Match 18 DB Rec# - 7,470 Dataset-WOFACT Title :Austria Text : Austria Geography Location: Central Europe, north of Italy Map references: Europe Area: total area: 83,850 sq km land area: 82,730 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Maine Land boundaries: total 2,496 km, Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 37 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 262 km, Switzerland 164 km Coastline: 0 km (landlocked) Maritime claims: none; landlocked International disputes: none Climate: temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional showers Terrain: in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping Natural resources: iron ore, petroleum, timber, magnesite, aluminum, lead, coal, lignite, copper, hydropower Land use: arable land: 17% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 24% forest and woodland: 39% other: 19% Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1989) Environment: current issues: some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe natural hazards: NA international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulpher 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea, Whaling Geography Note: landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere People Population: 7,986,664 (July 1995 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 17% (female 681,087; male 711,127) 15-64 years: 67% (female 2,672,554; male 2,677,100) 65 years and over: 16% (female 791,762; male 453,034) (July 1995 est.) Population growth rate: 0.35% (1995 est.) Birth rate: 11.21 births/1,000 population (1995 est.) Death rate: 10.27 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.) Net migration rate: 2.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.) Infant mortality rate: 6.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.9 years male: 73.7 years female: 80.27 years (1995 est.) Total fertility rate: 1.48 children born/woman (1995 est.) Nationality: noun: Austrian(s) adjective: Austrian Ethnic divisions: German 99.4%, Croatian 0.3%, Slovene 0.2%, other 0.1% Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 6%, other 9% Languages: German Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1974 est.) total population: 99% Labor force: 3.47 million (1989) by occupation: services 56.4%, industry and crafts 35.4%, agriculture and forestry 8.1% note: an estimated 200,000 Austrians are employed in other European countries; foreign laborers in Austria number 177,840, about 5% of labor force (1988) Government Names: conventional long form: Republic of Austria conventional short form: Austria local long form: Republik Oesterreich local short form: Oesterreich Digraph: AU Type: federal republic Capital: Vienna Administrative divisions: 9 states (bundeslaender, singular - bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten, Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien Independence: 12 November 1918 (from Austro-Hungarian Empire) National holiday: National Day, 26 October (1955) Constitution: 1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945) Legal system: civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative acts by a Constitutional Court; separate administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential elections Executive branch: chief of state: President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992); election last held 24 May 1992 (next to be held 1996); results of second ballot - Thomas KLESTIL 57%, Rudolf STREICHER 43% head of government: Chancellor Franz VRANITZKY (since 16 June 1986); Vice Chancellor Erhard BUSEK (since 2 July 1991) cabinet: Council of Ministers; chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung) Federal Council (Bundesrat): consists of 63 members representing each of the provinces on the basis of population, but with each province having at least 3 representatives National Council (Nationalrat): elections last held 9 October 1994 (next to be held October 1998); results - SPOE 34.9%, OEVP 27.7%, FPOE 22.5%, Greens 7.3%, LF 6.0% other 1.6%; seats - (183 total) SPOE 65, OEVP 52, FPOE 42, Greens 13, LF 11 Judicial branch: Supreme Judicial Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for civil and criminal cases, Administrative Court (Verwaltungsgerichtshof) for bureaucratic cases, Constitutional Court (Verfassungsgerichtshof) for constitutional cases Government Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPOE), Franz VRANITZKY, chairman; Austrian People's Party (OEVP), Erhard BUSEK, chairman; Freedom Movement (F) (was the Freedom Party of Austria, FPOE), Joerg HAIDER, chairman; Communist Party (KPOE), Walter SILBERMAYER, chairman; The Greens, Madeleine PETROVIC; Liberal Forum (LF), Heide SCHMIDT Other political or pressure groups: Federal Chamber of Commerce and Industry; Austrian Trade Union Federation (primarily Socialist); three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party (OEVP) representing business, labor, and farmers; OEVP-oriented League of Austrian