Deviance and Control
8: Sociology, Schaefer, 1995-2010
If you would like a more detailed discussion of these ideas, see my lecture
notes for Sociology 200: The Sociology of Deviant Behavior.
- Control occurs at all levels
- Most respect and accept
- Expect same of others (predictability)
- Failure leads to sanctions (formal
- Conformity and
Obedience (Milgram 1975)
- Informal and
Formal--Last resort: failure of informal
- Internal (socialization)
- Special case: Law
- Norms considered essential
to social order
- Political--made by government--people
in control of state
- Interpreted by courts
- Backed by legitimate force
Law==> Sociological interest:
Creation of law, Changing standards, determination of violation, appropriate
sanctions (age of victims)
- Behavior (or identity)
that violates (or is interpreted as violating) the standards of conduct or
expectations of a group or society.
- Comprehensive term
- No Moral connotation
- All have violated,
not all deviant: Social process and social context.
- Can't separate "normals"
from "deviants"--definitions and interpretations.
- Relativity: situation,
Actor, Victim (if any)
- Is it deviant or Sport?
- Is it Deviant: Marijuana
- Is it Deviant: Tattoos?
- Is it Deviant: flash
mobs? (see also)
The Social Context
exists only in relation to cultural norms
- People become
deviant only as others define them that way
- Both norms and
defining processes involve POWER
- The Demonic
- Biological and psychological:
Individual versus social factors?
- Normal and Necessary
- Boundary Maintenance
- Group solidarity: Ritual of
- Tension Reduction
and deviance out of control
- Socially structured disjuncture
between culturally defined and accepted goals (aspirations) and socially approved
means for obtaining these goals (expectations).
Rejects (often because==>)
Hirschi: Control Theory- The
- Why we don't violate?
- Elements of the Bond:
- Belief (internal)
- Attachment (external)
- Commitment (external)
- Involvement (external)
- Not WHY, but HOW
- A process, a relationship
- Deviant Identity and career
- Lower-class subculture
- Family structure and alienated
- Focal concerns
Edwin Sutherland: Differential
- Learn behavior (behavior is behavior)
- Learning depands on:
- Learning involves:
- Motives and attitudes
- Acquire defintions favorable to
norm violation--violate the norms
Case study: Howard
Becker, "Becoming a Marijuana Smoker" (1963)
David Matza and Gresham Sykes:
Drift and Techniques of Neutralization
- Deny Victim
- Deny Harm
- Deny Responsibility
- Condemn Condemners
- Appeal to higher Loyalty
Erving Goffman "Reframing":
a Hit Man
- Societal Reaction
- Stigma (people with disabilities)
- Moral Careers
- Self-fulfilling prophecy (self-concept
and exclusion: Looking-Glass Self)
- Relativity and contingencies:
- Chambliss: Saints and Roughnecks,
Power, Social Class and the ability to resist the label. Focus on the
agents of social control and the impact of the labeling process.
- Becker: The Outsiders- "The
deviant is one who is successfully labeled as such."
- Mental Disorder: Szasz, Scheff
and Rosenhahn ("Being Sane in Insane Places"):
- Myth of Mental Illness
- Residual Deviance
- Retrospective Interpretation
- Law a tool of the state controlled
by the dominate class.
- Laws reflect and protect their
- Quinney: Bias, Discretion, Differential
enforcement and treatment--Capital punishment, African Americans and prison,
Street versus White collar crime.
- System and inequality-- alienates==>
- McChesney-Lind: Sexism, Patriarchy
and Female Delinquency
- Colvin and Pauly: Class and Workplace
Control==> Family Control Structure==> Alienation==> School failures==>
Peer subcultures==> Community opportunities==> Deviance
Sutherland--"it's my job." Learning, career, group, integration into
Activities of an organization which is primarily directed toward illegal activity.
Bureaucratic, Secretive, Ethnic Succession.
White Collar Crime:
Crimes committed by high status individual and corporations as a part of their
everyday business activity. Less visible, VERY costly, hard to control, rarely
significant penalties imposed. Violators often aren't defined a criminal. Even
with conviction--little harm done to person's career.
cost, police criminality in investigating, morality
hacking, identity theft, "phishing"
- Crime rates and the "Crime
- UCR: Index Crimes--Murder, Assault,
Rape, Robbery, Burglary, Theft, Motor Vehicle, Arson (?)
- Victim survey NCVS
- Self reports
- Reporting problems--The Dark Figure
Index Criminal versus Real Life:
reporting, visibility, and definitions
Controlling Crime: The Death Penalty?
- Specific and General Deterrence
- Research on deterrence
- Race and Bias
- Just Desert?
Owner: Robert O. Keel firstname.lastname@example.org
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Tuesday, January 15, 2013 11:33 AM