Match 21 DB Rec# - 7,473 Dataset-WOFACT Title :Bahrain Text : Bahrain Geography Location: Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia Map references: Middle East Area: total area: 620 sq km land area: 620 sq km comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC Land boundaries: 0 km Coastline: 161 km Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined territorial sea: 12 nm International disputes: territorial dispute with Qatar over the Hawar Islands; maritime boundary with Qatar Climate: arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers Terrain: mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment Natural resources: oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 2% meadows and pastures: 6% forest and woodland: 0% other: 90% Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1989 est.) Environment: current issues: desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; no natural fresh water resources so that groundwater and sea water are the only sources for all water needs natural hazards: periodic droughts; dust storms international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity Geography Note: close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf through which much of Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean People Population: 575,925 (July 1995 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 31% (female 87,398; male 89,976) 15-64 years: 67% (female 152,363; male 231,586) 65 years and over: 2% (female 7,051; male 7,551) (July 1995 est.) Population growth rate: 2.58% (1995 est.) Birth rate: 24.12 births/1,000 population (1995 est.) Death rate: 3.31 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.) Net migration rate: 4.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.) Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.94 years male: 71.46 years female: 76.49 years (1995 est.) Total fertility rate: 3.12 children born/woman (1995 est.) Nationality: noun: Bahraini(s) adjective: Bahraini Ethnic divisions: Bahraini 63%, Asian 13%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%, other 6% Religions: Shi'a Muslim 70%, Sunni Muslim 30% Languages: Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991) total population: 84% male: 89% female: 77% Labor force: 140,000 by occupation: industry and commerce 85%, agriculture 5%, services 5%, government 3% (1982) note: 42% of labor force is Bahraini Government Names: conventional long form: State of Bahrain conventional short form: Bahrain local long form: Dawlat al Bahrayn local short form: Al Bahrayn Digraph: BA Type: traditional monarchy Capital: Manama Administrative divisions: 12 districts (manatiq, singular - mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa'wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat 'Isa, Mintaqat Juzur Hawar, Sitrah Independence: 15 August 1971 (from UK) National holiday: Independence Day, 16 December (1961) Constitution: 26 May 1973, effective 6 December 1973 Legal system: based on Islamic law and English common law Suffrage: none Executive branch: chief of state: Amir ISA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 2 November 1961); Heir Apparent HAMAD bin Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa (son of the Amir, born 28 January 1950) head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 19 January 1970) cabinet: Cabinet Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly was dissolved 26 August 1975 and legislative powers were assumed by the Cabinet; appointed Advisory Council established 16 December 1992 Judicial branch: High Civil Appeals Court Political parties and leaders: political parties prohibited; several small, clandestine leftist and Islamic fundamentalist groups are active Member of: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GATT, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Muhammad ABD AL-GHAFFAR al-Abdallah chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone:  (202) 342-0741, 342-0742 Government consulate(s) general: New York US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador David M. RANSOM embassy: Building No. 979, Road 3119 (next to Ahli Sports Club), Zinj District, Manama mailing address: FPO AE 09834-5100; P.O. Box 26431, Manama (International Mail) telephone:  273300; afterhours  275-126 FAX:  272594 Flag: red with a white serrated band (eight white points) on the hoist side Economy Overview: Tiny in area, Bahrain is well-to-do in economic resources and per capita income. Petroleum production and processing account for about 80% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of GDP. Economic conditions have fluctuated with the changing fortunes of oil since 1985, for example, during and following the Gulf crisis of 1990-91. With its highly developed communication and transport facilities Bahrain is home to numerous multinational firms with business in the Gulf. A large share of exports consists of petroleum products made from imported crude. Prospects for 1995 are good, with private enterprise the main driving force, e.g., in banking and construction. Unemployment, especially among the young, and the depletion of both oil and underground water resources are major long-term economic problems. National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $7.1 billion (1994 est.) National product real growth rate: 2.2% (1994 est.) National product per capita: $12,100 (1994 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1994 est.) Unemployment rate: 15% (1991 est.) Budget: revenues: $1.2 billion (1989) expenditures: $1.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992) Exports: $3.69 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.) commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 80%, aluminum 7% partners: Japan 11%, UAE 5%, South Korea 4%, India 4%, Saudi Arabia 3% (1992) Imports: $3.83 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.) commodities: nonoil 59%, crude oil 41% partners: Saudi Arabia 47%, UK 7%, Japan 7%, US 6%, Germany 5% (1992) External debt: $2.6 billion (1993) Industrial production: growth rate 13% (1992); accounts for 38% of GDP, including petroleum Electricity: capacity: 1,050,000 kW production: 3.3 billion kWh consumption per capita: 5,453 kWh (1993) Industries: petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, offshore banking, ship repairing Agriculture: including fishing, accounts for less than 2% of GDP; not self-sufficient in food production; heavily subsidized sector produces fruit, vegetables, poultry, dairy products, shrimp, fish Economy Economic aid: recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-79), $24 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $45 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $9.8 billion Currency: 1 Bahraini dinar (BD) = 1,000 fils Exchange rates: Bahraini dinars (BD) per US$1 - 0.3760 (fixed rate) Fiscal year: calendar year Transportation Railroads: 0 km Highways: total: 2,670 km paved: 2,010 km unpaved: 660 km (1991 est.) Pipelines: crude oil 56 km; petroleum products 16 km; natural gas 32 km Ports: Manama, Mina' Salman, Sitrah Merchant marine: total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 79,949 GRT/120,900 DWT ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 4, chemical tanker 1 Airports: total: 4 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2 with paved runways under 914 m: 1 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1 Communications Telephone system: 98,000 telephones; 170 telephones/1,000 persons; modern system; good domestic services; excellent international connections local: NA intercity: NA international: 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 ARABSAT earth station; tropospheric scatter to Qatar, UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia Radio: broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 radios: 60 million Television: broadcast stations: 2 televisions: 21 million Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense, Coast Guard, Police Force Manpower availability: males age 15-49 210,725; males fit for military service 117,414; males reach military age (15) annually 4,346 (1995 est.) Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $247 million, 5.5% of GDP (1994)
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SuDoc No: PREX 3.15:995
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