Key Events in DI History1940s | 1950s | 1960s | 1970s | 1980s | 1990s
Some Key Events in DI History: 1940s
The Office of Reports and Estimates is created under interagency
Central Intelligence Group to perform intelligence research, produce
current intelligence and write National Intelligence Estimates for policymakers.
President Truman asks for a daily intelligence report. The Daily Summary is first published.
|1947||President Truman signs the National Security Act of 1947 creating CIA.|
Interagency National Intelligence Survey (NIS) program established to provide basic intelligence information on the USSR and 102 other countries. Each survey addressed military geography, transportation and communication, sociological developments, political issues, economic issues, scientific issues, and military affairs.
The National Security Council (NSC) commissions Allen Dulles--New York lawyer and veteran of the Office of Strategic Services, the Agency's World War II forerunner--to study CIA; his committee examines Agency activities and meets with policymakers on CIA's support.
Resultant Dulles Report criticizes lack of intelligence coordination
between CIA, the military services, and the State Department, particularly in the production of National Intelligence Estimates; he recommends that national estimates be an interagency effort.
NSC endorses recommendations and orders CIA reorganization to
Soviets explode first atomic bomb a year ahead of earliest Intelligence Community (IC) projection; CIA comes under criticism.
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Some Key Events in DI History: 1950s
|1950||Walter Bedell Smith is confirmed as the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI). He announces he will implement the Dulles Report. The Office of Research and Reports (ORR) assumes responsibility for basic intelligence, and the Office of National Estimates (ONE), headed by William Langer.|
|1951||Dr. Max Millikan from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) becomes associate director of ORR and writes blueprint for Agency economic analysis.
Office of Current Intelligence is established to produce the President's daily intelligence publication, now revamped and renamed the Current Intelligence Bulletin.
DCI Smith establishes the Directorate of Intelligence, successor organization to the ORR, to streamline the production of finished intelligence.
Loftus Becker, an attorney who had served as military adviser at the Nuremberg War Trials, becomes the first Deputy Director for Intelligence (DDI).
Sherman Kent succeeds Langer as the head of ONE.
President Truman directs CIA to brief presidential candidates Eisenhower and Stevenson--a practice that continues today.
|1953||Robert Amory, a Harvard University law professor, becomes the second DDI.|
|1954||President Eisenhower asks MIT President James Killian to study US military and intelligence capabilities; Killian forms the Technological Capabilities Panel, which recommends greater use of science and technology to improve collection. The panel's recommendation supports development of high-flight reconnaissance.|
|1955||To address Intelligence Community concerns about Soviet missile program, DDI Amory appoints a DI Guided Missile Coordinator. Analysts concluded (in 1961) that the Soviets were far behind the United States in intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) deployment, thereby putting to rest the so-called "missile gap" controversy.|
|1956||First U-2 aerial reconnaissance missions provide new intelligence on hard-to-reach Soviet targets; DI analysts play a key role in developing realistic estimates of the size of the Soviet bomber force.|
|1957||DI Statistical Register created to support photo interpretation efforts.|
|1958||Statistical Register renamed the CIA Photographic Interpretation Center, an Intel community entity responsible for tactical and strategic photo intelligence.|
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Some Key Events in DI History: 1960s
|1960||The DDI creates a small staff to identify intelligence problems
that could benefit from automated information processing support.
The staff identifies Soviet defense spending estimates as one
and work begins on the Strategic Cost Analysis Model.
First reconnaissance satellite, codenamed Corona, launched--revolutionizes collection, greatly increasing information on denied areas, such as the USSR, Communist China, and their allies.
|1961||The Department of Defense and CIA/DI merge photo interpretation efforts into the National Photographic Interpretation Center (NPIC), headed by Arthur Lundahl.
Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) is created to support the intelligence needs of the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Staff.
After the Bay of Pigs fiasco, President John F. Kennedy stops reading the Current Intelligence Bulletin. CIA wins him back with a new publication, the President's Intelligence Checklist; specifically tailored to his interests and including the most sensitive intelligence. The Bulletin has continued publication and was subsequently renamed the National Intelligence Daily.
Ray Cline, a career CIA officer, becomes DDI.
During the Cuban Missile Crisis, a special "Situation Room"--a forerunner of the CIA Operations Center--was set up to cover all of the current information on the crisis.
The CIA Operations Center established; it runs 24 hours a day.
The Office of Central Reference begins production of the monthly series, Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members of Foreign Governments.
|1964||The President's Intelligence Checklist is renamed the President's Daily Brief.|
|1965||DCI John McCone and Deputy Secretary of Defense Cyrus Vance agree that CIA retain primary responsibility for foreign military-economic analysis, which prevents duplication of effort by CIA and Defense Intelligence Agency.|
The Office of Research and Reports is renamed the Office of Economic
Research, reflecting the final separation of the office from its
R. Jack Smith, a career CIA analyst, becomes DDI.
The Office of Strategic Research, designed to pull together various
aspects of strategic military intelligence, is created under the
direction of Bruce C. Clarke, Jr.
Abbot Smith replaces Sherman Kent as Chairman of the Bureau of National Estimates.
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Some Key Events in DI History: 1970s
|1971||Edward Proctor, a career CIA analyst and expert in Soviet military and economic issues, becomes DDI.|
|1972||Military-Economic Advisory Panel created (members include leading academics and businessmen) to review CIA's analysis of Soviet defense spending.|
|1973||National Intelligence Officer system initiated under the National Intelligence Council (NIC); it provides experts at the DCI level
to advise and coordinate between agencies on key issues and replaces
the Board of National Estimates.
