Match 241 DB Rec# - 7,693 Dataset-WOFACT Title :Tunisia Text : Tunisia Geography Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Libya Map references: Africa Area: total area: 163,610 sq km land area: 155,360 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Georgia Land boundaries: total 1,424 km, Algeria 965 km, Libya 459 km Coastline: 1,148 km Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm territorial sea: 12 nm International disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Libya; land boundary dispute with Algeria settled in 1993; Malta and Tunisia are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly for oil exploration Climate: temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south Terrain: mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south merges into the Sahara Natural resources: petroleum, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt Land use: arable land: 20% permanent crops: 10% meadows and pastures: 19% forest and woodland: 4% other: 47% Irrigated land: 2,750 sq km (1989) Environment: current issues: toxic and hazardous waste disposal is ineffective and presents human health risks; water pollution from raw sewage; limited natural fresh water resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification natural hazards: NA international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Marine Life Conservation Geography Note: strategic location in central Mediterranean People Population: 8,879,845 (July 1995 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 35% (female 1,507,866; male 1,563,411) 15-64 years: 60% (female 2,665,586; male 2,672,712) 65 years and over: 5% (female 226,201; male 244,069) (July 1995 est.) Population growth rate: 1.69% (1995 est.) Birth rate: 22.52 births/1,000 population (1995 est.) Death rate: 4.86 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.) Net migration rate: -0.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.) Infant mortality rate: 32.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.25 years male: 71.16 years female: 75.44 years (1995 est.) Total fertility rate: 2.73 children born/woman (1995 est.) Nationality: noun: Tunisian(s) adjective: Tunisian Ethnic divisions: Arab-Berber 98%, European 1%, Jewish less than 1% Religions: Muslim 98%, Christian 1%, Jewish 1% Languages: Arabic (official and one of the languages of commerce), French (commerce) Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989) total population: 57% male: 69% female: 45% Labor force: 2.25 million by occupation: agriculture 32% note: shortage of skilled labor Government Names: conventional long form: Republic of Tunisia conventional short form: Tunisia local long form: Al Jumhuriyah at Tunisiyah local short form: Tunis Digraph: TS Type: republic Capital: Tunis Administrative divisions: 23 governorates; Beja, Ben Arous, Bizerte, Gabes, Gafsa, Jendouba, Kairouan, Kasserine, Kebili, L'Ariana, Le Kef, Mahdia, Medenine, Monastir, Nabeul, Sfax, Sidi Bou Zid, Siliana, Sousse, Tataouine, Tozeur, Tunis, Zaghouan Independence: 20 March 1956 (from France) National holiday: National Day, 20 March (1956) Constitution: 1 June 1959; amended 12 July 1988 Legal system: based on French civil law system and Islamic law; some judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint session Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President Zine el Abidine BEN ALI (since 7 November 1987); election last held 20 March 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); results - President Zine el Abidine BEN ALI was reelected without opposition head of government: Prime Minister Hamed KAROUI (since 26 September 1989) cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies (Majlis al-Nuwaab): elections last held 20 March 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); results - RCD 97.7%, MDS 1.0%, others 1.3%; seats - (163 total) RCD 144, MDS 10, others 9; note - the government changed the electoral code to guarantee that the opposition won seats Judicial branch: Court of Cassation (Cour de Cassation) Political parties and leaders: Constitutional Democratic Rally Party (RCD), President BEN ALI (official ruling party); Movement of Democratic Socialists (MDS), Mohammed MOUAADA; five other political parties are legal, including the Communist Party Other political or pressure groups: the Islamic fundamentalist party, An Nahda (Rebirth), is outlawed Government Member of: ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAPEC (withdrew from active membership in 1986), OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIH, UNPROFOR, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mohamed Azzouz ENNAIFER chancery: 1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005 telephone:  (202) 862-1850 US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Ann CASEY embassy: 144 Avenue de la Liberte, 1002 Tunis-Belvedere mailing address: use embassy street address telephone:  (1) 782-566 FAX:  (1) 789-719 Flag: red with a white disk in the center bearing a red crescent nearly encircling a red five-pointed