(See: Drugs in American Society,
5th, 6th, 7th, 8th editions, Erich Goode, McGraw-Hill, 1999/2005/2008/2012. Chapter 10
and Drugs, Society, and Human Behavior, Ray and Ksir, Mosby,
1993. Chapters 6, 11, and 12.)
Arabian goatherd noticed the effects on his goats after they consumed the
red berries of the shrub.
- 900 AD: Included in the
medical practice of Arabian physicians: "Good for what ails you."
- 1674: England- Women
rallied against its use=> Made men "unfruitful."
- Coffee houses linked
to political dissent: Sedition. Charles II outlaws.
- A.K.A. "Penny Universities"
- Lloyds of London: Originally;
- In the USA: Replaces
tea as the "national drink" after taxation issue.
- Commercial roasting (NY):
unstable- deteriorates 2-3 weeks
- Maxwell House blend introduced
as first real commercial variety in 1892
packing circa 1900
- Use continues to increase.
Peaks 1946: 20 lbs. Per person per year.
- Current use: ~10 lbs.--
lifestyle changes and health consequences, although interesting revival of
the "coffee house" in many metropolitan areas.
- #2 export worldwide,
- Price increases during
the 1950's led to a shift towards lighter brews (from 40 cups/lb to 60)
- 2010: Caffeinated, high-alcohol
content drinks prohibited (warning,
A few links:
- Legend: Founder of Zen,
asleep while meditating, cut off his eyelids, where they fell-- tea plant
grew. A brew of its leaves would keep you awake.
- 350 A.D.- China: primarily
a medicinal herb. Widely used by 780 A.D. (Tax levied)
- First mention in Europe:
- 1610: Dutch began importing
- Trade wars during the
17th Century between Holland and England over the tea business.
- Begins to replace coffee
as a drink in England. "Drink Tea Campaign." English East India
Company: Profits helped colonize India, led to Opium Wars with China. Linked
tea drinking to patriotism, coupled with low tax on tea and high tax on alcohol--
Becomes the national drink
- The bud-leaf (flowering
orange pekoe) and the first two leaves (orange pekoe and pekoe)
- Dried, crushed: oxidizes
(ferments)=> Black tea
- Quality controls were
established in USA: 1897. FDA taste test: 7 types/grades
- 1904: Iced tea popularized
at the World's Fair in St. Louis (earliest record)(local).
Tea bags introduced in NYC.
- Pound for pound- more
caffeine than coffee; but brew more cups per pound.
- Theophylline is found
in small quantities: Broncho-dilation, and Cardio-vascular stimulant
Way of Tea
Focus on Caffeine (see
Ray, p. 303) (See also: Erowid)
|Drip coffee 5 oz
|Brewed U.S. tea
|Iced tea 12 oz
||8 mg/oz, 64 mg
in a can
||32 mg/oz, 256 mg
in a can (~400 mg/12oz)
||about the same
as coffee (75mg.)
- Over a 72 hour period,
typical male=> 1150 mg. Typical female==>1273 (from Ray)
- ED=> 200 mg (for regular
- Impact: CNS stimulant,
Nervousness, increased heart rate and respiration, periphial dilation (but
vessels in brain constrict: tends to relieve migraines and headaches in non-users),
offsets fatigue, DOES NOT sober up a drunk.
- Cancer (not at normally
- Breast lumps (benign)
(again no firm link)
- Large doses seem to be
related to birth defects in lab animals
- Heart problems: could
- Caffeinism: little real
concern for OD, but dependence is common.
- Withdrawal: headaches,
fatigue, depression. APA-- considering adding Caffeine dependence Syndrome
to list of disorders (Ray, p. 306)
- Caffeine and the new
drug" for 1999
- 2006: Concern developing
over consumption of energy
drinks (and 2010)
- Medicinal use: for premature
- Most caffeinated
city in the USA?
- Columbus received
as a birthday present in 1492
- 1497: Monk records
the habit of natives for "drinking" (smoking) tobacco. In the early
years of use one "drank" (smoked) or "took" (used snuff).
- Spain develop a monopoly
and made huge profits on their trade.
- England looked to
the American colonies to compete: It grew well and became a major cash crop.
- 17th Century: 30 Years
War-- smoking spread throughout Europe. There were a variety of legal measures
that attempted to control smoking, for economic and other reasons: Russia
(1634) noses cut off; China (1638) decapitation.
