Series of structural
and interactional conditions resulting in definite patterns of behavior.
(emergence of conflicting interests), structural strain (perceived discrepancy-reality vs. expectations), generalized belief (shared definition of situation), precipitating
event, mobilization (how people get together), and failure of social control
perception of discrepancy between legitimate expectations and objective realities.
Feeling of being deprived of basic right. Lack of faith in conventional means
Organizational strategies and leadership required to initiate, recruit and
sustain momentum of movement. Local focus is characteristic of tradition Social
Movements, New Social Movement Theory focuses on global activism and issues
"An actor network
is simultaneously an actor whose activity is networking heterogeneous elements
and a network that is able to redefine and transform what it is made of."
An actor-network includes
both human and non-human elements
An actor-network is not
fixed or stable- it is capable of redifining its identity and relationships
in new ways.
(From: Michel Callon,
"Society in the Making: The Study of Technology as a tool for Sociological
Analysis" in The Social Construction of Technological Systems)
Critical Theory (Conflict)
Power and Control
Technology as a tool
used to control and maintain differential social relationships
guided and controlled by particular group interests
contain messy, complex, problem-solving components."
"They are both socially
constructed and society shaping."
They contain: artifacts,
organizations, and institutions
They are shaped by their
They are goal oriented
and evolve over time
from: Thomas P. Hughes,
"The Evolution of Technological Systems" in The Social Construction
of Technological Systems: New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology,
Wiebe Bijker, Thomas Hughes, and Trevor Pinch, eds., MIT Press, 1987.
Directions of Technologically Mediated Change
Selection, Gene Therapy, Agricultural Innovation