14: Sociology, Schaefer, 1995-2012
also, Michael Kerl's MARRIAGE
& FAMILY PROCESSES
typical American family?
- Pre-marital sex
- One in four births-unmarried
mothers (1 in 10 1970)
- ~50% of all children
will spend some time in a single parent family (85% African-American).
1995: 21% of White families, 36% of Hispanic families, 64% of Black
- ~25% of pregnancies --abortions
- Increasing rates of unmarried
couples (up 6x in the 1960s, up 6x 1970-1991; number of couples doubled
from 1980-1993, rate have double for those over age of 50)
rate (calculate current
(2009) rate=divorces per 1000/marriages 1000)
- Increasing number of
people remaining single
longer (1 in 4 households). Still fewer than 10% never marry. Age
at marriage (and "cougars") (local
Times article: 10/15/09)(see
marries when?)(Knot Yet: Benefits and Costs of Delayed Marriage)
- Growing number of "childless"
(child-free?) couples (follow-up).
20% of women in their 30s state that they will never have children.
Married couples without children. (over 50% of married couples are couples
without children at home, 1990) (nearly 20%
of American women--no children at 44--up from 10% in 1970)
- Test tube babies
- Working mothers
is marrying whom? NYTimes, 2011)(The Rise of Intermarriage, Pew Social and Demographic Trends, 2/16/2012)
with same-sex parents)(see also)(2010-6 states allow same-sex marriage. 41 prohibit)
report, local copy)
of Marriage and Rise of New Families (full
- 2011: 39% of Americans agree that marriage is becoming obsolete.
What is a
Number of Partners
Emotional and Economic
Mobility and Independence
Theoretically at the Family
- Dominance of men over
women-Engels: first class antagonism (2005: 1 stay-at-home dad for every 38 stay-at-home moms)
- Women as property
- Social Conflict: Violence
as a norm, stress, lack of community, sexism, intergenerational transmission.
No single theory is adequate to explain complex dynamic.
- Spouse abuse
- Child abuse
- Parent abuse
- Sibling Abuse
- Self-fulfillment and
- The Dyad
- Authority versus intimacy:
communication between family members
- Social exchange: marriage
and courtship negotiations, changing levels of assessment: Females- from physical
attractiveness to financial resources (see: Macionis, "Sociology"
6th edition, 1997; and Blau, "Exchange and Power in Social Life,"
- Variation in interaction in the family--two-parent/single parent/step-parents.
report, local copy)
and Evolving Forms
Parenting and grandparents
- Critical job, no qualifications.
Problem of anticipatory socialization. Consensus on child rearing (Corporal
- Extension of parenthood--adult
children coming home
- Living longer--More
- Children raised
(10% in 2010)(full report)
- Recreational care
- Symbolic (geographical
- Divorce and custodial
career families ($48,169 vs. $30,075)
- Tradition vs survival
- Authoritative vs Authoritarian
- Growing homogenization
and ethnic variations
- rate 1992: 51.4%,
rate of remarriage-70% of those under 35, 50% within 3 years
- 2008: "50-State
- Stations: emotional,
legal, economic, coparental, community, psychic
- Factors predicting a
higher probability of Divorce:
- Young age
- Short acquaintance
- Short engagement
- Parental and friend
- Dissimilar backgrounds
- Low level of education
- Conflicting role
- Tremendous increases
- Mead--individual marriage
and parental marriage.
- Practice marriage?
- High age of first marriage
- Many remaining single
- Freedom, excitement,
report, local copy)
- Industrialization and
the Transformation of the Household: Gender roles. family as unit of
consumption vs. unit of production. Work outside of the home.
- Shift from family responsibility
to External responsibility: Rise of other Institutions. Income levels
for families with children have declined, DINKs, Government Bureaucracy,
Costs of education, After-school and Summer programs, decline of parental
authority, shift in locus of socialization
- Schools and Community
(schools as "constructed" institutions, schools as unable to fulfill
all the demands of the socialization process).
- Schools provide: opportunities,
demands, and rewards. Families/communities provide attitudes, efforts, and
conceptions of self.
- Social Capital
versus Individual Capital.
study by the Center on Education Policy (2007) suggests type of school,
private vs. public, has little effect on student success
to Conflict Theory
Owner: Robert O. Keel email@example.com
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Tuesday, April 9, 2013 8:26