Chapter 5: Sociology, Schaefer and Lamm, 1995-2012
Neal Shover and Burglars: Division of labor, status and roles, group structure, connections through fence to police etc., the GOOD BURGLAR.
The way in which society is organized into predictable relationships, patterns of social interaction (the way in which people respond to each other). These patterns etc, are to some extent independent of the particular individual, they exert a force which shapes behavior and identity.
Social interaction and the Social Construction of Reality (see also: Social Construction and Why it Matters)
"The most general answer to this question is that social order is a human product. Or, more precisely, an ongoing human production. It is produced by man in the course of his ongoing externalization. Social order is not biologically given or derived from any biological data in its empirical manifestations. Social order, needless to add, is also not given in man's natural environment, though particular features of this may be factors in determining certain features of a social order (for example, its economic or technological arrangements). Social order is not part of the "nature of things," and it cannot be derived from the "laws of nature." Social order exists only as a product of human activity. No other ontological status may be ascribed to it without hopelessly obfuscating its empirical manifestations. Both in its genesis (social order is the result of past human activity) and its existence in any instant of time (social order exists only and insofar as human activity continues to produce it) it is a human product." (Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann. The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise on the Sociology of Knowledge (Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, 1966), p. 51)
Zimbardo's, "Stanford County Prison."
see also, part 2: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ESp98DmbQqY and part 3: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EjQsLybhDyU or the clip at
"Reading" the evidence at the O.J. trial.
Seeing monsters versus "catching" a virus?
"Homeless" or Con-artist.
Malcom X/Muhammed Ali: redefining their own and African-Americans' place.
Language: People of Color versus Colored People.
Goffman on the social construction of the "self:" http://ssr1.uchicago.edu/NEWPRE/CULT98/Goffman1.html
Defining "unemployment:" all without a job, or only those actively seeking work (initiated during Reagan's administration).
Broad social patterns, and social definitions shape the nature of the situations and lend themselves to particular images and feeling for the participants. We act upon these images, meanings, feelings, and definitions.
More on the Social Construction of Reality
Social Structure as a Negotiated Order
Culture forms the foundation of Social Structure:
Social Structure Exercise
Interrelated and interdependent, resist change, integrated, promote stability. Focus: How they fulfill essential system requirements, Self-correcting
The outcome and functioning of institutional structures is not necessarily efficient nor desirable. Order is negotiated, but not all groups have equal footing. Organization of major institutions is built upon the interests and control of dominant groups. Preserve status quo, inhibit change by maintaining relationships of inequality. Schools, Politics, Economics. Source of Social Problems.
The Changing Structure of Society
Lenski's Technological Determinism.
Hunting and Gathering Societies (1:3) (calories of energy expended:calories of food energy produced)
Horticultural Societies (1:15)
Agricultural Societies (1:50) Power==> Land
Industrial Societies (1:5000) Power==> Money
Post-Industrial/Post-Modern Societies (?) Power==> Information
Explaining/understanding the shift from agricultural to industrial systems
Durkheim's Mechanical/Organic Solidarity:
Toennies: (see also)
|Interaction intimate||Formal, task specific|
|Informal control||Formal control|
|Less tolerance of deviance||Tolerance of deviance|
|Little change||Rapid Change|
Today's Society: The Debate
ISSUE: AIDS and its impact on central elements of the social structure: institutional change, image and status of Homosexuals, interaction within the Gay subculture.
Owner: Robert O. Keel email@example.com
References and Credits for this Page of Notes
Last Updated: Tuesday, March 19, 2013 8:16 AM