- Throughout the 18th
Century the typical usage was in the form of snuff, associated with nobility
and elite status. Pipe smoking was also common.
- Chewing tobacco became
popular in post revolutionary America
- By 1911 smoking: Pipe
and cigars and chewing were the dominant forms of consumption. 1920- 3 out
of 4 lbs. Today 1 of 7 lbs. 1945 Regulation passed ordering cuspidors to be
removed from federal buildings.
Sort of between chewing and cigarettes. Hand rolling: one person- about 200
a day. Use peaked in 1920: 8 billion cigars sold. "What America needs
is a good 5 cent cigar." Aside by the Vice-President during a Senate
discussion on the needs of America.
- Cigarettes: 1850's
Phillip Morris begins
producing handmade cigarettes.
- 1881: machine
rolling introduced; popularity increases. 1885: sales at 1 billion a year
- 1913: Camels and
advertising "Turkish blend," yet used mostly domestic tobacco-
reducing cost. By 1918: 40% of market.
- Ensuing years:
rapid growth in sales.
- End of WW II:
340 billion sold- 175 packs per person per year.
- Filter cigarettes:
1954-- Winstons. Remained number 1 seller through the 1970's.
- Consumption peaks
in 1963: 217 packs per person per year.
- 1964: Surgeon General's
report on smoking and health: Decline begins. 1990 150 packs per year.
Brief History of Cigarette Advertising (Time,
June 29, 2009, volume 173, number 25, page 14.)
- Today, adult consumption
is down, yet smoking for children showed increases throughout
the 1990s. Up to 1990, reality was that young people were less likely
to start, yet by 1997 36.5% % of high school seniors reported monthly smoking.
Over the past 9 years, smoking has steadily decline for the adolescent population:
21.6% of 12th graders report monthly use in 2006. However, data from SAMHSA
indicate that the federal government has been unable to significantly reduce
adult cigarette use during the 1990s. The goal was to lower use to
15%, yet throughout the 1990s, and currently, the rate is about 25%.
- Tobacco: $80.3
Billion in sales for 2002, Globally: http://www.princeton.edu/~ina/infographics/smoking.html
of Nicotine Experience "A collection of short
experience reports illustrating different approaches to the use of tobacco
and nicotine. Some of these reports are radically removed from more common
forms of use and include experiences with transdermal tobacco, homemade snuff,
nicotine gum, and nicotine patches." (from Erowid.org)
Got in Their Eyes (local
copy): images of smoking, then and now
- Cigarette smoking and health events, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC. "Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Tobacco Use -- United States, 1900-1999." 1999.
- Probability of smoking
in inversely related to social class, level of education, and occupational
- Smoking is also correlated
with race, with African-Americans having a rate slightly higher than Whites.
Smoking and Problems
- Few think of tobacco
and cigarette smoking as a drug/drug use. If smoked like marijuana, one would
experience a significant high (Zinberg and tobacco as a placebo in studying
the effects of marijuana
- Nicotine is quite toxic:
LD: 60mg. A cigar contains 100-120 mg. (p. 195)
- Powerful dependence.
Considered to be the most "addicting" drug available: 80% return
within 4 years of quitting (comparable to heroin)
- "Gateway" drug????
- Significant role of government
involvement: subsidies and prosed new controls.
- More people use tobacco
than all other illicit drugs combined. It is used more frequently by regular
users than any other drug. And, many consider it (nicotine, used in the form
of cigarettes) to be one of the most addicting (careful how you interpret
this term) substances available.
- Politics and science:
Debate over causation and addiction and health problems.
- Reality: smokers have
rate of death by 65 three times higher than non-smokers, and are twice as
likely to die by age 75.
- Cancer rates: 4 times
higher for pack; 10 times higher for 1 pack; 17 times higher for 1 and pack;
23 times higher for 2 pack.
- Significantly higher
rates of bronchitis, emphysema and heart disease. Impact on fetus.
- Use is down (25% smoke)
among the general population, but increased in mid-1990s, and now decreasing
among adolescents (31.4% 12th
grade at 30 day prevalence (down 3.2%): Current
- Problems are up (chronic
effects): About 434,000 PREMATURE deaths can be associated with the use of
tobacco, perhaps 53,000 more from passive smoking.
