references, and bibliography
we and where are we going?
from Industrial to Postindustrial Society (Daniel Bell)
realms: social structure, polity, and culture
Society: mainly a change in social structure: economy, work, science, and
production to services and information processing (especially health, research,
work declines ( local copy). Professional work expands: lawyers, computer, scientists
knowledge versus "know-how," innovation based on research, ethical
questions (genome, stem cells, etc.)
technologies and their impact--issue of control and predictability (security)
technologies" (cybernetics, game theory, information theory)
and growth--a symbiotic relationship (university-based)
Between (pre-industrial, industrial, and post-industrial) Types of Societies
and unskilled--semi-skilled and engineers-professionals and scientists
with: Extract from nature (primary occupations)--coordinating machines--managing
people with information
and military-industrialists and business through politicians--scientists
by irrationality, self-realization, and self-gratification (versus the
rationality of the economy)
as a cultural reality, challenges the advancement of social structure
and the economy.
possibility of a disjuncture leaves open the onset of revolution
Bell, the hedonism of a consumer culture must be contained .
Cohen, Daniel. 2009. " Three Lectures on Post-Industrial Society." translated by William McCuaig. MA: MIT Press.
( and): (Emergence
of the post modern world==> the death of modernist architecture at 3:32 p.m.
July 15, 1972 <Lemmert 1990>). Actually,
it was probably March 16, 1972.
of Postmodernist Thought
(see also: A
MODERN SOCIETY? ( and)
has failed to provide the solution to the problems of life.
is not an onward and upward march
does not have all the answers
integrative, yet focus is upon control mechanisms
are intensifying. The promise of the modernist "Individual" and
tolerance needs critical reflection
are changing at a rapid rate: Family, Religion, Education, etc.
Defined Everyday life expressions
of these themes:
with consumer goods and media images
"demise of the nation-state"
The impact of
Governmentality (And Other Grand Theories)
Foucault ( Read his work)
theories, but not unilineal unfolding of history
a search for origins, but analysis at different points in time--raising questions
rather than finding answers
on incoherence: internal contradictions
on the discontinuities and reversals in history, relativism.
"The practices and techniques by which control is exercised over people."
( 2, page 219)
and Punish ( http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xk9ulS76PW8
to rules as a means of control
(internal contradiction), but increased ability to punish
negativity (as compared to public torture)
can be imposed quite early--preceding behavior (socialization)
can be repeatedly applied
systems support and reflect rationalization and bureaucratization
(efficiency and depersonalization)
rules and surveillance over entire population
of Observation and Control
(see also) (possibility
versus actuality of observation)
judgments (what is normal today?)
up and assessing
(from the iron fist to the velvet glove) Increasing
of power: attempts to resist the exercise of power and control occur at many
levels, and constantly restructures the process of control
Grand Theory of Sexuality
is and was repressed, but Victorianism led to an explosion of discourse on
led to more analysis and study of sexuality
increasing attempts to exercise power over sexuality
over individual body and sexual practices
over the general population: health, life expectancy, etc.
controlling sex, society was able to control both the individual and the
species." ( 2, page 225)
saw hope in the body, in sexuality, and in pleasure--methods to overcome
Queer Theory (see also)
Social and historical construction of sexuality
Stigma and marginalization of LGBT
Concern over identity politics
Non-essentialist--no built-in traits, desires, characteristics.
Critique of binaries
Pre-ninetennth century--no such thing as sexual identity (as it is known today)
Binaries are mutually linked, one typically inferior
Gender and sex as a performance
Sociological theory must incorporate the study of sex, gender, and sexuality, with a focus on social construction
Foucault and Heterotopias:
as Modernity’s Coming of Age ( Zygmunt
Sociology and a Sociology of Postmodernity
of a postmodern sociology:
concern with formative questions
to postmodern culture--irrationality
of complexity and unpredictability.
central goal orientation or administration.
and states operate in arenas of ambivalence and uncertainty. Reflexivity
(and body cultivation). Seduction as a means of control
of knowledge and information--keys to resources and choice
to Live with Ambivalence ( Liquid
Modernity) (local copy)
tolerance and acceptance
of the "void" and draw of community: N eotribalism
(acceptance and refuge)
lack of concern and self-centeredness--possibility of cruelty
is not enough to satisfy our needs
of coercive codes
has to be for the Other before it is possible to be with
the Other." ( 2, p. 229)
of complete relativism--there is a need for the center (state,
have full moral choice, but they have it without the guidance
of an overarching moral code once promised by moderity....morality...has
been privatized." ( 2, p. 230)
Rise of Consumer Society, Loss of Symbolic Exchange, and Increase in Simulations
Producer to Consumer Society
(no longer the basis of consumption)
needs (differences are infinite, therefore no end to consumption) ( 2,
code controls choice and defines "needs" (how, what, where, and
when to buy, as well as what we buy means)
has little to do with "reality." It's not so much what we consume,
but what "what we consume" means.
more to objects and settings than to other humans (spend our time in these
places, do the work (atm's, etc.), and people there are replicants: "would
you like to supersize that?"
