Match 231 DB Rec# - 7,683 Dataset-WOFACT Title :Switzerland Text : Switzerland Geography Location: Central Europe, east of France Map references: Europe Area: total area: 41,290 sq km land area: 39,770 sq km comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of New Jersey Land boundaries: total 1,852 km, Austria 164 km, France 573 km, Italy 740 km, Liechtenstein 41 km, Germany 334 km Coastline: 0 km (landlocked) Maritime claims: none; landlocked International disputes: none Climate: temperate, but varies with altitude; cold, cloudy, rainy/snowy winters; cool to warm, cloudy, humid summers with occasional showers Terrain: mostly mountains (Alps in south, Jura in northwest) with a central plateau of rolling hills, plains, and large lakes Natural resources: hydropower potential, timber, salt Land use: arable land: 10% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 40% forest and woodland: 26% other: 23% Irrigated land: 250 sq km (1989) Environment: current issues: air pollution from vehicle emissions and open air burning; acid rain; water pollution from increased use of agricultural fertilizers; loss of biodiversity natural hazards: avalanches, landslides, flash floods international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea Geography Note: landlocked; crossroads of northern and southern Europe; along with southeastern France and northern Italy, contains the highest elevations in Europe People Population: 7,084,984 (July 1995 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 17% (female 594,565; male 622,436) 15-64 years: 68% (female 2,375,792; male 2,448,213) 65 years and over: 15% (female 623,136; male 420,842) (July 1995 est.) Population growth rate: 0.57% (1995 est.) Birth rate: 12.04 births/1,000 population (1995 est.) Death rate: 9.16 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.) Net migration rate: 2.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.) Infant mortality rate: 6.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.36 years male: 74.99 years female: 81.88 years (1995 est.) Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1995 est.) Nationality: noun: Swiss (singular and plural) adjective: Swiss Ethnic divisions: total population: German 65%, French 18%, Italian 10%, Romansch 1%, other 6% Swiss nationals: German 74%, French 20%, Italian 4%, Romansch 1%, other 1% Religions: Roman Catholic 47.6%, Protestant 44.3%, other 8.1% (1980) Languages: German 65%, French 18%, Italian 12%, Romansch 1%, other 4% note: figures for Swiss nationals only - German 74%, French 20%, Italian 4%, Romansch 1%, other 1% Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.) total population: 99% Labor force: 3.48 million (900,000 foreign workers, mostly Italian) by occupation: services 50%, industry and crafts 34%, government 10%, agriculture and forestry 6% (1992) Government Names: conventional long form: Swiss Confederation conventional short form: Switzerland local long form: Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft (German) Confederation Suisse (French) Confederazione Svizzera (Italian) local short form: Schweiz (German) Suisse (French) Svizzera (Italian) Digraph: SZ Type: federal republic Capital: Bern Administrative divisions: 26 cantons (cantons, singular - canton in French; cantoni, singular - cantone in Italian; kantone, singular - kanton in German); Aargau, Ausser-Rhoden, Basel-Landschaft, Basel-Stadt, Bern, Fribourg, Geneve, Glarus, Graubunden, Inner-Rhoden, Jura, Luzern, Neuchatel, Nidwalden, Obwalden, Sankt Gallen, Schaffhausen, Schwyz, Solothurn, Thurgau, Ticino, Uri, Valais, Vaud, Zug, Zurich Independence: 1 August 1291 National holiday: Anniversary of the Founding of the Swiss Confederation, 1 August (1291) Constitution: 29 May 1874 Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts, except with respect to federal decrees of general obligatory character; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Kaspar VILLIGER (1995 calendar year; presidency rotates annually); Vice President Jean-Pascal DELAMURAZ (term runs concurrently with that of president) cabinet: Federal Council (German - Bundesrat, French - Censeil Federal, Italian - Consiglio Federale); elected by the Federal Assembly from own members Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly (German - Bundesversammlung, French - Assemblee Federale, Italian - Assemblea Federale) Council of States: German - Standerat, French - Conseil des Etats, Italian - Consiglio degli Stati; elections last held throughout 1991 (next to be held NA 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (46 total) FDP 18, CVP 16, SVP 4, SPS 3, LPS 3, LdU 1, Ticino League 1 National Council: German - Nationalrat, French - Conseil National, Italian - Consiglio Nazionale; elections last held 20 October 1991 (next to be held NA October 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (200 total) FDP 44, SPS 42, CVP 37, SVP 25, GPS 14, LPS 10, AP 8, LdU 6, SD 5, EVP 3, PdA 2, Ticino League 2, other 2 Judicial branch: Federal Supreme Court Government Political parties and leaders: Free Democratic Party (FDP), Franz STEINEGGER, president; Social Democratic Party (SPS), Peter BODENMANN, president; Christian Democratic People's Party (CVP), Anton COTTIER, president; Swiss People's Party (SVP), Hans UHLMANN, president; Green Party (GPS), Verena DIENER, president; Freedom Party (FPS), Roland BORER, president; Liberal Party (LPS), Christoph EYMANN, president; Alliance of Independents' Party (LdU), Monica WEBER, president; Ticino League, Giuliano BIGNASCA, president; and other minor parties including the Automobile Party (AP), Swiss Democratic Party (SD), Workers' Party (PdA), and the Evangelical People's Party (EVP); note - see elections Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, G- 8, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIH, UNOMIG, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Carlo JAGMETTI chancery: 2900 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone:  (202) 745-7900 FAX:  (202) 387-2564 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Pago Pago (American Samoa), and San Francisco US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador M. Larry LAWRENCE embassy: Jubilaeumstrasse 93, 3005 Bern mailing address: use embassy street address telephone:  (31) 357 70 11 FAX:  (31) 357 73 44 branch office: Geneva consulate(s) general: Zurich Flag: red square with a bold, equilateral white cross in the center that does not extend to the edges of the flag Economy Overview: Switzerland's economy - one of the most prosperous and stable in the world - is nonetheless undergoing a stressful adjustment after both the inflationary boom of the late 1980s and the electorate's rejection of membership in the European Economic Area (EEA) in 1992. So far the decision to remain outside the European single market structure does not appear to have harmed Swiss interests. In December 1994, the Swiss began bilateral negotiations with the EU aimed at establishing closer ties in areas of mutual interest and progressing toward the free circulation of persons, goods, capital, and services between the two parties. The Swiss emerged from a three-year recession in mid-1993 and posted 1.8% GDP growth in 1994. The Swiss central bank's tight monetary policies brought inflation down from about 4% in 1992 to just under 1% in 1994. Unemployment has fallen slightly from 5.1% in 1993 to 4.7% in 1994. Swiss per capita output, living standards, education, and health care remain unsurpassed in Europe. The country has few mineral resources, but its spectacular natural beauty sustains a substantial tourism industry. National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $148.4 billion (1994 est.) National product real growth rate: 1.8% (1994 est.) National product per capita: $22,080 (1994 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.9% (1994 est.) Unemployment rate: 4.7% (1994 est.) Budget: revenues: $26.7 billion expenditures: $32 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1994 est.) Exports: $69.6 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: machinery and equipment, precision instruments, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles and clothing partners: Western Europe 63.1% (EU countries 56%, other 7.1%), US 8.8%, Japan 3.4% Imports: $68.2 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.) commodities: agricultural products, machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals, textiles, construction materials partners: Western Europe 79.2% (EU countries 72.3%, other 6.9%), US 6.4% External debt: $NA Industrial production: growth rate 0% (1993 est.) Electricity: capacity: 15,430,000 kW production: 58 billion kWh consumption per capita: 6,699 kWh (1993) Industries: machinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision instruments Economy Agriculture: dairy farming predominates; less than 50% self-sufficient in food; must import fish, refined sugar, fats and oils (other than butter), grains, eggs, fruits, vegetables, meat Illicit drugs: money-laundering center Economic aid: donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $3.5 billion Currency: 1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SwF) = 100 centimes, rappen, or centesimi Exchange rates: Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per US$1 - 1.2880 (January 1995), 1.3677 (1994), 1.4776 (1993), 1.4062 (1992), 1.4340 (1991), 1.3892 (1990) Fiscal year: calendar year Transportation Railroads: total: 5,763 km (1,432 km double track) standard gauge: 3,533 km 1.435-m gauge (99% electrified; 560 km nongovernment owned) narrow gauge: 1,094 km 1.000-m gauge (99% electrified; 1,020 km nongovernment owned) other: 1,136 km NA-m gauge (1994) Highways: total: 71,118 km paved: 71,118 km (including 1,514 km of expressways) Inland waterways: 65 km; Rhine (Basel to Rheinfelden, Schaffhausen to Bodensee); 12 navigable lakes Pipelines: crude oil 314 km; natural gas 1,506 km Ports: Basel Merchant marine: total: 22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 374,935 GRT/669,353 DWT ships by type: bulk 12, cargo 2, chemical tanker 4, oil tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, specialized tanker 1 Airports: total: 69 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 4 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 5 with paved runways under 914 m: 42 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1 Communications Telephone system: 5,890,000 telephones; excellent domestic, international, and broadcast services local: NA intercity: extensive cable and microwave networks international: 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean) earth stations Radio: broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 265, shortwave 0 radios: NA Television: broadcast stations: 18 (repeaters 1,322) televisions: NA Defense Forces Branches: Army, Air Force and Antiaircraft Command Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,847,639; males fit for military service 1,582,335; males reach military age (20) annually 41,831 (1995 est.) Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $4.1 billion, 1.4% of GDP (1995)
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