Cigarette and Tobacco
Use 2009 (http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/NSDUH/2k9NSDUH/2k9Results.htm#Ch4)
- In 2009, an estimated 69.7 million Americans aged 12 or older were current
(past month) users of a tobacco product. This represents 27.7 percent of the
population in that age range. In addition, 58.7 million persons (23.3 percent
of the population) were current cigarette smokers; 13.3 million (5.3 percent)
smoked cigars; 8.6 million (3.4 percent) used smokeless tobacco; and 2.1 million
(0.8 percent) smoked tobacco in pipes.
- The rate of current use of any tobacco product among persons aged 12 or
older remained steady from 2008 to 2009 (28.4 and 27.7 percent, respectively).
The rates of current use of cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, cigars, and pipe
tobacco also did not change significantly over that period. Between 2002 and
2009, past month use of any tobacco product decreased from 30.4 to 27.7 percent,
and past month cigarette use declined from 26.0 to 23.3 percent. Rates of
past month use of cigars, smokeless tobacco, and pipe tobacco were similar
in 2002 and 2009.
- In 2009, young adults aged 18 to 25 had the highest rate of current use
of a tobacco product (41.6 percent) compared with youths aged 12 to 17 and
adults aged 26 or older (11.6 and 27.3 percent, respectively). Young adults
had the highest usage rates of each of the specific tobacco products as well.
In 2009, the rates of past month use among young adults were 35.8 percent
for cigarettes, 11.4 percent for cigars, 6.1 percent for smokeless tobacco,
and 1.7 percent for pipe tobacco. The rate of current use of a tobacco product
by young adults was similar in 2008 and 2009 (41.4 and 41.6 percent, respectively),
as was the rate of cigarette use between 2008 and 2009 (35.7 and 35.8 percent,
respectively). Between 2002 and 2009, there was a significant decrease in
the rates for current use of tobacco products and cigarettes among young adults;
in 2002, the rates were 45.3 and 40.8 percent, respectively.
DrugsText Information on
from Indianan University)
- High abuse potential=>
(first) discovered in 1887: nasal decongestion. Later used for the treatment
of narcolepsy, depression, alcoholism, schizophrenia, obesity, hyperkinesis,
and fatigue. Since 1970, amphetamines have been recommended for use in the
treatment of narcolepsy, short-term weight loss (this is even uncommon) and
most commonly (and currently), hyperactivity and attention deficient disorder
(second only to Ritalin). The military
still uses amphetamines (see
to enhance alertness for pilots and others (see also: MSNBC).
Effects last 4-6 hours, depending on dose.
- Early ads: biamphetamine
- Related compound: Ephedrine
- Molecule is both "left"
and "right" handed: l and d forms. d is several
times more potent: Marketed as Dexidrine. Methamphetamine has methyl
group added on ("Crystal Meth", "Ice"). Added
methyl group speeds passage across blood-brain barrier. (duration: 6-12
hours, when smoked, depending on dose). Street price: $100-$250 per gram.
is the hydrochloride salt form which is strongly hydrophilic (absorbs water
from the air quickly). The HCl salt is smokable as is. "Crystal Meth"
or "Ice" refer to methamphetamine grown into crystals. Though
many people believe that Crystal Meth is the freebase form of methamphetamine
HCl, this is not true. Methamphetamine is smokable in its normal HCL form,
but taking the time to grow it into crystals makes it easier to smoke. Meth
in visible crystals (rather than powder) is likely to be relatively pure
as it is difficult to grow crystals from impure material. Methamphetamine
freebase is an oil and is uncommon on the street.
Basics, Mon, Oct 1, 2001.
- Also related to PPA (phenylpropalamine)
OTC weight-loss pill, and Methcatinone.
Finally, all are: similar to neurotransmitters: dopamine and norepinephrine.
- Side effect: EUPHORIA
- WWII and Korean War:
extensively used to keep up soldiers fighting capacity. After wars: sold to
Japan and marketed OTC. Abuse grew to epidemic proportions.
- Post war=> illegal
use in USA increase. Became one of the most popular drugs during the 1960's
- High level of Illegal-Instrumental
- Truck Drivers- sophisticated
- College students
- 2.5-10 mg.: increases
competence, alertness, energy, stimulates motor activity, euphoria, heart
rate, decreases appetite, blood flow, and saliva.
- Also widely prescribed
by medical profession: Diet pills- extremely popular.
- Multiple drug users:
mix with a variety of other drugs to expand/heighten the effects. Used to
modify the "down" period associated with other drugs, and/or used
to avoid sleep in order to use other drugs.
