Match 34 DB Rec# - 7,486 Dataset-WOFACT Title :Botswana Text : Botswana Geography Location: Southern Africa, north of South Africa Map references: Africa Area: total area: 600,370 sq km land area: 585,370 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas Land boundaries: total 4,013 km, Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813 km Coastline: 0 km (landlocked) Maritime claims: none; landlocked International disputes: short section of boundary with Namibia is indefinite; quadripoint with Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement; dispute with Namibia over uninhabited Kasikili (Sidudu) Island in Linyanti (Chobe) River remained unresolved in mid-February 1995 and the parties agreed to refer the matter to the International Court of Justice Climate: semiarid; warm winters and hot summers Terrain: predominately flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest Natural resources: diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 75% forest and woodland: 2% other: 21% Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1989 est.) Environment: current issues: overgrazing, primarily as a result of the expansion of the cattle population; desertification; limited natural fresh water resources natural hazards: periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibility international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity Note: landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country People Population: 1,392,414 (July 1995 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 43% (female 300,598; male 303,333) 15-64 years: 53% (female 398,347; male 344,838) 65 years and over: 4% (female 25,773; male 19,525) (July 1995 est.) Population growth rate: 2.36% (1995 est.) Birth rate: 31.01 births/1,000 population (1995 est.) Death rate: 7.41 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.) Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.) Infant mortality rate: 38 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.56 years male: 60.54 years female: 66.67 years (1995 est.) Total fertility rate: 3.86 children born/woman (1995 est.) Nationality: noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural) adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural) Ethnic divisions: Batswana 95%, Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi 4%, white 1% Religions: indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 50% Languages: English (official), Setswana Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.) total population: 23% male: 32% female: 16% Labor force: 428,000 (1992) by occupation: 220,000 formal sector employees, most others are engaged in cattle raising and subsistence agriculture (1992 est.); 14,300 are employed in various mines in South Africa (March 1992) Government Names: conventional long form: Republic of Botswana conventional short form: Botswana former: Bechuanaland Digraph: BC Type: parliamentary republic Capital: Gaborone Administrative divisions: 10 districts; Central, Chobe, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Ngamiland, North-East, South-East, Southern; in addition, there are 4 town councils - Francistown, Gaborone, Lobatse, Selebi-Phikwe Independence: 30 September 1966 (from UK) National holiday: Independence Day, 30 September (1966) Constitution: March 1965, effective 30 September 1966 Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Sir Ketumile MASIRE (since 13 July 1980); Vice President Festus MOGAE (since 9 March 1992); election last held 15 October 1994 (next to be held October 1999); results - President Sir Ketumile MASIRE was reelected by the National Assembly cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament House of Chiefs: is a largely advisory 15-member body consisting of chiefs of the 8 principal tribes, 4 elected subchiefs, and 3 members selected by the other 12 National Assembly: elections last held 15 October 1994 (next to be held October 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (44 total of which 40 are elected and 4 are appointed) BDP 27, BNF 13 Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal Political parties and leaders: Botswana Democratic Party (BDP), Sir Ketumile MASIRE; Botswana National Front (BNF), Kenneth KOMA; Botswana People's Party (BPP), Knight MARIPE; Botswana Independence Party (BIP), Motsamai MPHO Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UNOMUR, UNOSOM, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Botsweletse Kingsley SEBELE Government chancery: Suite 7M, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone:  (202) 244-4990, 4991 FAX:  (202) 244-4164 US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Howard F. JETER embassy: address NA, Gaborone mailing address: P. O. Box 90, Gaborone telephone:  353982 FAX:  356947 Flag: light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center Economy Overview: The economy has historically been based on cattle raising and crops. Agriculture today provides a livelihood for more than 80% of the population but supplies only about 50% of food needs and accounts for only 5% of GDP. Subsistence farming and cattle raising predominate. The driving force behind the rapid economic growth of the 1970s and 1980s has been the mining industry. This sector, mostly on the strength of diamonds, has gone from generating 25% of GDP in 1980 to 39% in 1994. No other sector has experienced such growth, especially not agriculture, which is plagued by erratic rainfall and poor soils. The unemployment rate remains a problem at 25%. Hampered by a still sluggish diamond market in 1994, GDP grew by only 1%. National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $4.3 billion (1994 est.) National product real growth rate: 1% (1994 est.) National product per capita: $3,130 (1994 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1994 est.) Unemployment rate: 25% (1994 est.) Budget: revenues: $1.7 billion expenditures: $1.99 billion, including capital expenditures of $652 million (FY93/94) Exports: $1.8 billion (f.o.b. 1994) commodities: diamonds 78%, copper and nickel 6%, meat 5% partners: Switzerland, UK, SACU (Southern African Customs Union) Imports: $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1992) commodities: foodstuffs, vehicles and transport equipment, textiles, petroleum products partners: Switzerland, SACU (Southern African Customs Union), UK, US External debt: $344 million (December 1991) Industrial production: growth rate 4.6% (FY92/93); accounts for about 43% of GDP, including mining Electricity: capacity: 220,000 kW production: 900 million kWh consumption per capita: 694 kWh (1993) Industries: mining of diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock processing Agriculture: sorghum, maize, millet, pulses, groundnuts, beans, cowpeas, sunflower seeds; livestock Economy Economic aid: recipient: US aid (1992), $13 million; Norway (1992), $16 million; Sweden (1992), $15.5 million; Germany (1992), $3.6 million; EC/Lome-IV (1992), $3 million-$6 million in grants; $28.7 million in long-term projects (1992) Currency: 1 pula (P) = 100 thebe Exchange rates: pula (P) per US$1 - 1.7086 (January 1995), 2.6976 (November 1994), 2.4190 (1993), 2.1327 (1992), 2.0173 (1991), 1.8601 (1990) Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March Transportation Railroads: total: 888 km narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (1992) Highways: total: 11,514 km paved: 1,600 km unpaved: crushed stone, gravel 1,700 km; improved earth 5,177 km; unimproved earth 3,037 km Ports: none Airports: total: 100 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2 with paved runways under 914 m: 23 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 5 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 62 Communications Telephone system: 26,000 telephones; sparse system; telephone density - 18.67 telephones/1,000 persons local: NA intercity: small system of open wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and a few radio communication stations international: 1 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) earth station Radio: broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 13, shortwave 0 radios: NA Television: broadcast stations: 0 televisions: NA Defense Forces Branches: Botswana Defense Force (includes Army and Air Wing), Botswana National Police Manpower availability: males age 15-49 306,878; males fit for military service 161,376; males reach military age (18) annually 15,403 (1995 est.) Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $198 million, 5.2% of GDP (FY93/94)
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The World Factbook 1995,
SuDoc No: PREX 3.15:995
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