Match 234 DB Rec# - 7,686 Dataset-WOFACT Title :Tanzania Text : Tanzania Geography Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique Map references: Africa Area: total area: 945,090 sq km land area: 886,040 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than twice the size of California note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar Land boundaries: total 3,402 km, Burundi 451 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km, Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km Coastline: 1,424 km Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm International disputes: boundary dispute with Malawi in Lake Nyasa; Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of the Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled Climate: varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands Terrain: plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south Natural resources: hydropower potential, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel Land use: arable land: 5% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 40% forest and woodland: 47% other: 7% Irrigated land: 1,530 sq km (1989 est.) Environment: current issues: soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture natural hazards: the tsetse fly and lack of water limit agriculture; flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification Geography Note: Mount Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa People Population: 28,701,077 (July 1995 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 47% (female 6,724,575; male 6,676,652) 15-64 years: 50% (female 7,462,615; male 7,027,551) 65 years and over: 3% (female 425,211; male 384,473) (July 1995 est.) Population growth rate: 2.55% (1995 est.) Birth rate: 45.25 births/1,000 population (1995 est.) Death rate: 19.81 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.) Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.) note: in February 1995, a fresh influx of refugees from civil strife in Burundi brought the total number of Burundian refugees in Tanzania to about 60,000; in addition, since April 1994 more than a half million refugees from Rwanda have taken refuge in Tanzania to escape civil strife in Rwanda Infant mortality rate: 109 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 42.53 years male: 40.88 years female: 44.22 years (1995 est.) Total fertility rate: 6.15 children born/woman (1995 est.) Nationality: noun: Tanzanian(s) adjective: Tanzanian Ethnic divisions: mainland: native African 99% (consisting of well over 100 tribes), Asian, European, and Arab 1% Zanzibar: NA Religions: mainland: Christian 45%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 20% Zanzibar: Muslim 99% plus Languages: Swahili (official; widely understood and generally used for communication between ethnic groups and is used in primary education), English (official; primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education) note: first language of most people is one of the local languages Literacy: age 15 and over has ability to read and write a letter or message in Kisahili (1988) People total population: 59% male: 71% female: 48% Labor force: 732,200 wage earners by occupation: agriculture 90%, industry and commerce 10% (1986 est.) Government Names: conventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania conventional short form: Tanzania former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar Digraph: TZ Type: republic Capital: Dar es Salaam note: some government offices have been transferred to Dodoma, which is planned as the new national capital by the end of the 1990s Administrative divisions: 25 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Iringa, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pemba North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West, Ziwa Magharibi Independence: 26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from UN trusteeship under British administration); Zanzibar became independent 19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964 National holiday: Union Day, 26 April (1964) Constitution: 25 April 1977; major revisions October 1984 Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President Ali Hassan MWINYI (since 5 November 1985); First Vice President Cleopa MSUYA (since 5 December 1994); Second Vice President and President of Zanzibar Salmin AMOUR (since 9 November 1990) election last held 28 October 1990 (next to be held 29 October 1995); results - Ali Hassan MWINYI was elected without opposition head of government: Prime Minister Cleopa David MSUYA (since 7 December 1994) cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president from the National Assembly Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Bunge): elections last held 28 October 1990 (next to be held 29 October 1995); results - CCM was the only party; seats - (241 total, 168 elected) CCM 168 Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court Government Political parties and leaders: Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM or Revolutionary Party), Ali Hassan MWINYI; Civic United Front (CUF), James MAPALALA; National Convention for Construction and Reform (NCCR), Lyatonga (Augustine) MREMA; Union for Multiparty Democracy (UMD), Abdullah FUNDIKIRA; Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (CHADEMA), Edwin I. M. MTEI, chairman; Democratic Party (unregistered), Reverend MTIKLA Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, FLS, G- 6, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Charles Musama NYIRABU chancery: 2139 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone:  (202) 939-6125 FAX:  (202) 797-7408 US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Brady ANDERSON embassy: 36 Laibon Road (off Bagamoyo Road), Dar es Salaam mailing address: P. O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam telephone:  (51) 66010 through 66015 FAX:  (51) 66701 Flag: divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue Economy Overview: Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world. The economy is heavily dependent on agriculture, which accounts for about 58% of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs 90% of the work force. Topography and climatic conditions, however, limit cultivated crops to only 5% of the land area. Industry accounts for 8% of GDP and is mainly limited to processing agricultural products and light consumer goods. The economic recovery program announced in mid-1986 has generated notable increases in agricultural production and financial support for the program by bilateral donors. The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's deteriorated economic infrastructure. Growth in 1991-94 has featured a pickup in industrial production and a substantial increase in output of minerals, led by gold. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private sector growth and investment. National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $21 billion (1994 est.) National product real growth rate: 3% (1994 est.) National product per capita: $750 (1994 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 25% (1994 est.) Unemployment rate: NA% Budget: revenues: $495 million expenditures: $631 million, including capital expenditures of $118 million (1990 est.) Exports: $462 million (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: coffee, cotton, tobacco, tea, cashew nuts, sisal partners: Germany, UK, Japan, Netherlands, Kenya, Hong Kong, US Imports: $1.4 billion (c.i.f., 1994) commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and transportation equipment, cotton piece goods, crude oil, foodstuffs partners: Germany, UK, US, Japan, Italy, Denmark External debt: $6.7 billion (1993) Industrial production: growth rate 9.3% (1990); accounts for 8% of GDP Electricity: capacity: 440,000 kW production: 880 million kWh consumption per capita: 30 kWh (1993) Industries: primarily agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine), diamond and gold mining, oil refining, shoes, cement, textiles, wood products, fertilizer Economy Agriculture: accounts for about 58% of GDP; cash crops - coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashews, tobacco, cloves (Zanzibar); food crops - corn, wheat, cassava, bananas, fruits, vegetables; small numbers of cattle, sheep, and goats; not self-sufficient in food grain production Illicit drugs: growing role in transshipment of Southwest Asian heroin destined for European and US markets Economic aid: recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $400 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $9.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $44 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $614 million Currency: 1 Tanzanian shilling (TSh) = 100 cents Exchange rates: Tanzanian shillings (TSh) per US$1 - 523.40 (December 1994), 509.63 (1994), 405.27 (1993), 297.71 (1992), 219.16 (1991), 195.06 (1990) Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June Transportation Railroads: total: 2,600 km; note - not a part of Tanzania Railways Corporation is the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA), which operates 1,860 km of 1.067-m narrow gauge track between Dar es Salaam and New Kapiri M'poshi in Zambia; 969 km are in Tanzania and 891 km are in Zambia; because of the difference in gauge, this system does not connect to Tanzania Railways narrow gauge: 2,600 km 1.000-m gauge Highways: total: 81,900 km paved: 3,600 km unpaved: gravel, crushed stone 5,600 km; improved, unimproved earth 72,700 km Inland waterways: Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, Lake Nyasa Pipelines: crude oil 982 km Ports: Bukoba, Dar es Salaam, Kigoma, Lindi, Mkoani, Mtwara, Musoma, Mwanza, Tanga, Wete, Zanzibar Merchant marine: total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 29,145 GRT/39,186 DWT ships by type: cargo 3, oil tanker 1, passenger-cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 Airports: total: 108 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 30 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 16 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 51 Communications Telephone system: 103,800 telephones; fair system operating below capacity local: NA intercity: open wire, microwave radio relay, troposcatter international: 2 satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT Radio: broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 4, shortwave 0 radios: NA Television: broadcast stations: 2 televisions: NA Defense Forces Branches: Tanzanian People's Defense Force (TPDF; includes Army, Navy, and Air Force), paramilitary Police Field Force Unit, Militia Manpower availability: males age 15-49 6,188,455; males fit for military service 3,584,912 (1995 est.) Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $69 million, NA% of GDP (FY94/95)
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