Match 239 DB Rec# - 7,691 Dataset-WOFACT Title :Trinidad and Tobago Text : Trinidad and Tobago Geography Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela Map references: Central America and the Caribbean Area: total area: 5,130 sq km land area: 5,130 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Delaware Land boundaries: 0 km Coastline: 362 km Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the outer edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm International disputes: none Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to December) Terrain: mostly plains with some hills and low mountains Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, asphalt Land use: arable land: 14% permanent crops: 17% meadows and pastures: 2% forest and woodland: 44% other: 23% Irrigated land: 220 sq km (1989 est.) Environment: current issues: water pollution from agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes, and raw sewage; oil pollution of beaches; deforestation; soil erosion natural hazards: outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity People Population: 1,271,159 (July 1995 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 31% (female 191,627; male 198,225) 15-64 years: 64% (female 399,726; male 407,495) 65 years and over: 5% (female 40,577; male 33,509) (July 1995 est.) Population growth rate: 0.12% (1995 est.) Birth rate: 16.62 births/1,000 population (1995 est.) Death rate: 6.88 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.) Net migration rate: -8.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.) Infant mortality rate: 18.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.14 years male: 67.75 years female: 72.6 years (1995 est.) Total fertility rate: 2.01 children born/woman (1995 est.) Nationality: noun: Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s) adjective: Trinidadian, Tobagonian Ethnic divisions: black 43%, East Indian (a local term - primarily immigrants from northern India) 40%, mixed 14%, white 1%, Chinese 1%, other 1% Religions: Roman Catholic 32.2%, Hindu 24.3%, Anglican 14.4%, other Protestant 14%, Muslim 6%, none or unknown 9.1% Languages: English (official), Hindi, French, Spanish Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990) total population: 97% male: 98% female: 96% Labor force: 463,900 by occupation: construction and utilities 18.1%, manufacturing, mining, and quarrying 14.8%, agriculture 10.9%, other 56.2% (1985 est.) Government Names: conventional long form: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago conventional short form: Trinidad and Tobago Digraph: TD Type: parliamentary democracy Capital: Port-of-Spain Administrative divisions: 8 counties, 3 municipalities*, and 1 ward**; Arima*, Caroni, Mayaro, Nariva, Port-of-Spain*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint Patrick, San Fernando*, Tobago**, Victoria Independence: 31 August 1962 (from UK) National holiday: Independence Day, 31 August (1962) Constitution: 1 August 1976 Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President Noor Mohammed HASSANALI (since 18 March 1987) head of government: Prime Minister Patrick Augustus Mervyn MANNING (since 17 December 1991) cabinet: Cabinet; responsible to parliament Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament Senate: consists of a 31-member body appointed by the president House of Representatives: elections last held 16 December 1991 (next to be held by December 1996); results - PNM 32%, UNC 13%, NAR 2%; seats - (36 total) PNM 21, UNC 13, NAR 2 Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, Supreme Court Political parties and leaders: People's National Movement (PNM), Patrick MANNING; United National Congress (UNC), Basdeo PANDAY; National Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR), Selby WILSON; Movement for Social Transformation (MOTION), David ABDULLAH; National Joint Action Committee (NJAC), Makandal DAAGA; Republican Party, Nello MITCHELL; National Development Party (NDP), Carson CHARLES; Movement for Unity and Progress (MUP), Hulsie BHAGGAN Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Corinne Averille McKNIGHT chancery: 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 Government telephone:  (202) 467-6490 FAX:  (202) 785-3130 consulate(s) general: New York US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Brian DONNELLY (since September 1994) embassy: 15 Queen's Park West, Port-of-Spain mailing address: P. O. Box 752, Port-of-Spain telephone:  (809) 622-6372 through 6376, 6176 FAX:  (809) 628-5462 Flag: red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist side Economy Overview: Trinidad and Tobago's petroleum-based economy still enjoys a high per capita income by Latin American standards, even though output and living standards are substantially below the boom years of 1973-82. The country suffers from widespread unemployment, large foreign-debt payments, and periods of low international oil prices. The government has begun to make progress in its efforts to diversify exports and to liberalize its trade regime, making 1994 the first year of substantial growth since the early 1980s. National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $15 billion (1994 est.) National product real growth rate: 3% (1994 est.) National product per capita: $11,280 (1994 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.1% (1994 est.) Unemployment rate: 18.1% (1994 ) Budget: revenues: $1.6 billion expenditures: $1.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $158 million (1993 est.) Exports: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, steel products, fertilizer, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus, flowers partners: US 44%, CARICOM 15%, Latin America 9%, EC 5% (1993) Imports: $996 million (c.i.f., 1994) commodities: machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, live animals partners: US 43%, Venezuela 10%, UK 8%, other EC 8% (1993) External debt: $2 billion (1994) Industrial production: growth rate 1% (1994 est.); accounts for 39% of GDP, including petroleum Electricity: capacity: 1,150,000 kW production: 3.9 billion kWh consumption per capita: 2,740 kWh (1993) Industries: petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement, beverage, cotton textiles Agriculture: accounts for 3% of GDP; major crops - cocoa, sugarcane; sugarcane acreage is being shifted into rice, citrus, coffee, vegetables; poultry sector most important source of animal protein; must import large share of food needs Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe and producer of cannabis Economy Economic aid: recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $373 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $518 million Currency: 1 Trinidad and Tobago dollar (TT$) = 100 cents Exchange rates: Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TT$) per US$1 - 5.8758 (January 1995), 5.9160 (1994), 5.3511 (1993), 4.2500 (fixed rate 1989-1992); note - effective 13 April 1993, the exchange rate of the TT dollar is market-determined as opposed to the prior fixed relationship to the US dollar Fiscal year: calendar year Transportation Railroads: note: minimal agricultural railroad system near San Fernando Highways: total: 8,000 km paved: 4,000 km unpaved: improved earth 1,000 km; unimproved earth 3,000 km Pipelines: crude oil 1,032 km; petroleum products 19 km; natural gas 904 km Ports: Pointe-a-Pierre, Point Fortin, Point Lisas, Port-of-Spain, Scarborough, Tembladora Merchant marine: total: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 12,507 GRT/21,923 DWT Airports: 6 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 2 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1 Communications Telephone system: 109,000 telephones; excellent international service via tropospheric scatter links to Barbados and Guyana; good local service local: NA intercity: NA international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station; linked to Barbados and Guyana by tropospheric scatter system Radio: broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 0 radios: NA Television: broadcast stations: 5 televisions: NA Defense Forces Branches: Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force (includes Ground Forces, Coast Guard, and Air Wing), Trinidad and Tobago Police Service Manpower availability: males age 15-49 347,841; males fit for military service 249,904 (1995 est.) Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $83 million, 1.5% of GDP (1994)
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