Match 77 DB Rec# - 7,529 Dataset-WOFACT Title :Ethiopia Text : Ethiopia Geography Location: Eastern Africa, west of Somalia Map references: Africa Area: total area: 1,127,127 sq km land area: 1,119,683 sq km comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas Land boundaries: total 5,311 km, Djibouti 337 km, Eritrea 912 km, Kenya 830 km, Somalia 1,626 km, Sudan 1,606 km Coastline: none - landlocked Maritime claims: none; landlocked International disputes: southern half of the boundary with Somalia is a Provisional Administrative Line; territorial dispute with Somalia over the Ogaden Climate: tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation Terrain: high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley Natural resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash Land use: arable land: 12% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 41% forest and woodland: 24% other: 22% Irrigated land: 1,620 sq km (1989 est.) Environment: current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; famine natural hazards: geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban Note: landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 27 April 1993 People Population: 55,979,018 (July 1995 est.) note: Ethiopian demographic data, except population and population growth rate, include Eritrea Age structure: 0-14 years: 46% (female 12,782,345; male 12,802,187) 15-64 years: 52% (female 14,352,059; male 14,511,342) 65 years and over: 2% (female 815,974; male 715,111) (July 1995 est.) Population growth rate: 3.09% (1995 est.) Birth rate: 46.68 births/1,000 population (1995 est.) Death rate: 15.77 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.) Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.) note: repatriation of Ethiopian refugees from Sudan, Kenya and Somalia, where they had taken refuge from war and famine in earlier years, is expected to continue in 1995; additional influxes of Sudanese and Somalis fleeing fighting in their countries can be expected in 1995 Infant mortality rate: 120.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 50 years male: 48.28 years female: 51.78 years (1995 est.) Total fertility rate: 7.07 children born/woman (1995 est.) Nationality: noun: Ethiopian(s) adjective: Ethiopian Ethnic divisions: Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigrean 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1% Religions: Muslim 45%-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35%-40%, animist 12%, other 5% Languages: Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Orominga, Guaraginga, Somali, Arabic, English (major foreign language taught in schools) Literacy: age 10 and over can read and write (1984) total population: 24% male: 33% female: 16% Labor force: 18 million People by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry 80%, government and services 12%, industry and construction 8% (1985) Government Names: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Ethiopia local long form: none local short form: Ityop'iya Digraph: ET Type: transitional government note: on 28 May 1991 the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) toppled the authoritarian government of MENGISTU Haile-Mariam and took control in Addis Ababa; a new constitution was promulgated in December 1994 and national and regional elections are scheduled for May 1995; the administrative regions will elect regional assemblies by popular vote; the National Assembly will have two chambers - one elected by popular vote and the other selected as representatives by the regional assemblies; the lower house of the National Assembly will select or confirm the president, the prime minister and the cabinet officers and judges; the prime minister will be the chief executive officer and the duties of the president will be mostly ceremonial Capital: Addis Ababa Administrative divisions: 14 ethnically-based administrative regions (astedader akababiwach, singular - astedader akababi) Addis Ababa, Afar, Amhara, Benishangul, Gambela, Gurage-Hadiya-Kambata, Hareri, Kefa, Omo, Oromo, Sidama, Somali, Tigray, Wolayta note: the following named four administrative regions may have been abolished and their territories distributed among the remaining ten regions: Kefa, Omo, Sidama, and Wolayta Independence: oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years National holiday: National Day, 28 May (1991) (defeat of Mengistu regime) Constitution: new constitution promulgated in December 1994 Legal system: NA Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President MELES Zenawi (since 1 June 1991); appointed by the Council of Representatives following the military defeat of the MENGISTU government; following the elections to the National Assembly scheduled for May 1995 the lower house of the National Assembly will nominate a new president head of government: Prime Minister TAMIRAT Layne (since 6 June 1991); a new prime minister will be designated by the party in power following the elections to the General Assembly in May 1995 Government cabinet: Council of Ministers; presently designated by the chairman of the Council of Representatives; under the new constitution and following the elections in May 1995 the cabinet officers will be selected by the prime minister Legislative branch: Constituent Assembly: elections were held on 5 June 1994; results - government parties swept almost all seats; in December 1994 the Constituent Assembly ratified the new constitution with few changes; the new constitution prescribes two chambers for the new National Assembly - one which is elected by popular vote and one which represents the ethnic interests of the regional governments Judicial