Match 90 DB Rec# - 7,542 Dataset-WOFACT Title :Georgia Text : Georgia Header Note: Georgia has been beset by ethnic and civil strife since independence. In late 1991, the country's first elected president, Zviad GAMSAKHURDIA was ousted in an armed coup. In October 1993, GAMSAKHURDIA, and his supporters sponsored a failed attempt to retake power from the current government led by former Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard SHEVARDNADZE. The Georgian government has also faced armed separatist conflicts in the Abkhazia and South Ossetia regions. A cease-fire went into effect in South Ossetia in June 1992 and a joint Georgian-Ossetian-Russian peacekeeping force has been in place since that time. Georgian forces were driven out of the Abkhaz region in September 1993 after a yearlong war with Abkhaz separatists. Nearly 200,000 Georgian refugees have since fled Abkhazia, adding substantially to the estimated 100,000 internally displaced persons already in Georgia. Russian peacekeepers are deployed along the border of Abkhazia and the rest of Georgia. Geography Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia Map references: Middle East Area: total area: 69,700 sq km land area: 69,700 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than South Carolina Land boundaries: total 1,461 km, Armenia 164 km, Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km, Turkey 252 km Coastline: 310 km Maritime claims: NA International disputes: none Climate: warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast Terrain: largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhida Lowland opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida Lowland Natural resources: forest lands, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ores, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth Land use: arable land: 11% permanent crops: 4% meadows and pastures: 29% forest and woodland: 38% other: 18% Irrigated land: 4,660 sq km (1990) Environment: current issues: air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals natural hazards: NA international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Desertification People Population: 5,725,972 (July 1995 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 24% (female 674,331; male 707,355) 15-64 years: 64% (female 1,894,681; male 1,791,847) 65 years and over: 12% (female 410,703; male 247,055) (July 1995 est.) Population growth rate: 0.77% (1995 est.) Birth rate: 15.77 births/1,000 population (1995 est.) Death rate: 8.73 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.) Net migration rate: 0.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.) Infant mortality rate: 22.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.1 years male: 69.43 years female: 76.95 years (1995 est.) Total fertility rate: 2.16 children born/woman (1995 est.) Nationality: noun: Georgian(s) adjective: Georgian Ethnic divisions: Georgian 70.1%, Armenian 8.1%, Russian 6.3%, Azeri 5.7%, Ossetian 3%, Abkhaz 1.8%, other 5% Religions: Georgian Orthodox 65%, Russian Orthodox 10%, Muslim 11%, Armenian Orthodox 8%, unknown 6% Languages: Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, other 7% Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989) total population: 99% male: 100% female: 98% Labor force: 2.763 million by occupation: industry and construction 31%, agriculture and forestry 25%, other 44% (1990) Government Names: conventional long form: Republic of Georgia conventional short form: Georgia local long form: Sak'art'velos Respublika local short form: Sak'art'velo former: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic Digraph: GG Type: republic Capital: T'bilisi Administrative divisions: 2 autonomous republics (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom respublika); Abkhazia (Sokhumi), Ajaria (Bat'umi) note: the administrative centers of the autonomous republics are included in parentheses; there are no oblasts - the rayons around T'bilisi are under direct republic jurisdiction Independence: 9 April 1991 (from Soviet Union) National holiday: Independence Day, 26 May (1991) Constitution: adopted 21 February 1921; currently amending constitution for Parliamentary and popular review by late 1995 Legal system: based on civil law system Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: Chairman of Parliament Eduard Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE (Chairman of the Government Council since 10 March 1992; elected Chairman of Parliament in 11 October 1992; note - the Government Council has since been disbanded); election last held 11 October 1992 (next to be held October 1995); results - Eduard SHEVARDNADZE 95% head of government: Prime Minister Otar PATSATSIA (since September 1993); Deputy Prime Ministers Avtandil MARGIANI, Zurab KERVALISHVILI (since 25 November 1992), Tamaz NADAREISHVILI (since September 1993), Temur BASILIA (since 17 March 1994), Bakur GULA (since NA) cabinet: Council of Ministers Legislative branch: unicameral Georgian Parliament (Supreme Soviet): elections last held 11 October 1992 (next to be held October 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (225 total) number of seats by party NA Judicial branch: Supreme Court Government Political parties and leaders: Citizens Union (CU), Eduard SHEVARDNADZE, Zurab SHVANIA, general secretary; National Democratic Party (NDP), Georgi (Gia) CHANTURIA, Ivane GIORGADZE; United Republican Party, umbrella organization for parties including the GPF and the Charter 1991 Party, cochairmen Bakhtand DZABIRADZE, Notar NATADZE, and Theodor PAATASHVILI; Georgian Popular Front (GPF), Nodar NATADZE, chairman; Charter 1991 Party, Thedor PAATASHVILI; Georgian Social Democratic Party (GSDP), Guram MUCHAIDZE, secretary general; National Reconstruction and Rebirth of Georgia Union, Valerian ADVADZE; Christian Democratic Union (CDU), Irakli SHENGELAYA; Democratic Georgia Union (DGU), El'dar SHENGELAYA; National Independence Party (NIP), Irakliy TSERETELI, chairman; Georgian Monarchists' Party (GMP), Temur ZHORZHOLIANI; Green Party, Zurab ZHVANIA; Republican Party (RP), Ivliane KHAINDRAVA; Workers' Union of Georgia (WUG), Vakhtang GABUNIA; Agrarian Party of Georgia (APG), Roin LIPARTELIANI; Choice Society (Archevani), Jaba IOSELIANI, chairman; Georgian Workers Communist Party, Panteleimon GIORGADZE, chairman; National Liberation Front, Tengiz SIGULA, chairman Other political or pressure groups: supporters of ousted President Zviad GAMSAKHURDIA (deceased 1 January 1994) boycotted the October elections and remain a source