1. The quantum 1/f noise effects. These simple and fundamental effects explain 1/f noise as a universal infrared divergence phenomenon. According to this theory, any current I with infrared-divergent coupling to a system of infraquanta must exhibit 1/f noise with a spectral density of fractional fluctuations of 2α/πfN (coherent quantum 1/f effect observed in large samples, devices or systems) or (conventional quantum 1/f effect observed in small devices or systems). Here N is the number of carriers in the sample used for the definition of the current I. For electric currents, taking the photons as infraquanta, we get a quantum l/f noise contribution with α= 1/137 the fine structure constant. Finally, αA = (2α/3π)(Δv/e)2 is the infrared exponent, essentially the quadratic velocity change in the process considered, in units of the speed of light.
The quantum l/f noise effects are of fundamental nature because they assert that the elementary cross sections and process rates of physics, engineering, or chemistry and biology must fluctuate with a l/f spectral density. Since the error of a l/f-noise limited measurement does not depend on the duration of the experiment, these cross sections and process rates are fundamentally uncertain by an amount of the order of the applicable infrared radiative corrections, unless the number N of scattered particles simultaneously present and defining the scattered current is large (which is often not practical). The fluctuations of the elementary cross sections cause fluctuations of kinetic coefficients such as the mobility of the current carriers, the conductivity and the resistance of the sample or device considered.
The theory has been verified in many ways: 1/f noise was found experimentally to be caused by mobility fluctuations, not carrier concentration fluctuations, and the magnitude and temperature dependence was shown to agree with the measurements in submicron metal films and vacuum tubes. Furthermore, 1/f fluctuations in the rate of a-radioactive decay, predicted by the theory in 1975 have been verified experimentally, recently also for lo-decay. Additional evidence comes from l/f noise in frequency standards and in SQUIDS. Finally, the quantum l/f noise theory has recently been most successful in explaining partition noise in vacuum tubes, and l/f noise in transistors, pen junctions and infrared radiation detectors.
This fundamental law of nature was discovered in 1974-75, emerging from my attempts to quantize my turbulence theory in order to explain 1/f noise in the absence of any turbulence-generating instabilities. Four International Symposia on Quantum 1/f Noise were organized by the Electrical Engineering Department together with the Microelectronics and Information Sciences Center of the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, on Oct. 25, 1985, Oct. 24, 1986, April 28-29, 1988, May 10-11, 1990; the fifth on May 22-23, 1992, the sixth on May 10-11, 1994 were held at the Univ. of Missouri St. Louis. See papers 25, 36, 105, 113, 107, 117-19, 149, 159, 161,162 and 163 on my Integrated List of Papers. See also the reviews on this subject and on the "Handel Equations" by A. van der Ziel in Proc. IEEE As,233-258, (1988), in the monograph "Noise in Solid State Devices and Circuits" Wiley, N.Y. (1986), "The Experimental Verification of Handel's Expressions for the Hooge Parameter", Sol. State Electronics 3 1, 1205-1209 (1988), Semiclassical Derivation of Handel's Expressions for the Hooge Parameter" J. Appl. Phys. 63, 2456-2457 (1988), as well as the articles listed in the appended "General Quantum 1/f Bibliography". The Quantum 1/f Effect is referred to as "Handel Effect" in the Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology Vol.7, (Academic Press, 1987); see p. 126.
2. Contributions to the theory of instabilities and turbulence in semiconductors, plasmas, and metals. New types of instabilities, such as the thermal and magnetic barrier-instabilities have been found by me as a by-product of the work on 1/f noise. A new magneto-hydrodynamic homogeneous, isotropic, turbulence theory was also developed by me for the plasma of electrons and holes in a semiconductor, as well as for a metal, yielding the first rigorously derived universal classical-physical 1/f spectrum, and the classical analog of my present quantum 1/f effect theory. See papers 7-10, 16, 19, 113, 107, 149 and 155 on my integrated list of papers. A turbulence theory for traffic fluctuationswas developed: paper 116.
3. Inclusion of spin-orbit effects into the index of refraction formalism for slow neutrons. This problem challenged me, because it was considered hopeless in Garching/Munich; the index of refraction depends only on the forward scattering amplitude, and this is zero for spin-orbit scattering! I thus explained for the first time the observed asymmetries in neutron guides. See papers 18, 21 and 22 on my integrated list of papers.
4. A many-body theory of static electrification in clouds and thunderclouds based on a new type of polarization catastrophe in mixtures of phases containing H2 O aggregates, and on the hindered ferroelectric properties of ice. This theory is in the process of gaining general acceptance. It explains for the first time the ultimate cause of lightning. For the first time it explains both terrestrial atmospheric electricity and the electrification processes leading to lightning in Saturn's rings in a unified way. See Papers 72, 68, 52 and 138 on my integrated list of papers.
5. The solution of the "Excess Heat" paradox in electrolytic "Cold Fusion". I obtained this solution by introducing a new "thermo-electrochemical effect", and proving that the electrolytic cell works as a thermoelectric heat pump, transporting arbitrarily large amounts of low grade heat from the environment into the electrolytic cell. See paper 142, and also 23, 125, 128.
6. The solution of the "Excess Heat" paradox in the "Patterson Cell" and discovery of a new physical effect.
7. The Maser-Soliton Theory of Ball Lightning. This theory, accepted in general today, is related to Kapitsa's theory and describes ball lightning as an atmospheric maser of several cubic miles, feeding a localized solitonic field state. (See papers 158, 110, 123, 133, 139, 157 on my integrated list of papers, as well as presentations 14 and 15). Also check out an aricle on Ball Lightning in the Science American (Ask the Expert) under http://www.sciam.com/askexpert/physics/physics30.html
8. Discovery of the universal cause of fundamental 1/f noise spectra. This cause was proven to be the idempotent property of the 1/f spectral form w.r.t. autoconvolution in 1980, and was reformulated in the practically C useful equivalent form of a sufficient criterion for the presence of a 1/f spectrum in any homogeneous (h) nonlinear (n) system which exhibits fluctuations. This criterion is easy to apply and means that h+n= 1/f. See papers 113, 107, 149, 155, 159, 162 and 163 in my integrated list of papers.
9. Discovery of two Relativistic Rocket Optimization Theorems. These allow for a faster approach to the speed of light and more reasonable use of the fuel in future intergalactic missions. See paper 1 in my integrated list of papers.
10. Discovery of the 1/Q4- Type of Phase Noise and Improvement of the Leeson Formula. This provides for the first time a correct, simple and reliable formula for phase noise in resonators, oscillators, and high-tech resonant systems of any type. It includes for the first time the author's fundamental 1/Q4- mechanism of upconversion that is present even in the absence of any nonlinearities. It is dominant in highest stability oscillators, resonators and systems. It includes also fundamental 1/f noise, e.g. quantum 1/f effect found by author, adding a 1/Q4- term in Leeson's form.