National Photographic Interpretation Center transferred from the DI to the Directorate of Science and Technology
The National Intelligence Survey (NIS) basic intelligence program canceled because of Intelligence Community budget constraints.
|1976||Sayre Stevens, an expert in scientific and technical intelligence, becomes DDI.
In response to criticism about Intelligence Community analysis on future Soviet military strength, DCI George Bush agrees to the A Team/B Team competitive analysis exercise as part of the preparation of National Intelligence Estimate, "Soviet Forces for Intercontinental Conflict Through the Mid-1980s."
DDI Stevens commissions a private consulting firm to study DI interdisciplinary research and analysis.
|1977||DI reorganized into the National Foreign Assessment Center (NFAC). NFAC includes a Center for Policy Support to serve as interface
to the policy community; an Office of Regional and Political Analysis
to produce current, mid-range, and long-term research; and assumes
direction of the Offices of Scientific Intelligence and Weapons
Robert R. Bowie, a distinguished professor at Harvard University's Center for International Affairs, becomes NFAC's first director.
CIA implements a system for online delivery of electronic cable traffic.
|1978||Bruce C. Clarke, Jr., whose background is strategic military intelligence, becomes NFAC's second director.|
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Some Key Events in DI History: 1980s
Arms Control and Intelligence Staff (ACIS) established as central
point in NFAC for intelligence support on arms control issues.
Advanced Analyst Training Program established, allowing full-time academic study as well as travel to support research projects.
John N. McMahon, a CIA veteran with broad experience, becomes
the third director of NFAC.
NFAC creates Technology Transfer Assessment Center to perform multidisciplinary analysis and intelligence support on international transfer of technology affecting national security.
NFAC reorganizes; most functional offices are replaced with interdisciplinary regional offices. NFAC is renamed the Directorate of Intelligence.
|1982||Robert M. Gates, a career intelligence officer and expert on the Soviet Union, becomes DDI.|
Robert Ames, director of Near Eastern and South Asian Analysis,
is killed in the terrorist bombing of the US Embassy in Beirut.
DI Modernization Task Force established to develop an ADP plan and address manpower and organizational issues.
New information technology tools give analysts a 90-day search capability for cable traffic.
|1985||The first DI Local Area Network system operational.|
Counterterrorism Center established under the Directorate of Operations
to help combat growing international terrorist threat. DI officers
serve in its analytic components to provide regional and functional
Richard J. Kerr, a senior Agency official whose background is military analysis, becomes DDI.
|1987||CRAY supercomputer installed in the DI.|
|1988||Counterintelligence Center (CIC) is established in Directorate of Operations; DI officers serve in CIC to provide analytical support.|
DCI Counternarcotics Center (CNC) is established, bringing together
officers from across the Agency with the direct participation
of most Intelligence Community and counternarcotics law enforcement
and policy agencies.
John L. Helgerson, former analyst and director for Congressional affairs, becomes DDI.
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Some Key Events in DI History: 1990s
|1990||DI Persian Gulf Task Force established to provide senior policymakers and the military 24-hour intelligence support.|
DCI Nonproliferation Center is established to strengthen DI interface
to the policy community on the growing issue of proliferation
of weapons of mass destruction, which is fueled by the demise
of the Soviet Union.
DCI Interagency Balkan Task Force created in response to growing turmoil in Yugoslavia.
Dr. Lansing H. Bennett, from the Office of Leadership Analysis, and another Agency employee
are killed in a terrorist attack at the entrance to CIA Headquarters
in Langley, Virginia.
Douglas J. MacEachin, former Director of Soviet Analysis, becomes DDI.
Daily Economic Intelligence Bulletin introduced to support to senior economic policy makers.
DDI MacEachin establishes a committee to examine options for reorganizing
and downsizing the DI.
First running of Tradecraft 2000, a mandatory course for DI analysts
and managers to reinforce and enhance core DI analytical and presentational
John C. Gannon, former director of European Analysis, becomes DDI.
DI's Strategic Plan for the 21st Century is published. It identifies principles and strategies to meet intelligence demands and enhance organizational flexibility.
African Great Lakes Task Force established to provide intelligence support on crises in Zaire, Rwanda, and Burundi.
DI reorganization implemented; new offices have new directors
and issue-level managers. Occupational Council established to
support professional development of analytic and support cadres.
Director of Central Intelligence Deutch establishes the DCI Environmental Center, housed in the DI, as the focal point in the Intelligence Community for environmental issues.
John E. McLaughlin, former Vice-Chair of the National Intelligence Council, with background in European and Soviet issues, becomes DDI.
|Director of Central Intelligence Tenet augments the DCI Nonproliferation Center by shifting analytical units into the Center and establishing a Senior Scientist position, thereby creating the largest concentration of proliferation experts in the Intelligence Community.|
After India conducts an unannounced nuclear test, DCI Tenet commissions Admiral David Jeremiah (USN, Retired) to review the Intelligence Community’s performance on India; Jeremiah offers recommendations to enhance the Community's warning capability.
Office of Policy Support is established to enhance quality and delivery of DI services and products, including the new Senior Executives Intelligence Brief, which replaced the 37-year-old National Intelligence Daily.
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