Match 220 DB Rec# - 7,672 Dataset-WOFACT Title :Somalia Text : Somalia Geography Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia Map references: Africa Area: total area: 637,660 sq km land area: 627,340 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas Land boundaries: total 2,366 km, Djibouti 58 km, Ethiopia 1,626 km, Kenya 682 km Coastline: 3,025 km Maritime claims: territorial sea: 200 nm International disputes: southern half of boundary with Ethiopia is a Provisional Administrative Line; territorial dispute with Ethiopia over the Ogaden Climate: principally desert; December to February - northeast monsoon, moderate temperatures in north and very hot in south; May to October - southwest monsoon, torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north Natural resources: uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 46% forest and woodland: 14% other: 38% Irrigated land: 1,600 sq km (1989 est.) Environment: current issues: famine; use of contaminated water contributes to human health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification natural hazards: recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea; signed, but not ratified - Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban Note: strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal People Population: 7,347,554 (July 1995 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 45% (female 1,653,175; male 1,650,377) 15-64 years: 51% (female 1,845,886; male 1,932,012) 65 years and over: 4% (female 138,264; male 127,840) (July 1995 est.) Population growth rate: 15.58% (1995 est.) Birth rate: 45.53 births/1,000 population (1995 est.) Death rate: 13.3 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.) Net migration rate: 123.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.) Infant mortality rate: 119.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 55.74 years male: 55.48 years female: 56 years (1995 est.) Total fertility rate: 7.13 children born/woman (1995 est.) Nationality: noun: Somali(s) adjective: Somali Ethnic divisions: Somali 85%, Bantu, Arabs 30,000 Religions: Sunni Muslim Languages: Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.) total population: 24% male: 36% female: 14% Labor force: 2.2 million (very few are skilled laborers) by occupation: pastoral nomad 70%, agriculture, government, trading, fishing, handicrafts, and other 30% Government Names: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Somalia former: Somali Republic Digraph: SO Type: none Capital: Mogadishu Administrative divisions: 18 regions (plural - NA, singular - gobolka); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose, Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed Independence: 1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland, which became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian Somaliland, which became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960, to form the Somali Republic) National holiday: NA Constitution: 25 August 1979, presidential approval 23 September 1979 Legal system: NA Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: Somalia has no functioning government; the United Somali Congress (USC) ousted the regime of Maj. Gen. Mohamed SIAD Barre on 27 January 1991; the present political situation is one of anarchy, marked by inter-clan fighting and random banditry Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly People's Assembly (Golaha Shacbiga): not functioning Judicial branch: Supreme Court (not functioning) Political parties and leaders: the United Somali Congress (USC) ousted the former regime on 27 January 1991; formerly the only party was the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party (SRSP), headed by former President and Commander in Chief of the Army Maj. Gen. Mohamed SIAD Barre Other political or pressure groups: numerous clan and subclan factions are currently vying for power Member of: ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO Diplomatic representation in US: Somalian Embassy ceased operations on 8 May 1991 Government US diplomatic representation: note: the US Embassy in Mogadishu was evacuated and closed indefinitely in January 1991; Ambassador Daniel SIMPSON, ambassador to Kenya, represents US interests in Somalia liaison office: US Embassy, Nairobi, Kenya address: corner of Moi Avenue and Haile Selassie Avenue, Nairobi mailing address: P.O. Box 30137, Unit 64100, Nairobi or APO AE 09831 telephone:  (2) 334141 FAX:  (2) 340838 Flag: light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center; design based on the flag of the UN (Italian Somaliland was a UN trust territory) Economy Overview: One of the world's poorest and least developed countries, Somalia has few resources. Moreover, much of the economy has been devastated by the civil war. Agriculture is the most important sector, with livestock accounting for about 40% of GDP and about 65% of export earnings. Nomads and seminomads who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihood make up about 70% of the population. Crop production generates only 10% of GDP and employs about 20% of the work force. The main export crop is bananas; sugar, sorghum, and corn are grown for the domestic market. The small industrial sector is based on the processing of agricultural products and accounts for less than 10% of GDP; most facilities have been shut down because of the civil strife. The greatly increased political turmoil of 1991-93 has resulted in a substantial drop in agricultural output, with widespread famine. In 1994 economic conditions stabilized in the countryside but may turn worse in 1995 if civil strife intensifies after the UN withdrawal. National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $3.3 billion (1994 est.) National product real growth rate: NA% National product per capita: $500 (1994 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA% (1994) Unemployment rate: NA% Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA Exports: $58 million (1990 est.) commodities: bananas, live animals, fish, hides partners: Saudi Arabia, Italy, FRG (1986) Imports: $249 million (1990 est.) commodities: petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials partners: US 13%, Italy, FRG, Kenya, UK, Saudi Arabia (1986) External debt: $1.9 billion (1989) Industrial production: growth rate NA% Electricity: capacity: prior to the civil war, 75,000 kW, but now almost completely shut down due to war damage; note - UN and relief organizations use their own portable power systems production: NA kWh consumption per capita: NA kWh Industries: a few small industries, including sugar refining, textiles, petroleum refining (mostly shut down) (1994) Economy Agriculture: dominant sector, led by livestock raising (cattle, sheep, goats); crops - bananas, sorghum, corn, mangoes, sugarcane; not self-sufficient in food; distribution of food disrupted by civil strife; fishing potential largely unexploited Economic aid: recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $639 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.1 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $336 million Currency: 1 Somali shilling (So. Sh.) = 100 cents Exchange rates: Somali shillings (So. Sh.) per US$1 - approximately 5,000 (1 January 1995), 2,616 (1 July 1993), 4,200 (December 1992), 3,800.00 (December 1990), 490.7 (1989), Fiscal year: calendar year Transportation Railroads: 0 km Highways: total: 22,500 km paved: 2,700 km unpaved: gravel 3,000 km; improved, stabilized earth 16,800 km (1992) Pipelines: crude oil 15 km Ports: Bender Cassim (Boosaaso), Berbera, Chisimayu (Kismaayo), Merca, Mogadishu Merchant marine: total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,529 GRT/6,892 DWT ships by type: cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 1 Airports: total: 76 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 3 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 14 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 16 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 33 Communications Telephone system: NA telephones; the public telecommunications system was completely destroyed or dismantled by the civil war factions; all relief organizations depend on their own private systems (1993) local: NA intercity: NA international: NA Radio: broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA radios: NA Television: broadcast stations: NA televisions: NA Defense Forces Branches: no functioning central government military forces; clan militias continue to battle for control of key economic or political prizes Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,736,673; males fit for military service 972,203 (1995 est. Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
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SuDoc No: PREX 3.15:995
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