4: Sociology, Schaefer, 1995-2012
(see also: Sociology, Robertson, 3rd ed. , chapter 5, 1987)
- Learn attitudes, values and behaviors
appropriate within cultural context.
- Develop distinctive personality
(attitudes, temperament, needs, etc.)
- Micro: behavioral expectations
and interpretations internalized
- Macro: transmission of culture,
stability and/or status quo (maintains dominant ideology).
- Raising a chimp as a child
- Interactive: genes and the environment,
biological predispositions, environmental modifications. Downs Syndrome: life
expectancy (12 vs ?), IQ, Self-reliance.
act in context of the environment (and this)(YouTube).
They don't "produce" behavior: Stereotypes (necessity of and problems)-behavioral
expectations-differential treatment-limits range of choices and opportunities-self-fulfilling
- Isolation studies:
- Isabelle-6 yrs. w/o, no speech;
- Genie-13 yrs. old, isolated
at 20 months, never fully develops.
- Twins and IQ
- Manic depression, ETOH addiction,
- Sociobiology: Edward O. Wilson.
- Sexual behavior and
species survival--reproductive strategies, fidelity.
Biological or Social?
- What is it: (see
Jody O'Brien, Social Prisms, Pine Forge Press,1999)
- Secondary Sex
- Reproductive Organs
- Hormonal Levels
well with occupation and social environment
- Chromosomal Structure
- XY equals
- XX equals
- But, 5 types
rather than two: XXY, XYY, XXYY
- Eli H. Newberger,
M.D.: "The Men They Will Become" (explores the roots of male character)
- A baby boy, according
to the author, has traits but no character. At each stage of development,
he argues, particular characteristics (attachment, honesty, self-control,
sportsmanship, generosity, courage) are either nurtured or thwarted. Along
the way, intrinsic biological drives combine with parenting and gender-polarizing
influences to create either the qualities that we admire or those we deplore
- Dr. Newberger teaches Pediatrics
at Harvard Medical School and Maternal and Child Health at Harvard School
of Public Health.
- Resource: Newberger's web
- Separate or individual
- Reflexive: Self as object
- Continually changing, yet perceived
to be stable
Consciousness: Awareness of
one's self in a particular context.
- 3 stage process: Imagine and prepare,
Present and imagine response, Modify based on interpretation.
- Imagination and Interpretation.
- Need "they" to be "I"
learning roles, specific to general,
LANGUAGE-Symbolic interaction, MIND
as a SOCIAL PRODUCT. LEARN to respond to what others have in mind vs what
they do (dog).
learn symbols, acquire behavior repertoire, awareness of others. Yet no firm
linkages, self centered view. Basic communication skills.
Identify with specific others, ROLE TAKING, start to realize the perspective
of others, conforming, gender roles. SIGNIFICANT OTHERS.
Multiple roles and tasks, simultaneously, expectations and roles of others,
RULES and organization of activity.
GENERALIZED OTHER: society/moral
codes, people as multi-faceted: many roles/statuses, one of many who occupy
particular places in the social web.
I vs ME: spontaneity and control
- Situational self
of Self in Everyday Life)
- Trust and acceptance
- Gyn Exam: Stages, Teamwork,
Props: Depersonalizes and desexualizes.
- Markers to seperate encounters
- Brackets to "frame"
distinct, focused encounters: boundaries (remove "self"
from out of the ordinary encounters)
- "Studied non-observance
of embarrassing events" ("civil
"Given" vs "Given off": The "Con"
- Face work
- Picking up a date
- Looking busy at work, -paying
attention in class
- Behavior in Public Place: Self/Body
Notes on the Management of a Spoiled Identity
Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall,
(Spectrum Book), 1963.
- "Goffman's Dramaturgical
Presentation" (by Robert Harsh): http://faculty.plattsburgh.edu/robert.harsh/goffmanrechtm.htm
Presentation of Self in WWW Home Pages," Hugh Miller, Department
of Social Sciences, The Nottingham Trent University and Russell Mather. Paper
presented at the International Internet Research and Information for Social
Scientists (IRISS) Conference: 25-27 March 1998, Bristol, UK
- See also: http://ssr1.uchicago.edu/NEWPRE/CULT98/Goffman1.html
- About Goffman: http://people.brandeis.edu/~teuber/goffmanbio.html
- Oral (trust), Anal (order and
disorder), Phallic (sex-roles and possible anti-social), latency (suppress
sexual), genital (independence and social relationships).