- Recreational dosage:
- High dose IV use: Methamphetamine-
more easily crosses the blood-brain barrier. Typical available as a liquid=>
Now crystals: ICE. Smoked or intranasal. Brief surge reported in use, appears
to be "media hype" again. 1993: Lifetime use- 3.1%, Past 30 days-
.6% (High School population).
- Use of amphetamines followed
the downward tend for other drugs through the 1980's
- Mid 1990s rates- 12% H.S.,
19% young adults report lifetime use, 3.6 and 1.5% report thirty day use (significant
increase at H.S. level), daily use is very low~ .1-.3%
- 2009 (all stimulants, except methamphetamine): 8.7% lifetime, 1.2% past year, .5% past month
- So, use rates are dropping, but stimulants are popular drugs.
Lots of "look-alikes." Peak of use for 12th graders: 1981 with 32% reporting lifetime use. For 2009, 9.9%.
- Prescription use is DOWN
- Current MTF Data
Speed Scene: Late 1960s
- Dramatic explosion in
the drug using sub-culture of the 1960's and very early 1970's. SPEED FREAKS.
- Massive doses, and re-dosing:
RUNS- lasting 2-5 days.
- Heroin used to "regulate
the high and "comedown," many freaks went on to use heroin on a
- Massive, frequent doses
used to pursue the FLASH: "Full body orgasm"
- CRASH: 24 hours or more
- Devastating impact on
mind and body
- Amphetamine psychosis
(inevitable with high doses)
Behavior fixation, compulsiveness
- Sensation of "Bugs"
- Not addiction per
se, but MAJOR Dependence. Strong reinforcement from use vs. Serious depression
- Prescriptions for
Methedrine began significant decline in 1967, placed on Schedule I: 1970.
Other varieties of methamphetamine are available on Schedule II.
- Use is sporadic now and
typically at lower doses
- Recent indications of
use rising among ethic minorities and middle class whites, especially in the
West and Southwest: Affordable=> longer lasting.
Ice, and Speed: Mid 1990s--2011
York Times Report on Methamphetamine and Crime
New York Times Report on Methamphetamine and Crime
Information on Methamphtamine
Information an Methamphetamine
America's Information on "Ice"
In 2000, the estimated number of persons who have tried methamphetamine in
their lifetime was 4.0 percent of the
population. The estimate has increased significantly since 1994, when 1.8
percent of the population had ever used methamphetamine (yet this is down
from 4.3% in 1999).
Methamphetamine Initiative (Policy Brief-
Methamphetamine in Missouri 2004)
Methamphetamine Project (2005)
Related Substance: Methcathinone
(Cat, Kat). Schedule I since 1993.
in Amsterdam: Patterns of use and modes of self-regulation
by Justus Uitermark and Peter Cohen (http://www.cedro-uva.org/lib/uitermark.amphetamine.html),
After identifying some omissions
in existing literature on research on amphetamine use, this paper sets forth
to answer some questions with respect to (1) use patterns, (2) advantages and
disadvantages of amphetamine use as experienced by users (3) the formal and
informal modes of control that users employ to reduce or negate negative side-effects
of amphetamine use, and (4) the role of context variables in fostering in facilitating
these modes of control. The paper draws on a sample of 109 experienced and recent
amphetamine users in Amsterdam and a follow-up sample of 67 respondents of the
Conclusion: Although there
is no easy way to summarize the findings presented in this paper, we can provide
general answers to the five questions posed at the outset. With respect to use
patterns, most respondents did not report escalating levels of use over a period
of approximately five years. In a clear majority of cases, respondents reduced
their level of use or stop using amphetamine altogether after a relatively brief
period of time. This helps to explain why most respondents reported only limited
negative side effects of amphetamine use, despite their levels of use. Data
from our follow-up survey suggest that users tend to develop mechanisms of self-regulation,
even those who at some point showed signs of ‘losing control’; respondents
either quit or diminish their use or, in rare cases, accommodate high-level
amphetamine use within their daily lives.
NSDUH: The number of past month methamphetamine users decreased between 2006 and 2008, but then increased in 2009. The numbers were 731,000 (0.3 percent) in 2006, 529,000 (0.2 percent) in 2007, 314,000 (0.1 percent) in 2008, and 502,000 (0.2 percent) in 2009. NSDUH
2002-2007 Use Rates.
