University Health Services

Immunizations

 

Immunization Form and Policy

Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
Meningitis 
TB test
Tetanus vaccination

www.cdc.gov/travel

Hepatitis A

Definition: Hepatitis A is a highly contagious viral disease that attacks the liver.

Signs and Symptoms:

Mode of Transmission: Primarily through fecal-oral route.

Who Should be Vaccinated:

Who Should Not be Vaccinated:

Side Effects:

Rare cases of

Side effects are generally mild and don't last long.

Dosage: The vaccination is a series of two intramuscular injections given 6 to 12 months apart. The first vaccination will only give you partial immunity; both are 
required for complete immunity.

Hepatitis B

Definition: A potentially serious, highly contagious viral disease that affects the liver.

Signs and symptoms:

Mode of Transmission:
Hepatitis B is transmitted in blood, saliva, semen and vaginal fluids. It can be transmitted by vaginal, oral, or anal intercourse; through bites, cuts, open sores, or mucous membranes (eyes, nose, moth, vagina, anus, urethra); by sharing needles from drugs, steroids, body piercing, acupuncture, or tattoos; from mother to child; or from an exposure in a health care setting.

Who Should be Vaccinated:
Every one should be vaccinated for Hepatitis B. Death can result from this disease and it is a known causer of chronic liver disease. It is now a requirement for school age children to receive this vaccination.

Who Should Not be Vaccinated:
If you are allergic to yeast or thimerosal or have had a previous allergic reaction to Hepatitis B vaccine, you should notify the nurse. Also, you should tell the nurse about the kind of reaction you had. If you have a serious active infective illness, vaccine should be deferred until you feel well. If febrile seizures have occurred in the past and would cause a serious risk, vaccine should be deferred.

Side Effects:

Dosage:
Vaccination is performed with a series of three intramuscular injections. The 
1st and 2nd shot are 1 month apart, followed by a 3rd injection 6-12 months 
after the first one. If the series is interrupted for any reason, it should be 
reinitiated as soon as possible. If one of the vaccinations is missed, this 
does not necessarily mean all shots must be repeated.

Meningitis

Definition: Meningococcal meningitis is a bacterial infection that can cause severe swelling of the brain and spinal cord. This disease is potentially very dangerous because it is relatively rare and is often mistaken for a minor cold or the flu, and, as a result, is ignored.

Signs and Symptoms:

Mode of Transmission: Meningitis is transferred by saliva, nasal mucous, or sputum.

Who Should be Vaccinated:

Who Should Not be Vaccinated:

Side Effects:

Dosage: Vaccination is a single injection. Revaccination should be considered after 3-5 years.

Tetanus

Definition: A potentially fatal infection of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).

Signs and Symptoms: irritability, headache, fever, and painful spasms of the muscles resulting in lockjaw; eventually, every muscle of the body spasms.

Mode of Transmission: Tetanus occurs when the bacterium in soil or dust is introduced into the body through a puncture wound, abrasion, laceration, or burn.

Who Should be Vaccinated: Everyone should be vaccinated as a child and then should receive a tetanus booster every 10 years as an adult. If an individual receives a severe wound they should be revaccinated if they have not received a booster in the last 5 years.

Who Should Not be Vaccinated: Any one who has had a severe allergic reaction to a previous tetanus vaccination.

Side Effects: Soreness, redness, or swelling where the shot was given;

Very rarely: serious allergic reaction; deep, aching pain and muscle wasting in upper arm(s).

Dosage: One intramuscular injection every 10 years.


Tuberculosis (TB) Testing

Definition: Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease that can damage the lungs and interfere with a person's ability to breath. If not treated, it can be fatal.

Signs and Symptoms: Chronic coughing, coughing up blood, chest pains, trouble breathing, persistent fatigue, fever, weight loss, poor appetite, night sweats, swollen lymph nodes

NOTE: TB has two forms: latent and active. Latent TB has no signs or symptoms and is not contagious, but it can become active without warning. Active TB shows the above signs and symptoms and can be very contagious.

Mode of Transmission: TB is passed from person to person through the air. Small droplets are transmitted into the air any time a person coughs, shouts, laughs, or sings. Another person breathes in these droplets, thus exposing him or her self to the bacteria.

Who Should be Tested:
People from countries where TB is very common, People with medical conditions that increase the risk of TB, People who work in the medical field, schools, or correctional facilities, Alcoholics and IV drug users, People who have signs and symptoms of the disease, People who have been exposed to an individual with active TB Who Should Not be Tested: Individuals known to be infected with TB, Have had a clearly documented previous positive TB skin test result, Have a known positive reaction to a smallpox vaccination, Have a skin rash that would interfere with reading the test results.

Side Effects: A possible localized allergic reaction.

Dosage: The test is administered as an injection just under the skin; a small bubble of medicine is injected forming what is known as a bleb. The individual must return to the clinic in 48 to 72 hours to have the test read.

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