Match 83 DB Rec# - 7,535 Dataset-WOFACT Title :France Text : France Geography Location: Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English Channel, between Belgium and Spain southeast of the UK; bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain Map references: Europe Area: total area: 547,030 sq km land area: 545,630 sq km comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Colorado note: includes Corsica and the rest of metropolitan France, but excludes the overseas administrative divisions Land boundaries: total 2,892.4 km, Andorra 60 km, Belgium 620 km, Germany 451 km, Italy 488 km, Luxembourg 73 km, Monaco 4.4 km, Spain 623 km, Switzerland 573 km Coastline: 3,427 km (mainland 2,783 km, Corsica 644 km) Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm International disputes: Madagascar claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island; Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; Seychelles claims Tromelin Island; Suriname claims part of French Guiana; Mexico claims Clipperton Island; territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie Land); Saint Pierre and Miquelon is focus of maritime boundary dispute between Canada and France Climate: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean Terrain: mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west; remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east Natural resources: coal, iron ore, bauxite, fish, timber, zinc, potash Land use: arable land: 32% permanent crops: 2% meadows and pastures: 23% forest and woodland: 27% other: 16% Irrigated land: 11,600 sq km (1989 est.) Geography Environment: current issues: some forest damage from acid rain; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban wastes, agricultural runoff natural hazards: flooding international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Desertification, Law of the Sea Note: largest West European nation; occasional warm tropical wind known as mistral People Population: 58,109,160 (July 1995 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 19% (female 5,438,447; male 5,700,143) 15-64 years: 65% (female 18,889,771; male 19,001,536) 65 years and over: 16% (female 5,433,276; male 3,645,987) (July 1995 est.) Population growth rate: 0.46% (1995 est.) Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1995 est.) Death rate: 9.29 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.) Net migration rate: 0.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.) Infant mortality rate: 6.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.37 years male: 74.5 years female: 82.44 years (1995 est.) Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1995 est.) Nationality: noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women) adjective: French Ethnic divisions: Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, Basque minorities Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim (North African workers) 1%, unaffiliated 6% Languages: French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish) Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991 est.) total population: 99% Labor force: 24.17 million by occupation: services 61.5%, industry 31.3%, agriculture 7.2% (1987) Government Names: conventional long form: French Republic conventional short form: France local long form: Republique Francaise local short form: France Digraph: FR Type: republic Capital: Paris Administrative divisions: 22 regions (regions, singular - region); Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne, Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne, Bretagne, Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Corse, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie, Ile-de-France, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Lorraine, Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Pays de la Loire, Picardie, Poitou-Charentes, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Rhone-Alpes note: the 22 regions are subdivided into 96 departments; see separate entries for the overseas departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion) and the territorial collectivities (Mayotte, Saint Pierre and Miquelon) Dependent areas: Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, New Caledonia, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica Independence: 486 (unified by Clovis) National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789) Constitution: 28 September 1958, amended concerning election of president in 1962, amended to comply with provisions of EC Maastricht Treaty in 1992; amended to tighten immigration laws 1993 Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; review of administrative but not legislative acts Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981); election last held 8 May 1988 (next to be held by May 1995); results - Second Ballot Francois MITTERRAND 54%, Jacques CHIRAC 46% head of government: Prime Minister Edouard BALLADUR (since 29 March 1993) cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on the suggestion of the prime minister Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlement) Government Senate (Senat): elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held September 1995; nine-year term, elected by thirds every three years); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (321 total; 296 metropolitan France, 13 for overseas departments and territories, and 12 for French nationals abroad) RPR 91, UDF 142, PS 66, PCF 16, independents 2, other 4 National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (577 total) RPR 247, UDF 213, PS 67, PCF 24, independents 26 Judicial branch: Constitutional Court (Cour Constitutionnelle) Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic (RPR), Alain JUPPE, interim head; Union for French Democracy (UDF, coalition of PR, CDS, RAD, PSD), Valery Giscard d'ESTAING; Republican Party (PR), Gerard LONGUET; Center for Social Democrats (CDS), Francois BAYROU; Radical (RAD), Yves GALLAND; Socialist Party (PS), Henri EMMANUELLI; Left Radical Movement (MRG), Jean-Francois HORY; Communist Party (PCF), Robert HUE; National Front (FN), Jean-Marie LE PEN; The Greens, Antoine WAECHTER, Jean-Louis VIDAL, Guy CAMBOT; Generation Ecology (GE), Brice LALONDE Other political or pressure groups: Communist-controlled labor union (Confederation Generale du Travail - CGT) nearly 2.4 million members (claimed); Socialist-leaning labor union (Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail or CFDT) about 800,000 members (est.); independent labor union (Force Ouvriere) 1 million members (est.); independent white-collar union (Confederation Generale des Cadres) 340,000 members (claimed); National Council of French Employers (Conseil National du Patronat Francais - CNPF or Patronat) Member of: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN, EBRD, EC, ECA (associate), ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, FAO, FZ, G- 5, G- 7, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, ONUSAL, OSCE, PCA, SPC, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIH, UNPROFOR, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jacques ANDREANI chancery: 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007 telephone:  (202) 944-6000 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico) US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela C. HARRIMAN embassy: 2 Avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08 mailing address: Unit 21551, Paris; APO AE 09777 telephone:  (1) 42 96 12 02, 42 61 80 75 FAX:  (1) 42 66 97 83 Government consulate(s) general: Bordeaux, Marseille, Strasbourg Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red; known as the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the design and colors are similar to a number of other flags, including those of Belgium, Chad, Ireland, Cote d'Ivoire, and Luxembourg; the official flag for all French dependent areas Economy Overview: One of the world's most highly developed economies, France has substantial agricultural resources and a diversified modern industrial sector. Large tracts of fertile land, the application of modern technology, and subsidies have combined to make it the leading agricultural producer in Western Europe. Largely self-sufficient in agricultural products, France is a major exporter of wheat and dairy products. The industrial sector generates about one-quarter of GDP, and the growing services sector has become crucial to the economy. Following stagnation and recession in 1991-93, French GDP in 1994 expanded 2.4%. Growth in 1995 is expected to be in the 3.0% to 3.5% range. Persistently high unemployment will still pose a major problem for the government. Paris remains committed to maintaining the franc-deutsche mark parity, which has kept French interest rates high despite France's low inflation. Although the pace of economic and financial integration within the European Union has slowed down, integration presumably will remain a major force shaping the fortunes of the various economic sectors over the next few years. National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1.0801 trillion (1994 est.) National product real growth rate: 2.4% (1994 est.) National product per capita: $18,670 (1994 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (1994) Unemployment rate: 12.6% (yearend 1994) Budget: revenues: $220.5 billion expenditures: $249.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $47 billion (1993 budget) Exports: $249.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, agricultural products, iron and steel products, textiles and clothing partners: Germany 18.6%, Italy 11.0%, Spain 11.0%, Belgium-Luxembourg 9.1%, UK 8.8%, Netherlands 7.9%, US 6.4%, Japan 2.0%, FSU 0.7% (1991 est.) Imports: $238.1 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.) commodities: crude oil, machinery and equipment, agricultural products, chemicals, iron and steel products partners: Germany 17.8%, Italy 10.9%, US 9.5%, Netherlands 8.9%, Spain 8.8%, Belgium-Luxembourg 8.5%, UK 7.5%, Japan 4.1%, FSU 1.3% (1991 est.) External debt: $300 billion (1993 est.) Industrial production: growth rate 2.6% (1994 est.) Electricity: capacity: 105,250,000 kW production: 447 billion kWh consumption per capita: 6,149 kWh (1993) Economy Industries: steel, machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics, mining, textiles, food processing, tourism Agriculture: accounts for 4% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); one of the world's top five wheat producers; other principal products - beef, dairy products, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes; self-sufficient for most temperate-zone foods; shortages include fats and oils and tropical produce, but overall net exporter of farm products; fish catch of 850,000 metric tons ranks among world's top 20 countries and is all used domestically Economic aid: donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $75.1 billion Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9243 (January 1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990) Fiscal year: calendar year Transportation Railroads: total: 34,074 km standard gauge: 33,975 km 1.435-m gauge (5,850 km electrified; 12,132 km double or multiple track) other: 99 km various gauges including 1.000-m (privately owned and operated) (1994) Highways: total: 1,511,200 km paved: 811,200 km (including 7,700 km of controlled access divided highway) unpaved: 700,000 km (1992) Inland waterways: 14,932 km; 6,969 km heavily traveled Pipelines: crude oil 3,059 km; petroleum products 4,487 km; natural gas 24,746 km Ports: Bordeaux, Boulogne, Cherbourg, Dijon, Dunkerque, La Pallice, Le Havre, Lyon, Marseille, Mullhouse, Nantes, Paris, Rouen, Saint Nazaire, Saint Malo, Strasbourg Merchant marine: total: 78 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,186,183 GRT/3,323,068 DWT ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 7, chemical tanker 6, container 15, liquefied gas tanker 4, oil tanker 21, passenger 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11, short-sea passenger 5, specialized tanker 2 note: France also maintains a captive register for French-owned ships in the Kerguelen Islands (French Southern and Antarctic Lands) and French Polynesia Airports: total: 476 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 12 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 29 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 96 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 74 with paved runways under 914 m: 188 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 3 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 74 Communications Telephone system: 39,200,000 telephones; highly developed; extensive cable and microwave radio relay networks; large-scale introduction of optical-fiber systems; satellite systems for domestic traffic local: NA intercity: microwave radio relay, optical fiber cable, and domestic satellites international: 2 INTELSAT earth stations (with total of 5 antennas - 2 Indian Ocean and 3 for Atlantic Ocean); HF radio communications with more than 20 countries; INMARSAT service; EUTELSAT TV service Radio: broadcast stations: AM 41, FM 800 (mostly repeaters), shortwave 0 radios: 48 million Television: broadcast stations: 846 (mostly repeaters) televisions: 36 million Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Air), Air Force and Air Defense, National Gendarmerie Manpower availability: males age 15-49 14,740,155; males fit for military service 12,258,691; males reach military age (18) annually 378,489 (1995 est.) Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $47.1 billion, 3.1% of GDP (1995)
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