Current MTF Data
Stimulants, past year use
By Pedro Luz)
- In comparison to the
Amphetamines, the effects of Cocaine
impact the mind, more than the body
is also shorter in duration
- Native tribes of the
Andes have chewed the coca leaf
for centuries. Records indicate use by the Inca's: The coca plant was considered
as divine. (Leaves contain 1% cocaine)
coca grows at higher elevations, with substantial rainfall. Some existing
cocals (2-3 acre plots) have been under cultivation for 800 years.
- Mountain natives chewed
ball of leaves almost continually, distances were measured by the number of
stops required to maintain dose level.
- Cocaine Hydrochloride
was isolated about 1860. Not a synthetic drug- derived from the plant.
- Cocaine was hailed
as a miracle: S. Freud, et al.
as being able to "fortify" soldiers (Germany, 1880s)
properties documented (1884)
- Cocaine and Toothaches
(An 1885 advertisement for cocaine toothache drops from erowid)
- Major ingredient in popular
Tea, "Vin Mariani Coca Wine" was endorsed by the President,
the Pope, and world royalty.
- Yes, it was found in
for a short time, until fear of southern Blacks using cocaine led to its removal
- Even Sherlock Holmes
was a "user."
- Between 1887 and 1914
46 states passed legislation regulating cocaine. Use associated with Blacks,
lower class whites and criminals
- Legacy of racism: Literary
Digest (1914) " ...most attacks upon white women of the South are
a direct result of a cocaine-crazy Negro brain." New York Times (1914): "Negro Cocaine Fiends Are a New Southern Menace."
- Included as a regulated
narcotic in the Harrison Narcotics Act of 1914.
- During the 1920's associated
with the "hip, swinging" lifestyles of the wealthy: Songs- "Cocaine
Lil" and Cole Porters: "I get a Kick out of You"
- 1930-50's described as
the "Great Drought," cheaper and readily available amphetamine seems
to have replaced cocaine
- During the 1960's and
1970's : popularity resurfaced. Substantial decline in use during the 1980's
and through the 1990's: although frequent, chronic use is stable and/or slightly
- Crack hits streets in
the early 1980's and becomes "widely" available by mid decade, its
use is in decline.
Survey on Drug USe and Health
- In 2005, an estimated
2 million Americans were current (past month) cocaine users. This represents
0.8 percent of the population aged 12 and older. The estimated number of current
crack users in 2000 was 467,000, .2% of the population. In 2005 the figure
was 682,000 (.3%) (this indicates a significant increase from the 2000
- In 2007, there were 2.1
million current cocaine users aged 12 or older, comprising 0.8 percent of
the population. These estimates were similar to the number and rate in 2006
(2.4 million or 1.0 percent).
- Among young adults aged
18 to 25, there were decreases from 2006 to 2007 in the rate of current use
of several drugs, including cocaine (from 2.2 to 1.7 percent)
- In 2009, there were 1.6 current cocaine users aged 12 or older, comprising 0.7 percent of
the population. These estimates were similar to the number and rate in 2008 (1.9 million or 0.7 percent) but were lower than the estimates in 2006 (2.4 million or 1.0 percent).
1997 MTF High school
Seniors (30 day):
Types, Route of Administration,
- Coca leaves are mixed
with a solvent such as kerosine or gasoline, after mixing and mashing the
fluid is filter off and the substance left is "Coca Paste" or "Basuco."
This is sometimes used by locals: its smokable.
from Indianan University)
- The paste is further
refined into the powder Cocaine Hydrochloride: Snorted intranasally, mixed
with water and injected, and sometimes smoked (loses potency)
- "Freebasing" developed in the early 1980's: using ammonia and a solvent such as ether removes
the hydrochloride and produces a very potent, smokable "Base" (Richard
Pryor accidentally or purposively set himself on fire in 1980 while making/using
- Another method of freebasing using
baking soda and water emerged=> lumps precipitate and can be heated and
the vapors inhaled: "Rock" or "Crack" (sound produced
through heating). Crack is not pure like "base," but does produce
a vapor that is very potent.
- Both IV use and smoking
produce an immediate, intense high. Smoking
(although IV use, too) seems to especially initiate a continuing cycle of
reinforcement. Both routes produce a high of relatively short duration,
followed by an "after glow" and the relative depression. Immediacy
of effects leads to a desire to repeat.
- Street cocaine usually
"cut" three or more times, increasing
the volume and profits, but decreasing purity. The process
ends up with approximately a 1,700% value added for cocaine.
