Match 46 DB Rec# - 7,498 Dataset-WOFACT Title :Canada Text : Canada Geography Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and North Pacific Ocean, north of the conterminous US Map references: North America Area: total area: 9,976,140 sq km land area: 9,220,970 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than US Land boundaries: total 8,893 km, US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska) Coastline: 243,791 km Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm International disputes: maritime boundary disputes with the US; Saint Pierre and Miquelon is focus of maritime boundary dispute between Canada and France Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast Natural resources: nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas Land use: arable land: 5% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 3% forest and woodland: 35% other: 57% Irrigated land: 8,400 sq km (1989 est.) Environment: current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities natural hazards: continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow Geography international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea Note: second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; nearly 90% of the population is concentrated in the region near the US/Canada border People Population: 28,434,545 (July 1995 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 21% (female 2,874,705; male 3,016,050) 15-64 years: 67% (female 9,529,272; male 9,531,107) 65 years and over: 12% (female 2,022,324; male 1,461,087) (July 1995 est.) Population growth rate: 1.09% (1995 est.) Birth rate: 13.74 births/1,000 population (1995 est.) Death rate: 7.43 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.) Net migration rate: 4.55 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.) Infant mortality rate: 6.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.29 years male: 74.93 years female: 81.81 years (1995 est.) Total fertility rate: 1.83 children born/woman (1995 est.) Nationality: noun: Canadian(s) adjective: Canadian Ethnic divisions: British Isles origin 40%, French origin 27%, other European 20%, indigenous Indian and Eskimo 1.5% Religions: Roman Catholic 46%, United Church 16%, Anglican 10%, other 28% Languages: English (official), French (official) Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1986) total population: 97% Labor force: 13.38 million by occupation: services 75%, manufacturing 14%, agriculture 4%, construction 3%, other 4% (1988) Government Names: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Canada Digraph: CA Type: confederation with parliamentary democracy Capital: Ottawa Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 2 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory* Independence: 1 July 1867 (from UK) National holiday: Canada Day, 1 July (1867) Constitution: amended British North America Act 1867 patriated to Canada 17 April 1982; charter of rights and unwritten customs Legal system: based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Romeo LeBLANC (since 8 February 1995) head of government: Prime Minister Jean CHRETIEN (since 4 November 1993) was elected on 25 October 1993, replacing Kim CAMBELL; Deputy Prime Minister Sheila COPPS cabinet: Federal Ministry; chosen by the prime minister from members of his own party sitting in Parliament Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlement) Senate (Senat): consisting of a body whose members are appointed to serve until 75 years of age by the governor general and selected on the advice of the prime minister; its normal limit 104 senators House of Commons (Chambre des Communes): elections last held 25 October 1993 (next to be held by NA October 1998); results - percent of votes by party NA; seats - (295 total) Liberal Party 178, Bloc Quebecois 54, Reform Party 52, New Democratic Party 8, Progressive Conservative Party 2, independents 1 Judicial branch: Supreme Court Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party, Jean CHRETIEN; Bloc Quebecois, Lucien BOUCHARD; Reform Party, Preston MANNING; New Democratic Party, Audrey McLAUGHLIN; Progressive Conservative Party, Jean CHAREST Government Member of: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB (non-regional), EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, ONUSAL, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNOMOZ, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Raymond A.J. CHRETIEN chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001 telephone:  (202) 682-1740 FAX:  (202) 682-7726 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and Seattle consulate(s): Cincinnati, Cleveland, Miami, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Princeton, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, and San Juan (Puerto Rico) US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador James Johnston BLANCHARD embassy: 100 Wellington Street, K1P 5T1, Ottawa mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430 telephone:  (613) 238-5335, 4470 FAX:  (613) 238-5720 consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and Vancouver Flag: three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white (double width, square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in the white band Economy Overview: As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely resembles the US in per capita output, market-oriented economic system, and pattern of production. Since World War II the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. In the 1980s, Canada registered one of the highest rates of real growth among the OECD nations, averaging about 3.2%. With its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant, Canada has excellent economic prospects, although the country still faces high unemployment and a growing debt. Moreover, the continuing constitutional impasse between English- and French-speaking areas has observers discussing a possible split in the confederation; foreign investors have become edgy. National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $639.8 billion (1994 est.) National product real growth rate: 4.5% (1994) National product per capita: $22,760 (1994) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.2% (1994) Unemployment rate: 9.6% (December 1994) Budget: revenues: $85 billion (Federal) expenditures: $115.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY93/94 est.) Exports: $164.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: newsprint, wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, machinery, natural gas, aluminum, motor vehicles and parts; telecommunications equipment partners: US, Japan, UK, Germany, South Korea, Netherlands, China Imports: $151.5 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.) commodities: crude oil, chemicals, motor vehicles and parts, durable consumer goods, electronic computers; telecommunications equipment and parts partners: US, Japan, UK, Germany, France, Mexico, Taiwan, South Korea External debt: $243 billion (1993) Industrial production: growth rate 4.8% (1993) Electricity: capacity: 108,090,000 kW production: 511 billion kWh consumption per capita: 16,133 kWh (1993) Industries: processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, transportation equipment, chemicals, fish products, petroleum and natural gas Economy Agriculture: accounts for about 3% of GDP; one of the world's major producers and exporters of grain (wheat and barley); key source of US agricultural imports; large forest resources cover 35% of total land area; commercial fisheries provide annual catch of 1.5 million metric tons, of which 75% is exported Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; growing role as a transit point for heroin and cocaine entering the US market Economic aid: donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $7.2 billion Currency: 1 Canadian dollar (Can$) = 100 cents Exchange rates: Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1 - 1.4129 (January 1995), 1.3656 (1994), 1.2901 (1993), 1.2087 (1992), 1.1457 (1991), 1.1668 (1990) Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March Transportation Railroads: total: 78,148 km; note - there are two major transcontinental freight railway systems: Canadian National (government owned) and Canadian Pacific Railway; passenger service provided by VIA (government operated) standard gauge: 78,148 km 1.435-m gauge (185 km electrified) (1994) Highways: total: 849,404 km paved: 253,692 km (15,983 km of expressways) unpaved: gravel 595,712 km (1991) Inland waterways: 3,000 km, including Saint Lawrence Seaway Pipelines: crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km Ports: Becancour, Churchill, Halifax, Montreal, New Westminister, Prince Rupert, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick), Saint John's (Newfoundland), Seven Islands, Sydney, Three Rivers, Toronto, Vancouver, Windsor Merchant marine: total: 71 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 617,010 GRT/878,819 DWT ships by type: bulk 17, cargo 10, chemical tanker 5, oil tanker 23, passenger 1, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 2 note: does not include ships used exclusively in the Great Lakes Airports: total: 1,386 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 17 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 16 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 147 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 234 with paved runways under 914 m: 550 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 69 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 353 Communications Telephone system: 18,000,000 telephones; excellent service provided by modern media local: NA intercity: about 300 earth stations for domestic satellite communications international: 5 coaxial submarine cables; 5 INTELSAT earth stations (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) Radio: broadcast stations: AM 900, FM 29, shortwave 0 radios: NA Television: broadcast stations: 53 (repeaters 1,400) televisions: NA Defense Forces Branches: Canadian Armed Forces (includes Land Forces Command or LC, Maritime Command or MC, Air Command or AC, Communications Command or CC, Training Command or TC), Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) Manpower availability: males age 15-49 7,570,877; males fit for military service 6,522,092; males reach military age (17) annually 151,590 (1995 est.) Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $9.0 billion, 1.6% of GDP (FY95/96)
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