16: Sociology, Schaefer, 1995-2012
66 million attend (2010, See 2009 report)(2011 tables)-~25% of population.
industry-20% of labor force.
historically associated with leisure activity: available to those with the time
relevance and importance with Industrialization: 19th century and primary education,
1930 and secondary, next few years--?
socialization-Knowledge and Skills-Bureaucratic and Formal--introduces us to
the rest of our lives.
- Basic Right, necessity for democratic
- USA-first free schools
High School, 50% some college, 28% degree (Europe~20% high school, 10%
college) (Worldwide--50% illiteracy)
- Urbanism and Education 2
- We pay the price--lower standards
- Also, compulsory.
- All pay--education benefits all.
- Variety of Goals:
- Solve social problems
- Little success, especially as
- Still, we have faith in education
as a cure all
- Knowledge and skills
- Cultural transmission
- Social Control
- Agent of Structured Change: social
programs, mobility, diffusion and innovation.
- Reproduces social order--control
- Hidden curriculum, training good
- Credentialism (Randall Collins)
- Status: Standardized
Testing, Tracking, Public/private, Gender,
Class, and Race.
(see also: RACIAL
DISPARITIES AND DISCRIMINATION IN EDUCATION: WHAT DO WE KNOW, HOW DO WE KNOW
IT, AND WHAT DO WE NEED TO KNOW? by George Farkas, 2002) (see http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/school.html
for more details)
- Correspondence Principle (Bowles
and Gintis): Wealthiest School districts spend more than $8,000 per student,
poorest less than $3000.
Schools as Formal Organizations
rules, hierarchies, impersonal (large classes), technical competence (publish
- Functionalism-positive, quality
- Conflict: harmful, benefits some,
standardization glosses over individual talents.
- Teachers: Role conflict, strain,
- Money and work--employee, yet
Student Subculture-Youth subculture
- Grade inflation
- Quality (Finn-reform and lack
of direction, focus on production vs. the product, impact of non-academic
pursuits, Educator education, Thinking Critically vs. Knowing Something.
- Desegregation, Mainstreaming,
and Title IX
- Adult education
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