branch: Supreme Court Political parties and leaders: Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), MELES Zenawi; Other political or pressure groups: Oromo Liberation Front (OLF); All Amhara People's Organization; Southern Ethiopia People's Democratic Coalition; numerous small, ethnic-based groups have formed since Mengistu's resignation, including several Islamic militant groups Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador BERHANE Gebre-Christos chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone:  (202) 234-2281, 2282 FAX:  (202) 328-7950 US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Irvin HICKS embassy: Entoto Street, Addis Ababa mailing address: P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa telephone:  (1) 550666 FAX:  (1) 552191 Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red; Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the colors of her flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the pan-African colors Economy Overview: With the independence of Eritrea on 27 April 1993, Ethiopia continues to face difficult economic problems as one of the poorest and least developed countries in Africa. Its economy is based on agriculture, which accounts for about 45% of GDP, 90% of exports, and 80% of total employment; coffee generates 60% of export earnings. The agricultural sector suffers from frequent periods of drought, poor cultivation practices, and deterioration of internal security conditions. The manufacturing sector is heavily dependent on inputs from the agricultural sector. Over 90% of large-scale industry, but less than 10% of agriculture, is state run. The government is considering selling off a portion of state-owned plants, and is implementing reform measures that are gradually liberalizing the economy. A major medium-term problem is the improvement of roads, water supply, and other parts of an infrastructure badly neglected during years of civil strife. National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $20.3 billion (1993 est.) National product real growth rate: 3% (1994 est.) National product per capita: $380 (1993 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (FY93/94) Unemployment rate: NA% Budget: revenues: $1.2 billion expenditures: $1.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $707 million (FY93/94) Exports: $219.8 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.) commodities: coffee, leather products, gold partners: Germany, Japan, Saudi Arabia, France, Italy Imports: $1.04 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.) commodities: capital goods, consumer goods, fuel partners: US, Germany, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Japan External debt: $3.7 billion (1993 est.) Industrial production: growth rate -3.3% (FY91/92); accounts for 12% of GDP Electricity: capacity: 460,000 kW production: 1.3 billion kWh consumption per capita: 23 kWh (1993) Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals processing, cement Economy Agriculture: accounts for 45% of GDP; export crops of coffee and oilseeds are grown partly on state farms; estimated 50% of agricultural production is at subsistence level; principal crops and livestock - cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseeds, sugarcane, potatoes and other vegetables, hides and skins, cattle, sheep, goats Illicit drugs: transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and Southeast Asia and destined for Europe and North America as well as cocaine destined for southern African markets; cultivates qat (chat) for local use and regional export Economic aid: recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $504 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.4 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $8 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $2 billion Currency: 1 birr (Br) = 100 cents Exchange rates: birr (Br) per US$1 - 5.9500 (January 1995), 5.9500 (1994), 5.0000 (fixed rate 1992-93); fixed at 2.070 before 1992; note - official rate pegged to the US$ Fiscal year: 8 July - 7 July Transportation Railroads: total: 681 km (Ethiopian segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad) narrow gauge: 681 km 1.000-m gauge Highways: total: 24,127 km paved: 3,289 km unpaved: gravel 6,664 km; improved earth 1,652 km; unimproved earth 12,522 km (1993) Ports: none Merchant marine: total: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 62,627 GRT/88,909 DWT ships by type: cargo 8, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 Airports: total: 98 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 24 with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 4 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 6 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 14 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 42 Communications Telephone system: NA telephones; open-wire and radio relay system adequate for government use local: NA intercity: open wire and microwave radio relay links international: open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; 3 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean) earth stations Radio: broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 0, shortwave 0 radios: 9 million Television: broadcast stations: 1 televisions: 100,000 Defense Forces Branches: Transitional Government of Ethiopia Forces, Air Force, Police Manpower availability: males age 15-49 12,658,084; males fit for military service 6,569,759; males reach military age (18) annually 565,976 (1995 est.) Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $140 million, 4.1% of GDP (FY94/95)
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