Match 266 DB Rec# - 7,718 Dataset-WOFACT Title :Zimbabwe Text : Zimbabwe Geography Location: Southern Africa, northeast of Botswana Map references: Africa Area: total area: 390,580 sq km land area: 386,670 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Montana Land boundaries: total 3,066 km, Botswana 813 km, Mozambique 1,231 km, South Africa 225 km, Zambia 797 km Coastline: 0 km (landlocked) Maritime claims: none; landlocked International disputes: quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zambia is in disagreement Climate: tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March) Terrain: mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld); mountains in east Natural resources: coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals Land use: arable land: 7.25% permanent crops: 0.25% (coffee is a permanent crop) meadows and pastures: 12.5% forest and woodland: 49% other: 31% Irrigated land: 2,250 sq km (1993 est.) Environment: current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; land degradation; air and water pollution; the black rhinoceros herd - once the largest concentration of the species in the world - has been significantly reduced by poaching natural hazards: recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Desertification Note: landlocked People Population: 11,139,961 (July 1995 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 47% (female 2,588,193; male 2,617,485) 15-64 years: 51% (female 2,915,697; male 2,723,511) 65 years and over: 2% (female 151,635; male 143,440) (July 1995 est.) Population growth rate: 1.78% (1995 est.) Birth rate: 36.35 births/1,000 population (1995 est.) Death rate: 18.54 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.) Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.) note: following the settlement of hostilities in Mozambique in 1992, refugees from the fighting there began to return to their homes; this process continues at a lesser rate in 1995; there is a small but steady flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa in search of better paid employment Infant mortality rate: 72.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 41.35 years male: 39.73 years female: 43.01 years (1995 est.) Total fertility rate: 4.93 children born/woman (1995 est.) Nationality: noun: Zimbabwean(s) adjective: Zimbabwean Ethnic divisions: African 98% (Shona 71%, Ndebele 16%, other 11%), white 1%, mixed and Asian 1% Religions: syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs) 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs 24%, Muslim and other 1% Languages: English (official), Shona, Sindebele Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1982) total population: 78% male: 84% female: 72% Labor force: 3.1 million by occupation: agriculture 74%, transport and services 16%, mining, manufacturing, construction 10% (1987) Government Names: conventional long form: Republic of Zimbabwe conventional short form: Zimbabwe former: Southern Rhodesia Digraph: ZI Type: parliamentary democracy Capital: Harare Administrative divisions: 8 provinces; Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo (Victoria), Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands Independence: 18 April 1980 (from UK) National holiday: Independence Day, 18 April (1980) Constitution: 21 December 1979 Legal system: mixture of Roman-Dutch and English common law Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Co-Vice President Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31 December 1987); Co-Vice President Joshua M. NKOMO (since 6 August 1990); election last held 28-30 March 1990 (next to be held NA March 1996); results - Robert MUGABE 78.3%, Edgar TEKERE 21.7% cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president; responsible to Parliament Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament: elections last held 8-9 April 1995 (next to be held NA March 2000); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (150 total, 120 elected) ZANU-PF 118, ZANU-S 2 Judicial branch: Supreme Court Political parties and leaders: Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF), Robert MUGABE; Zimbabwe African National Union-Sithole (ZANU-S), Ndabaningi SITHOLE; Zimbabwe Unity Movement (ZUM), Edgar TEKERE; Democratic Party (DP), Emmanuel MAGOCHE; Forum Party of Zimbabwe, Enock DUMBUTSHENA; United Parties, Abel MUZOREWA Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-15, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMIR, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMUR, UNOSOM, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Amos Bernard Muvengwa MIDZI chancery: 1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 Government telephone:  (202) 332-7100 FAX:  (202) 483-9326 US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Johnny CARSON embassy: 172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue, Harare mailing address: P. O. Box 3340, Harare telephone:  (4) 794521 FAX:  (4) 796488 Flag: seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and green with a white equilateral triangle edged in black based on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle Economy Overview: Agriculture employs three-fourths of the labor force and supplies almost 40% of exports. The manufacturing sector, based on agriculture and mining, produces a variety of goods and contributes 35% to GDP. Mining accounts for only 5% of both GDP and employment, but minerals and metals account for about 40% of exports. Severe drought caused GDP to drop 8% in 1992, with growth rebounding to 2% in 1993 and 3.5% in 1994. Despite the lingering effects of the drought on economic and social conditions, the government is continuing to push its IMF/World Bank structural adjustment program aimed at encouraging exports and foreign investment. National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $17.4 billion (1994 est.) National product real growth rate: 3.5% (1994 est.) National product per capita: $1,580 (1994 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 22% (December 1994 est.) Unemployment rate: at least 45% (1994 est.) Budget: revenues: $1.7 billion expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $253 million (FY92/93) Exports: $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: agricultural 35% (tobacco 30%, other 5%), manufactures 25%, gold 12%, ferrochrome 10%, textiles 8% (1992) partners: UK 14%, Germany 11%, South Africa 10%, Japan 7%, US 5% (1991) Imports: $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.) commodities: machinery and transportation equipment 41%, other manufactures 23%, chemicals 16%, fuels 12% (1991) partners: South Africa 25%, UK 15%, Germany 9%, US 6%, Japan 5% (1991) External debt: $3.5 billion (December 1992 est.) Industrial production: growth rate 2.3% (1992); accounts for 35% of GDP Electricity: capacity: 2,040,000 kW production: 9 billion kWh consumption per capita: 913 kWh (1993) Industries: mining, steel, clothing and footwear, chemicals, foodstuffs, fertilizer, beverage, transportation equipment, wood products Agriculture: accounts for 20% of GDP; 40% of land area divided into 4,500 large commercial farms and 42% in communal lands; crops - corn (food staple), cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; self-sufficient in food Economy Economic aid: NA Currency: 1 Zimbabwean dollar (Z$) = 100 cents Exchange rates: Zimbabwean dollars (Z$) per US$1 - 8.3752 (January 1995), 8.1500 (1994), 6.4725 (1993), 5.1046 (1992), 3.4282 (1991), 2.4480 (1990) Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June Transportation Railroads: total: 2,745 km narrow gauge: 2,745 km 1.067-m gauge (355 km electrified; 42 km double track) Highways: total: 85,237 km paved: 15,800 km unpaved: crushed stone, gravel, stabilized earth 39,090 km; improved earth 23,097 km; unimproved earth 7,250 km Inland waterways: Lake Kariba is a potential line of communication Pipelines: petroleum products 212 km Ports: Binga, Kariba Airports: total: 471 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 3 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 13 with paved runways under 914 m: 222 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 223 Communications Telephone system: 247,000 telephones; system was once one of the best in Africa, but now suffers from poor maintenance local: NA intercity: consists of microwave links, open-wire lines, and radio communications stations international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station Radio: broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 18, shortwave 0 radios: NA Television: broadcast stations: 8 televisions: NA Defense Forces Branches: Zimbabwe National Army, Air Force of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe Republic Police (includes Police Support Unit, Paramilitary Police) Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,435,931; males fit for military service 1,514,068 (1995 est.) Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $175 million, 3.1% of GDP (FY94/95)
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The World Factbook 1995,
SuDoc No: PREX 3.15:995
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