and Psychological Theories of Deviance
ideas drawn from Goode, 1994-2008 chapter 2; and Pfohl, Images of Deviance
and Social Control, 1985. See the disclaimer)
ideas are drawn from Pfohl, Images of Deviance and Social Control,
- Shift from badness==>Sickness
- Common sense today
- Deterministic causation
- Deviance produced
by disease/defect (very attractive to historical and modern audiences)
- Shifts focus away
from act and back to Actor
- Search for the variables
that cause deviance
- Deviance as an Objective
- Forces of nature
(from: the Skeptic's Dictionary)
- Evolutionary development
of Brain: 3 areas that related to/determined behavior
Rush (1812: First American Text on psychiatry)
- Mental Disorder==>arterial
disease of brain==>caused:
(opposition to the American Revolution)
Hooton: "The American Criminal"
- "Organic weakness"
(low foreheads, compressed faces, etc)
- Question: the (social)
meaning of physical inferiority?????
Sheldon: "Varieties of Delinquent Youth"
- Endoderm: digestive
- Ectoderm: skin and
- Mesoderm: bones,
development, normal personality
- Imbalance: problems==>personality
- Endomorph: fat,
round--Psych: luxury, sloth, consumption.
- Ectomorph: frail,
skinny, gangly--Psych: introverts, cunning, stealth.
- Mesomorph: large,
strong, hard--Psych: active, dynamic, assertive, forceful.
- Study-200 boys,
Hayden Goodwill Institute. 7 point somotyping scale, 650 psychological attributes.
Disproportionately mesomorphic--more prone to delinquency.
- Sheldon and Eleanor
Glueck (1950's): 800 adjudicated delinquents/matched sample of non-delinquents==>
delinquents more likely to be mesomorphs.
- Maybe need a tough
body to gain acceptance/survive on the streets.
- Body type and social
meaning--the boys were already judged to be delinquent.
- See also: http://www.indiana.edu/~theory/Kip/constitutional.htm#2
- For "constitutional
theories" in general, see: http://www.indiana.edu/~theory/Kip/constitutional.htm
Jukes" by Dugdale (1877): 180 of 700 family members--welfare, 140--criminals
Kallikaks" by Goddard (1912): Martin and "feebleminded barmaid
vs Martin and "good, normal" girl. (See, Plucker, J. A. (Ed.).
(2003). Human intelligence: Historical influences, current controversies,
teaching resources. Retrieved February 11, 2008, from http://www.indiana.edu/~intell)(see
also: The Kallikak Family:
A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-Mindedness, Henry Herbert
Goddard (1913) put online by: Classics in the History of Psychology,
Christopher D. Green, York University, Toronto, Ontario)
- Wikipedia article
on the Jukes
and the Kallikaks
- Low IQ as a cause
of criminality. Feebleminded unable to cope with complex social conditions.
Compared WWI recruits with prisoners: 47% of recruits vs 20% of prisoners!!!?
- IQ and deviance--relevance
of tests, social class and opportunity, schooling and expectations.
- IQ and studies of
Delinquency: School performance
1/3 correlation with birth father, but adopted father explains even more.
- Concordance between
identical twins high, but far from perfect.
- Little attention
to mother's behavior.
- Only 1/1,800-3,000
- No firm link except
- Variety of causes:
Allergies, Hormones, Organic Brain Syndrome, ADD, etc.
- Environmental factors
- Oral-Anal and Phallic
- Identity versus
- Identity diffusion:
excessively self-conscious, overly concerned with sexuality
- Identity foreclosure:
problem of unfulfilled expectations
- Negative identity:
(objected to by others)- rebel to be noticed
- Environmental reinforcement
- Eysenck: Problem
of permissive child rearing
- Skinner: Operant
conditioning: Reward structures
- Strong link to Classical
Theory and Modern day Deterrence Theories
Learning Theory" (psychological social learning)
- Anticipation of
- Gear behavior in
order to be accepted
- Television and violence
- Stages of Development:
- Problem solving
- Situation specificity
- MMPI: view deviance
as positive, reject authority--causes or responses?
- Defining the "Psychopath"
- ADD and social meanings
- General Sociological
Concerns with psycho-dynamic Theories
behavior, then "impulse." Proof? Accounts for everything.
- Sample size
typically limited and skewed
- Replaces one
unseeable force (supernatural) with another ("impulses," "predispositions,"
- General Difficulties
with biological and psychological theories:
- ? Of neutrality--acts
accepted as deviant.
- Straight normative,
wrong by nature
- ? of street
vs. elite deviance
complex social issues
about normalcy--who and what is normal, exactly?
- Expert careers?
- Politics of
Good and Evil
- Mental Hospitals