and on 20 Aug 1861 passed an ordinance to divide the state. The division ordinance was ratified by the people on 24 Oct. From 26 Nov 1861 to 18 Feb 1862, the convention wrote a constitution for the proposed new state which was approved by the voters on 11 Apr 1862. Lincoln signed the enabling act on 31 Dec 1862 which admitted W.VA on the condition that its constitution include a provision for the gradual abolition of slavery. The Convention reconvened yet again, and amended the state constitution to abolish slavery on 12 Feb 1863. This amendment was approved by the voters on 26 Mar 1863. Lincoln proclaimed (on 20 Apr 1863) that W.Va would officially be admitted in 60 days. During the interval, W VA elected new officers-- A.I. Boreman was elected 1st governor, and VA unionist government under Gov. Pierpont was moved to Alexandria. On 20 June 1863, West Virginia was officially admitted to the Union. In 1866, Virginia repealed the act approving the division, and brought suit in the U.S. Sup. Crt. to have the division overturned. In particular, it wanted Berkeley and Jefferson Cos. returned. On 10 Mar 1866, Congress passed a joint resolution approving the previous transfer of the counties to W.Va. In 1871 the Supreme Court decided in favor of W.Va., thus settling the matter of division. Source: Virginia and West Virginia articles in Encyclopaedia Britannica, 10th ed. Q5.4: What war records did the post-war presidents have? From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Dominic J. Dal Bello) OK, I have looked up what the presidents after Lincoln and up to McKinley did in the war (from _The Complete Book of US Presidents_ or something like that.) ANDREW JOHNSON: In March, 1862, President Lincoln appointed Johnson military governor of Tennessee with the rank of brigadier general. ULYSSES GRANT: No intro necessary (lieut. general) RUTHERFORD B. HAYES: served with the 23d Ohio Infantry from June, 1861, entering service as a major. October '61: promoted to lt. colonel; Oct. '62 promoted to colonel, commanding the 23d. After Cedar Creek (Oct. '64), promoted to brigadier general of vols. Received one of the infinitely many brevets dated March 13, 1865 to major general, vols. Resigned June, 1865. JAMES GARFIELD: Commissioned a lt. col in the 42nd Ohio, Aug. 1861, and promoted to Col. in November, '61. Commanded the 18th Brig. at Middle Creek, Jan. '62, defeating superior numbers, and was subsequently promoted to brigadier general. January, 1863-- appointed Chief of Staff to Rosecrans, "In a daring ride under enemy fire, during which his horse was wounded, he conveyed vital information from flank to flank. For this he was promoted to major general." Rosecrans said of him: "I feel much indebted to him for both counsel and assistance in the administration of this army...He possesses the instinct and energy of a great commander." Elected to Congress in Sept., 1863 Garfield resigned in Dec., 1863. CHESTER A. ARTHUR: Served in New York State militia from Feb. '58 to Dec. '62, rising from brigade judge advocate to quartermaster genl. In Jan, '61, appointed engineer-in-chief with rank of brigadier general. Apr, '61, promote asst. QM genl; Feb '62 inspect. genl; July `62, QM general. Spring `62 inspected NY troops in Virginia. War Gov. Edwin D Morgan said: "He was my chief reliance in the duties of equipping and transporting troops and munitions of war. In the position of Quarter Master General he displayed not only great executive ability and unbending integrity, but great knowledge of Army Regulations. He can say No (which is important) without giving offense." GROVER CLEVELAND: Drafted, but purchased a substitute. Paid $150 to George Brinske (or Benninsky), a 32-year-old Polish immigrant to serve in his place. BENJAMIN HARRISON: 17th Indiana Infantry, starting as a 2nd Lt in July, 1862. Eventually rose to brigadier general. "I am not a Julius Caesar, nor a Napoleon, but a plain Hoosier colonel, with no more relish for a fight than for a good breakfast and hardly so much." Commanded a brigade under Hooker in the Atlanta campaign. Hooker recommended him for promotion to brigadier general for foresight, discipline and fighting spirit. WILLIAM McKINLEY: 23d Ohio Infantry from June 61 to July '65, starting out as a private. April '62 commissary sergeant; for valor at Antietam (in getting rations to the men) promoted to 2nd Lt. commd'g Co. D, but put on Col. Rutherford Hayes' staff. Feb 63, promoted 1st Lt.; July 64, promoted captain. Served on staffs of George Crook and Winfield S Hancock. March, 1865, breveted major. In uniform, cast his first vote in 1864 (for Lincoln). Hayes said of him: "Young as he was, we soon found that in the business of a soldier, requiring much executive ability, young McKinley showed unusual and unsurpassed capacity, especially for a boy of his age. When battles were fought or service was to be performed in warlike things, he always filled his place." Q5.5: What are the various alternate names for the war? From: email@example.com (Patrick L Dunn) >From Davis, B. (1982). -The Civil War: Strange and Fascinating Facts (Originally published as "Our Incredible Civil War). ISBN 0-517-37151-0 Chapter 13. Which War? pp. 79-80. The War for Constitutional Liberty The War for Southern Independence The Second American Revolution The War for States' Rights Mr. Lincoln's War The Southern Rebellion The War for Southern Rights The War of the Southern Planters The War of the Rebellion The Second War for Independence The War to Suppress Yankee Arrogance The Brothers' War The War of Secession The Great Rebellion The War for Nationality The War for Southern Nationality The War Against Slavery The Civil War Between the States The War of the Sixties The War Against Northern Aggression The Yankee Invasion The War for Separation The War for Abolition The War for the Union The Confederate War The War of the Southrons The War for Southern Freedom The War of the North and South The Lost Cause The War Between the States The Late Unpleasantness The Late Friction The Late Ruction The Schism The Uncivil War and of course.... THE War, "as if the planet had not heard a shot fired in anger since '65." *Q5.6: What are good books on the war? Steve Schmidt (whale@leland.Stanford.EDU) has compiled a recommended reading list which will be posted periodically as a supplement to this FAQ. Other lists are archived at byrd.mu.wvnet.edu/pub/history/military/civil_war_usa in that directory are two files civ_war_biblio_1.txt, which is an annotated bibliography of Civil War bibliographies, and civ_war_biblio_2.txt, which is a bibliography of Civil War books arranged by subject, similar to Schmidt's, but without descriptions. Q5.7: How can I get the soundtrack to Ken Burn's "Civil War"? From Wayne J. Warf (WWARF@ucs.indiana.edu): The Civil War Elektra Nonesuch #9 79256-2 copyright 1990 ISBN# 0-681-92609-0 Songs of the Civil War Produced by Ken Burns and Don DeVito Columbia #CK 48607 Copyright 1991 by Sony Music Entertainment no ISBN# listed Q5.8: Who was the last surviving veteran of the Civil War? [from Paul Cowan (firstname.lastname@example.org)] 1. At the time of his death, Dec. 19, 1959, at age 117, Walter Washington Williams was accorded the honors of the last surviving veteran of the Civil War. Williams, who was granted the honorary title of "General" late in life, had been an enlisted man in the CSA. Williams spent the War as a forager for Hood's Texas Brigade and later served with Quantrill's Raiders. He claimed to have never fired a shot, but to have heard some. 2. As there was some controversy over whether in fact Mr. Williams had served in the CSA, it is worth mentioning that the penultimate survivor was John Salling of Slant, Va., also a Confederate, who died March 19, 1959, in Kingsport, Tenn. 3. Albert Woolson of Minnesota was the last member of the Grand Army of the Republic to pass, and therefore is very likely the last survivor of the Union army. Woolson was a Union drummer boy who died in 1956. 4. The last surviving Civil War general was Union Brig.Gen. Adelbert Ames, who died in 1933 at age 97. 5. The last surviving Confederate general was Lt. Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner, who died in 1914 at age 90. Sources: Ron Kolakowski (email@example.com ); Stephen E. Brown (firstname.lastname@example.org); _The Civil War Notebook_, by A.A. Nofi; _New York Times_ article, Dec. 19, 1959;_Civil War Dictionary_, by M.M. Boatner. Q5.9: Did U.S. Grant and R.E. Lee both own slaves and free them? [from Paul Cowan (email@example.com) with amendments by JMS] 1. R. E. Lee personally owned at least one slave, an elderly house servant that he inherited from his mother. It is said that Lee continued to hold the slave as a kindness, since he was too feeble to have made his way as a free man. Although it is commonly believed that Lee owned the Arlington Plantation and the associated slaves, these and two other plantations totalling over 1,000 slaves were the property of Lee's father-in-law, George Washington Parke Custis. Upon Mr. Custis's death in 1858, Lee did not personally inherit either the plantations or slaves, but was named the executor of the estate. Mr. Custis willed that his slaves should be freed within 5 years. Legal problems with the fulfillment of other terms of the will led Lee to delay in the execution of the terms of manumission until the latest specified date. As it happened, the Emancipation Proclamation went into effect before that date was reached. 2. In 1858, while attempting to make a go in civilian life as a farmer near St. Louis, Mo., U.S. Grant bought a slave named William Jones from his brother-in-law. Grant gave Jones his freedom within a year of the purchase, despite the fact the Grant desperately needed the money he might have recovered by selling him. Grant's wife owned about four slaves in her own name, and there is no record of these slaves having been freed prior to emancipation in Missouri in 1865. Sources: _Lee & Grant_, by Gene Smith; __The Civil War: Strange and Fascinating Facts_, by Burke Davis; _Let Us Have Peace: Ulysses S. Grant and Politics of War and Reconstruction_ by Brooks D. Simpson Q5.10: What is the recipe for hardtack? Recipes for hardtack vary from extremely simple to more elaborate. The simplest is: 6 parts flour to 1 part water, mix, knead, roll out thin, and bake until hard. From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Dominic J. Dal Bello) For about 10 crackers (1 ration): 3 cups flour 1 1/2 or so tsp baking soda 1 1/2 tsp salt water to form to a workable dough. Kneed the dough. Crackers should be cut to about 3"x3" (although some contractors made 'em 5x5, even 7x7). When you cut the dough, I have found that it should not "pull away" - if it does, it is still too wet. With a nail, or similar object, punch about 16 holes in each cracker (4x4 pattern - although this was not the only way to do it). Put in oven at about 375F for about 50 minutes - this is what I find to work for me; different ovens may act differently. In any event, it should be brownish on the bottom. Your not "baking" cookies here, you are essentially trying to heat all the water out of the cracker. Take out and cool. - they should get hard. "Evidence" indicates that hardtack was made with "self-rising" flour. If I recall right, however, no specifications have been found as to what the government actually called for. Some recipes call for oil, but I have found that it has no effect on the final product. In any event, experiment with kneeding, etc., time to bake to get a final product which is a nice hard slab of flour. From: email@example.com (Jeff Zurschmeide) 2 cups flour 1/2 cup buttermilk 2 tbsp baking soda 2 tbsp vegetable oil salt to taste water to consistency mix up well, (dry ingredients first, then wet) roll out thin, bake at 450 degrees about 15 minutes, or to tooth-breaking quality. From Merle Kirck: We make it for our Living History programs. here it is: 3 cups milk 8 cups plain flour 8 tbl spoons shortening (crisco) 6 tea spoon brown sugar (opt) 3 tea spoon salt mix, roll on floured board, to 1/2" thickness. cut into 3" squares, punch holes 3 rolls of 3 with ice pick, Lightly grease baking pan, Bake in oven 400 deg for 45 min or till golden brown, cool in open air. Don't store in plastic (no plastic in 1800's) because of moisture. This recipe is the same they used except the sugar. We have found that a good dose of cinnamon, and not cooking it as long is good eatin' ***End of alt.war.civil.usa FAQ -- Justin M. Sanders "Science is not so much an advance Research Associate toward Truth as it is a retreat Physics Division, ORNL from Ignorance." firstname.lastname@example.org --paraphrasing Wayne Throop .