star; the crescent and star are traditional symbols of Islam Economy Overview: Tunisia has a diverse economy, with important agricultural, mining, energy, tourism, and manufacturing sectors. Detailed governmental control of economic affairs has gradually lessened over the past decade, including increasing privatization of trade and commerce, simplification of the tax structure, and a cautious approach to debt. Real growth has averaged roughly 5% in 1991-94, and inflation has been moderate. Growth in tourism and IMF support have been key elements in this solid record. Further privatization and further improvements in government administrative efficiency are among the challenges for the future. National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $37.1 billion (1994 est.) National product real growth rate: 4.4% (1994 est.) National product per capita: $4,250 (1994 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (1993 est.) Unemployment rate: 16.2% (1993 est.) Budget: revenues: $4.3 billion expenditures: $5.5 billion, including capital expenditures to $NA (1993 est.) Exports: $4.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993) commodities: hydrocarbons, agricultural products, phosphates and chemicals partners: EC countries 75%, Middle East 10%, Algeria 2%, India 2%, US 1% Imports: $6.5 billion (c.i.f., 1993) commodities: industrial goods and equipment 57%, hydrocarbons 13%, food 12%, consumer goods partners: EC countries 70%, US 5%, Middle East 2%, Japan 2%, Switzerland 1%, Algeria 1% External debt: $7.7 billion (1993 est.) Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1989); accounts for 22% of GDP, including petroleum Electricity: capacity: 1,410,000 kW production: 5.4 billion kWh consumption per capita: 595 kWh (1993) Industries: petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate and iron ore), tourism, textiles, footwear, food, beverages Agriculture: accounts for 16% of GDP and one-third of labor force; output subject to severe fluctuations because of frequent droughts; export crops - olives, dates, oranges, almonds; other products - grain, sugar beets, wine grapes, poultry, beef, dairy; not self-sufficient in food Economy Economic aid: recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $730 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89) $52 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $684 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $410 million Currency: 1 Tunisian dinar (TD) = 1,000 millimes Exchange rates: Tunisian dinars (TD) per US$1 - 0.9849 (January 1995), 1.0116 (1994), 1.0037 (1993), 0.8844 (1992), 0.9246 (1991), 0.8783 (1990) Fiscal year: calendar year Transportation Railroads: total: 2,260 km standard gauge: 492 km 1.435-m gauge narrow gauge: 1,758 km 1.000-m gauge dual gauge: 10 km 1.000-m and 1.435-m gauges Highways: total: 29,183 km paved: bituminous 17,510 km unpaved: improved, unimproved earth 11,673 km Pipelines: crude oil 797 km; petroleum products 86 km; natural gas 742 km Ports: Bizerte, Gabes, La Goulette, Sfax, Sousse, Tunis, Zarzis Merchant marine: total: 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 129,035 GRT/168,032 DWT ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 5, chemical tanker 4, oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, short-sea passenger 1 Airports: total: 31 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 3 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 6 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3 with paved runways under 914 m: 8 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 7 Communications Telephone system: 233,000 telephones; 28 telephones/1,000 persons; the system is above the African average; key centers are Sfax, Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis local: NA intercity: facilities consist of open-wire lines, coaxial cable, and microwave radio relay international: 5 submarine cables; 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 ARABSAT earth station with back-up control station; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria and Libya Radio: broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 8, shortwave 0 radios: NA Television: broadcast stations: 19 televisions: NA Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary forces, National Guard Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,294,912; males fit for military service 1,317,642; males reach military age (20) annually 93,601 (1995 est.) Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $549 million, 3% of GDP (1994)
|Index to 1995 World Factbook...||UMSL Govt. Docs...||UMSL Libraries...||UMSL Home...|
This publication is also available online from the CIA (http://www.odci.gov/cia) as 1995 World Factbook (http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/95fact/index.html).
The printed version of this item can be found under the title:
The World Factbook 1995,
SuDoc No: PREX 3.15:995
Select this link for contact information about the UM-St. Louis Librarians maintaining this site. Updated: March 12, 1996