The base price for a kilogram of cocaine: $610 and ends up
on the street at $110,000. (Faupel, et
al, The Sociology of Ameican Drug Use, 2004, page 289)
- Cost of cocaine has remained
relatively stable, and marketing of Crack makes it easily accessible.
- Seems to act as a blocking
agent: blocking the reuptake of dopamine and serotonin.
- Produces=> Extremely
pleasurable sensation, Immediate Sensuous Appeal (no learning necessary),
Confidence, and Energy: Robert Lewis Stevenson wrote Dr. Jekyll and Mr.
Hyde, a 60,000 word novel, in 3 days. He tore it up and did it again.
- Little tolerance is produced
(depending on mode of use, frequency of use, and dose), No "classic"
addiction; but, extreme behavioral and, perhaps, physiological dependency.
- Occasional use, especially
intranasal, seems to have no significant detrimental effect. Used extensively
as a local anesthetic in surgery in the nasal, laryngeal, and esophageal regions
(it's absorbed so well by mucous membranes).
- Frequent, chronic use
does produce problems and requires a substantial economic investment.
- With pattern of frequent
use levels still significant, cocaine is a significant factor in DAWN reports.
Significant showing and increase in reports over the past few years.
- Crack continues to play
a significant role in calls to the Cocaine
Hotline, rapidly out paced powdered cocaine.
in the News?
- First reported
in the New York Times, November 1985
- Within a year:
1000 stories, 400 television broadcasts
- Factual Distortions
and Sensationalism, Myths:
Wave" and a "plague."
- Use levels
never high (peak: 5% of HS seniors report ever using, ~.1% past month)
- Use levels
have been declining throughout the 1990s
- Use is "universal"
- Use inversely
correlated with social class, education, etc.
Babies" (see also: Prenatal
Exposure to Cocaine)
Immunization for Cocaine
Cocaine and Crack Use Patterns
3-5 hits (approx.
1-30 grams (24
- Big difference between
"snorters" and "smokers," with Smokers reporting many
negative reactions and cycles of dependency. Socio-recreational
users: stable. Dependency seems highly correlated with mode of use.
Murphy, Reinarman, and
- 11 year study of 19 "controlled,"
socio-recreational users: 6 used in a controlled fashion throughout the time
frame; 7 escalated use patterns, but returned to stable use; 2 were controlled
users, but ended up abstaining, 3 escalated to heavy use and became abstainers;
1 became and remained a heavy user.
- Study may not be typical
of cocaine use in general, but does point out the .
determinism" versus the Power of Human Free Will.
- Cohen and Sas, "Ten
Years of Cocaine: A follow-up study of 64 cocaine users in Amsterdam"
- Cohen, "Cocaine
use in Amsterdam In non-deviant subcultures"(1994)
- Morningstar and Chitwood:
Cocaine, Sex, and Stereotypes- Cocaine Cowboys and Coke Whores. Reflections
of general gender patterns of control and dominance.
social and health consequences of cocaine use
by Peter Cohen
Presentation held at the
Nationale Designerdrogen-und Kokainkonferenz, 3-4 June, 2004, Bern, Switzerland.
Crack in the Future?
- McCoy, Miles and Inciardi:
"Survival Sex"- Women growing up in depressed urban areas, alienated
from homes=> boyfriends drug use, drugs as payment, sex as medium of exchange,
prostitution. Crack as "functional" in the short term as increasing
sexual abilities and enjoyment (long-term, negative impact on sexual functioning)
- Media hype and the "new"
epidemic"-- Impressive surge in use, yet confined to a rather small population.
- Political response: penalties
created based on media image. Latent racism.
- Addiction?? Inciardi
study: 308 users, 12-17 years of age. 96% had used crack more than once; 87%
used on a regular basis; of the latter group, only 30% used daily and 50%
used once or more per week- but not daily. Majority of daily users limited
themselves to one or two "hits". Compulsive users: extremely small
- Still, NOT a "safe"
drug; yet, NOT the Devil incarnate.
- As with cocaine, use
trend was downward, now stablizing. Typical user today is older, typically
having a long history of use.
- As sales decline, violence
associated with subculture appears to increase. Secondarily, long-term impact
of problems of use: AIDS
- Subculture returns to
"old standby"-- HEROIN (Narcotics)
Information on Cocaine
Owner: Robert O. Keel firstname.lastname@example.org
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Thursday, April 11, 2013 11:47 AM