Industrialists; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, ONUSAL, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIH, UNOMIL, UNOMOZ, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Helmut TUERK chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035 telephone:  (202) 895-6700 FAX:  (202) 895-6750 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Swanee G. HUNT chancery: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1091, Vienna mailing address: use embassy street address telephone:  (1) 313-39 FAX:  (1) 310-0682 consulate(s) general: none (Salzburg closed September 1993) Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red Economy Overview: Austria boasts a prosperous and stable market economy with a sizable but falling proportion of nationalized industry and with extensive welfare benefits. Thanks to its raw material endowment, a technically skilled labor force, and strong links to German industrial firms, Austria occupies specialized niches in European industry and services (tourism, banking) and produces almost enough food to feed itself with only 8% of the labor force in agriculture. After 11 consecutive years of growth, the Austrian economy experienced a mild recession in 1993, but growth resumed in 1994. Unemployment is 4.3% and will likely stay at that level as companies adjust to the competition of EU membership beginning 1 January 1995. To prepare for EU membership, Austria's government has taken measures to open the economy by introducing a major tax reform, privatizing state-owned firms, and liberalizing cross-border capital movements. Problems for the 1990s include an aging population, the high level of industrial subsidies, and the struggle to keep welfare benefits within budgetary capabilities - the deficit climbed to over 4% of GDP in 1994. National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $139.3 billion (1994 est.) National product real growth rate: 2.5% (1994 est.) National product per capita: $17,500 (1994 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1994) Unemployment rate: 4.3% (1994 est.) Budget: revenues: $52.2 billion expenditures: $60.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.) Exports: $44.1 billion (1994 est.) commodities: machinery and equipment, iron and steel, lumber, textiles, paper products, chemicals partners: EC 63.5% (Germany 38.9%), EFTA 9.0%, Eastern Europe/FSU 12.3%, Japan 1.5%, US 3.4% (1993) Imports: $53.8 billion (1994 est.) commodities: petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, vehicles, chemicals, textiles and clothing, pharmaceuticals partners: EC 66.8% (Germany 41.3%), EFTA 6.7%, Eastern Europe/FSU 7.5%, Japan 4.4%, US 4.4% (1993) External debt: $21.5 billion (1994 est.) Industrial production: growth rate 2.5% (1994 est.) Electricity: capacity: 17,230,000 kW production: 50.2 billion kWh consumption per capita: 5,824 kWh (1993) Economy Industries: foods, iron and steel, machines, textiles, chemicals, electrical, paper and pulp, tourism, mining, motor vehicles Agriculture: accounts for 3.2% of GDP (including forestry); principal crops and animals - grains, fruit, potatoes, sugar beets, sawn wood, cattle, pigs, poultry; 80%-90% self-sufficient in food Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and Eastern Europe Economic aid: donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $2.4 billion Currency: 1 Austrian schilling (S) = 100 groschen Exchange rates: Austrian schillings (S) per US$1 - 10.774 (January 1995), 11.422 (1994), 11.632 (1993), 10.989 (1992), 11.676 (1991), 11.370 (1990) Fiscal year: calendar year Transportation Railroads: total: 5,624 km standard gauge: 5,269 km 1.435-m gauge (3,162 km electrified) narrow gauge: 355 km 1.000-m and 0.760-m gauge (84 km electrified) (1994) Highways: total: 110,000 km paved: 35,000 km (including 1,554 km of autobahn) unpaved: mostly gravel and earth 75,000 km (1992) Inland waterways: 446 km Pipelines: crude oil 554 km; petroleum products 171 km; natural gas 2,611 km Ports: Linz, Vienna Merchant marine: total: 32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 152,885 GRT/235,719 DWT ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 25, oil tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 Airports: total: 55 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3 with paved runways under 914 m: 41 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 4 Communications Telephone system: 4,014,000 telephones; highly developed and efficient local: NA intercity: NA international: 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), and EUTELSAT earth stations Radio: broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 21 (repeaters 545), shortwave 0 radios: NA Television: broadcast stations: 47 (repeaters 870) televisions: NA Defense Forces Branches: Army (includes Flying Division) Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,026,567; males fit for military service 1,695,879; males reach military age (19) annually 46,821 (1995 est.) Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - about $1.8 billion, 0.9% of GDP (1994)
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