- FIXATION. Defense mechanisms:
projection, rationalization, repression, denial.
stages, identity formation during adolescence
0-2, sensory and physical contact, no language-no thinking, little differentiation-self/world,
discover feet, no sense of results of their acts, object permanence. End-see
world as stable
2-7, lack ability to do simple mental operations, no understanding of abstract
concepts-speed, weight, value. Bigger is heavier, nickel more than dime, water
and container volume, trees waving make the wind, Today is my birthday vs
Wednesday. LIKE Mead: Egocentric: can't take perspective of others--How many
brothers do you have--1, how many does your brother have--0. Back
- Concrete operational: 7-12, reason
about concrete situations, but not abstract or hypothetical. Basic adult functioning:
calculate, causality, quantity BUT NOT death, justice etc. in abstract--only
tied to specific experience. Develops sense of others perspective. Back
- Formal operational:
adolescence, abstract thought, theories, hypothesis, morality, goals, alternative
social relations, philosophic reasoning and questioning: If God-why evil,
If parents know best-why do they make mistakes. Back to Mead.
Process seems universal, content
and how far: Cultural (language and Multiculturalism again). Social structural
Learning to Feel:
- Specific reflexive reactions:
pleasure, surprise, disgust, curiosity; then joy, anger, sadness, fear.
- By 2--concern for others: tenderness
and affection (but no sense of separate other).
- 5-6--sense of others, Looking-glass
self: confidence, insecurity, pride, jealousy, envy.
- Finally, with sense of others--sympathy
and empathy with specific others, then as teenager, coupled with abstract
thought: whole categories-the "Oppressed", deepening awareness of
self and others--romantic passion.
Social influence speed up or slow
down (if abused, show fear early), social conditions influence how we interpret
emotions, and whether and in what form we express them.
Right and Wrong. Conflict solving problems: Stealing to help others. Cultural
and Social factors influence progress and critical stages.
- Obedience and punishment.
- Good deal.
- Conform to others-do to please.
- Follow laws unquestioningly.
- Recognize law as social construction--consensus.
- Universality of moral principles.
life long and Socially Structured
- Rites of passage: problem in modern
- Age appropriate behavior (related
- Mid-life crisis (Dan Levinson--men
and different gender roles, Gail Sheeny--women too, earlier~35, youthful illusions
vs day to day).
- Extended Childhood
- Young Adult
- Mature Adult
- Really Old
ANTICIPATORY and RESOCIALIZATION:
Occur at many points.
- Conversion Experience
- TOTAL INSTITUTION
- Intentional effort.
- Goffman (Asylums,
New York, Doubleday, 1961)--Characteristics:
- Limited, controlled space
- Single authority
- Little privacy
- Little self determination
- Always with others in
same position (new recruits)
- Rules and activities out
of individual control
AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION
Groups and Organizations Profoundly Shape our Sense of Self: We emerge as individuals
within their midst. As Social Being we are always a part of the social
context in which we "find our selves."
- Primary, informal introduction
into formal society, unconscious training, habit training: impose schedules.
- GENDER ROLES--"Toys for Boys".
- Functional--Formal, awareness
of others, VALUES.
- Conflict: Hidden Curriculum, Objective
Record, Class and Success.
- Interactionist: informal structures/peers,
- GENDER ROLES AGAIN
- Significant in industrial society
- Life course
- Emerging significant others
- Age/status segregation, emphasize
and help achieve independence, lifestyle, and conformity: norms of the group--chosen
vs born into.
- FUNCTIONALISM: critical macro
- Values: Youth, Beauty, Violence.
- Average=3hrs/day, 6-18=16,000hrs
- Imitation and role playing, yet
lacks intimacy and involvement. Frequency of violence and amount/18,000 murders.
- Gender Roles and display of others:
typically distorted and under represented.
- POSITIVE: Hispanics, children's
programming, cultural diversity.
- Social Media
- Reference group
- Full-time and Adulthood
- Introduction to Adult REALITY
Career choice, Anticipatory Socialization (inherit or choose)
- Conditioning (accepting
- Commitment (pleasurable)
- Continuous Commitment-integration
- Post-Industrial Society:
Technological change and Economic restructuring==> Resocialization.
- Becker and Geer: "The
Fate of Idealism in Medical School"
- Impact in industrial society
- Decline of the family
as sole socializing agent
- PARENS PATRIAE: Care giving,
regulations and laws.
ISSUE: CHILD CARE
By 2000 70% moms work. Day
Care=functional equivalent of family, Expands experience, yet formal. Concerns:
- CONFLICT: Middle-class
orientation and values, lack of support for those most needy--"family
problem", individual solution, ghetto jobs--high turnover, Who regulates?
- FUNCTIONALISM (necessity
for economic expansion, dysfunction: Impact on Family)
- INTERACTIONISM (impact
on self development-positive and negative).
Social Interaction and Social Structure
Owner: Robert O. Keel firstname.lastname@example.org
Credits for this Page of Notes
Thursday, September 20, 2012 8:23