Production to Consumption
active and regular consumption: advertisin g ,
2010, credit cards, spending time consuming or working for the money to
Loss of Symbolic Exchange and the Increase in Simulations
Exchange (Day of the Dead)
world--no cycle--no end of economic exchange
of resources--rather than renewal
( Simulations simulacra) ( local
Society and the New Means of Consumption
of Consumption: Old and New
of production--define relationship with material world, define self and relation
of consumption (make consumption possible)
means of consumption (versus old: material, face-to-face, cash, Gemeinschaft)
Shopping malls, Superstores (since the 1950s)
structures, yet phantasmagoria (dream worlds) designed to enchant and
destruction: clearing the old--eliminating them and simulating them
too: internet, home shopping network
manipulate the consumer, to "enchant them, in order to stimulate
(destruction of boundaries--new Busch stadium: department store, arcade,
and a ball park)
places grow too big--problems, yet online: shop bots
space: Collapsing time periods, gigantic spaces, lack of time references
simulations, too, especially online: Second
The end of consumption (? freeganism, permaculture, simple living)
( Paul Virilio) ( wikipedia) Paul Virilio A Discussion by John David Ebert)
">Beyond postmodernism, by Jon Armitage
in boundaries--communication, transportation, computerization
becomes a non-issue. ("distance speed")
a world of images and appearances--no references or stability
of direct contact--life is mediated (television, mass communications,)
of intelligibility (lack unmediated knowledge of the things around us) ( 2,
time for reflection
only surrounding ourselves with machines, we are internalizing them, too.
artificial organs, psychopharmacology
wave control ( cat ears)
loss of the distinction between inside and outside.
from the inside
Reality: channeling and controlling mental images (The Matrix?) Conway's Game of Life or this)
Explosion of Surveillance in Our Lives
and Postmodern Social Theory (a few notes)
gets to define reality
away from traditional concerns in philosphy and social science: decontructing
and inclusionary forces--self challenging and self-critical. Always changing
Maybe not so
inclusive (arcane language and and too academic).
Denies the process
of theorizing just when marginal groups are coing into their own.
versus collective action and liberation.
narrative rather than material reality and inequality.
Exercises ( 1)
to the U.S. Census Bureau’s website: http://www.census.gov and click on the box labeled
“E-Stats.” Go to the latest E-Commerce Statistics. Then, click on the most
recent quarterly e-commerce report and note the e-commerce sales for this quarter.
Then go to “previous releases” and check the e-commerce sales from a comparable
quarter in 2001.
What is the estimate of U.S. retail e-commerce sales
for the most recent quarter?
much of a percentage increase is this from 2001
your findings support the claim that we are living in a postmodern world?
to the following website:
http://www.hrw.org/backgrounder/usa/incarceration/ Read Human Rights Watch’s background report on
the prison population in the U.S.
much has the population of prisoners incarcerated for drug offenses increased
group is disproportionately represented as part of the prison population?
Michel Foucault’s concept of a carceral archipelago to interpret these trends.
Foucault’s perspective, what other information about crime and prisoners would
be useful to know? Can you find it on the Internet? Does it support or refute
Philosophy, Critical Theory, and Postmodern Thought: http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~mryder/itc_data/postmodern.html
Postmodern Life: http://www.pixcentrix.co.uk/pomo/
website that discusses how postmodernism has influenced art, architecture,
music, and literature.
Po-Mo Page: http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/pomo.html
of Weird Consumer Culture: http://www.indiana.edu/~wanthro/museum.htm
on the Web/Project Baudrillard: http://www.uta.edu/english/apt/collab/baudweb.html
Websites/Resource Centers: http://foucault.info/index.html and
Theory for Fans of Pop Culture: http://www.theory.org.uk/index.htm
Unwinnable War: An Interview with Zygmunt Bauman: http://www.opendemocracy.net/globalization-vision_reflections/modernity_3082.jsp
Much of this page comes from the "Instructor's Manual" to accompany Contemporary
Sociological Theory and Its Classical Roots: The Basics, Second Edition,
George Ritzer, Mcgraw-Hill, 2007. The Instructor's Manual was prepared by James
Murphy, University of Maryland, College Park and Todd Stillman, Fayetteville
State University. These excerpts are from chapter 9.
2. Ritzer, George. 2007/2010/2013. Contemporary Sociological Theory and Its Classical Roots: The Basics. 2nd/3rd/4th editions. St. Louis: McGraw-Hill
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