of opposition Member of: BSEC, CCC, CIS, EBRD, ECE, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NACC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Tedo JAPARIDZE chancery: (temporary) Suite 424, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20005 telephone:  (202) 393-6060, 5959 US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Kent N. BROWN embassy: #25 Antoneli Street, T'bilisi 380026 mailing address: use embassy street address telephone:  (8832) 98-99-67, 93-38-03 FAX:  (8832) 93-37-59 Flag: maroon field with small rectangle in upper hoist side corner; rectangle divided horizontally with black on top, white below Economy Overview: Georgia's economy has traditionally revolved around Black Sea tourism; cultivation of citrus fruits, tea, and grapes; mining of manganese and copper; and a small industrial sector producing wine, metals, machinery, chemicals, and textiles. The country imports the bulk of its energy needs, including natural gas and oil products. Its only sizable domestic energy resource is hydropower. Since 1990, widespread conflicts, e.g., in Abkhazia, South Ossetia, and Mingreliya, have severely aggravated the economic crisis resulting from the disintegration of the Soviet command economy in December 1991. Throughout 1993 and 1994, much of industry was functioning at only 20% of capacity; heavy disruptions in agricultural cultivation were reported; and tourism was shut down. The country is precariously dependent on US and EU humanitarian grain shipments, as most other foods are priced beyond reach of the average citizen. Georgia is also suffering from an acute energy crisis, as it is having problems paying for even minimal imports. Georgia is pinning its hopes for recovery on reestablishing trade ties with Russia and on developing international transportation through the key Black Sea ports of P'ot'i and Bat'umi. The government began a tenuous program in 1994 aiming to stabilize prices and reduce large consumer subsidies. National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $6 billion (1994 estimate as extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1992) National product real growth rate: -30% (1994 est.) National product per capita: $1,060 (1994 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 40.5% per month (2nd half 1993 est.) Unemployment rate: officially less than 5% but real unemployment may be more than 20%, with even larger numbers of underemployed workers Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA Exports: $NA commodities: citrus fruits, tea, wine, other agricultural products; diverse types of machinery; ferrous and nonferrous metals; textiles; chemicals; fuel re-exports partners: Russia, Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan (1992) Imports: $NA commodities: fuel, grain and other foods, machinery and parts, transport equipment partners: Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey (1993); note - EU and US sent humanitarian food shipments External debt: NA (T'bilisi owes about $400 million to Turkmenistan for natural gas as of January 1995) Industrial production: growth rate -27% (1993); accounts for 36% of GDP Electricity: capacity: 4,410,000 kW Economy production: 9.1 billion kWh consumption per capita: 1,526 kWh (1993) Industries: heavy industrial products include raw steel, rolled steel, airplanes; machine tools, foundry equipment, electric locomotives, tower cranes, electric welding equipment, machinery for food preparation and meat packing, electric motors, process control equipment, instruments; trucks, tractors, and other farm machinery; light industrial products, including cloth, hosiery, and shoes; chemicals; wood-working industries; the most important food industry is wine Agriculture: accounted for 97% of former USSR citrus fruits and 93% of former USSR tea; important producer of grapes; also cultivates vegetables and potatoes; dependent on imports for grain, dairy products, sugar; small livestock sector Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for domestic consumption; used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe Economic aid: recipient: heavily dependent on US and EU for humanitarian grain shipments; EC granted around $70 million in trade credits in 1992 and another $40 million in 1993; Turkey granted $50 million in 1993; smaller scale credits granted by Russia and China Currency: coupons introduced in April 1993 to be followed by introduction of the lari at undetermined future date; in July 1993 use of the Russian ruble was banned Exchange rates: coupons per $US1 - 1,280,000 (end December 1994) Fiscal year: calendar year Transportation Railroads: total: 1,570 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines broad gauge: 1,570 km 1.520-m gauge (1990) Highways: total: 33,900 km paved and graveled: 29,500 km unpaved: earth 4,400 km (1990) Pipelines: crude oil 370 km; refined products 300 km; natural gas 440 km (1992) Ports: Bat'umi, P'ot'i, Sokhumi Merchant marine: total: 32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 419,416 GRT/640,897 DWT ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 1, oil tanker 19, short-sea passenger 1 Airports: total: 28 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 1 with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 5 with unpaved runways under 914 m: 6 Note: transportation network is in poor condition and disrupted by ethnic conflict, criminal activities, and fuel shortages; network lacks maintenance and repair Communications Telephone system: 672,000 telephones (mid-1993); 117 telephones/1,000 persons; poor telephone service; 339,000 unsatisfied applications for telephones (December 1990) local: NA intercity: NA international: links via landline to CIS members and Turkey; low-capacity satellite link and leased international connections via the Moscow international gateway switch with other countries; international electronic mail and telex service available Radio: broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA radios: NA Television: broadcast stations: NA televisions: NA Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Interior Ministry Troops, Border Guards/National Guard Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,385,593; males fit for military service 1,095,835; males reach military age (18) annually 42,207 (1995 est.) Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $85 million, NA% of GDP (1992) Note: Georgian forces are poorly organized and not fully under the government's control
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