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Dentists diagnose, prevent, and treat problems of the teeth and tissues of the mouth. They remove decay and fill cavities, examine x rays, place protective plastic sealants on children's teeth, straighten teeth, and repair fractured teeth. They also perform corrective surgery of the gums and supporting bones to treat gum diseases. Dentists extract teeth and make molds and measurements for dentures to replace missing teeth. Dentists provide instruction in diet, brushing, flossing, the use of fluorides, and other aspects of dental care, as well. They also administer anesthetics and write prescriptions for antibiotics and other medications.
Dentists use a variety of equipment including x-ray machines, drills, and instruments such as mouth mirrors, probes, forceps, brushes, and scalpels.
Dentists in private practice oversee a variety of administrative tasks, including bookkeeping, and buying equipment and supplies. They may employ and supervise dental hygienists, dental assistants, dental laboratory technicians, and receptionists. (These occupations are described elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Most dentists are general practitioners who handle a wide variety of dental needs. Other dentists practice in one of eight specialty areas. Orthodontists, the largest group of specialists, straighten teeth. The next largest group, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, operate on the mouth and jaws. The remainder specialize in pediatric dentistry (dentistry for children); periodontics (treating the gums and the bone supporting the teeth); prosthodontics (making artificial teeth or dentures); endodontics (root canal therapy); dental public health; and oral pathology (studying diseases of the mouth).
Most dentists work 4 or 5 days a week. Some dentists work evenings and weekends to meet their patients' needs. Most full-time dentists work about 40 hours a week; some worked more. Younger dentists may work fewer hours as they establish their practice, while older dentists often work fewer hours. A considerable number continue in part-time practice well beyond the usual retirement age.
Most dentists are "solo practitioners," that is they own their own businesses and work alone or with a small staff. Some dentists have partners, and a few work for other dentists as associate dentists.
Dentists wear masks, gloves, and safety glasses to protect themselves and their patients from infectious diseases like hepatitis.
Dentists held about 164,000 jobs in 1994. About 9 out of 10 dentists are in private practice. Others work in private and public hospitals and clinics, and in dental research.
All 50 States and the District of Columbia require dentists to be licensed. To qualify for a license in most States, a candidate must graduate from a dental school accredited by the American Dental Association's Commission on Dental Accreditation and pass written and practical examinations. Candidates may fulfill the written part of the State licensing by passing the National Board Dental Examinations. Individual States or regional testing agencies give the written and/or practical examinations.
Currently, about 17 States require dentists to obtain a specialty license before practicing as a specialist. Requirements include 2 to 4 years of post graduate education and, in some cases, completion of a special State examination. Most State licenses permit dentists to engage in both general and specialized practice. Dentists who want to teach or do research usually spend an additional 2 to 5 years in advanced dental training in programs operated by dental schools or hospitals.
Dental schools require a minimum of 2 years of college-level predental education. However, most dental students have at least a bachelor's degree. Predental education emphasizes course work in the sciences.
All dental schools require applicants to take the Dental Admissions Test (DAT). They consider scores earned on the DAT, the applicants' overall grade point average (GPA), science course GPA, and information gathered through recommendations and interviews when selecting students.
Dental school generally lasts 4 academic years. Studies begin with classroom instruction and laboratory work in basic sciences including anatomy, microbiology, biochemistry, and physiology. Beginning courses in clinical sciences, including laboratory technique courses, also are provided at this time. During the last 2 years, students treat patients, usually in dental clinics under the supervision of licensed dentists.
Most dental schools award the degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery (D.D.S). The rest award an equivalent degree, Doctor of Dental Medicine (D.M.D.).
Dentistry requires diagnostic ability and manual skills. Dentists should have good visual memory, excellent judgment of space and shape, and a high degree of manual dexterity, as well as scientific ability. Good business sense, self-discipline, and communication skills, are helpful for success in private practice. High school students who want to become dentists should take courses in biology, chemistry, physics, health, and mathematics.
Some recent dental school graduates work for established dentists as associates for a year or two in order to gain experience and save money to equip an office of their own. Most dental school graduates, however, purchase an established practice or open a new practice immediately after graduation. Each year about one-fourth to one-third of new graduates enroll in postgraduate training programs to prepare for a dental specialty.
Employment of dentists is expected to change or grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. While employment growth will provide some job opportunities, the vast majority will result from the need to replace the large number of dentists projected to retire. Job prospects should be good if the number of dental school graduates does not grow thus keeping the supply of newly qualified dentists at current levels. A stable number of graduates is consistent with data showing that first-year enrollees in dental school programs have changed little since the late-1980s.
Demand for dental care should grow substantially through 2005. As members of the baby boom generation advance into middle age, a large number will need maintenance on complicated dental work like bridges. Plus, elderly people are more likely to retain their teeth than their predecessors, so they will require much more care than in the past. The younger generation will continue to need preventive check- ups despite treatments like fluoridation of the water supply which decrease the incidence of dental caries.
However, the employment of dentists is not expected to grow as rapidly as the demand for dental services. As their practices expand, dentists are likely to hire more dental hygienists and dental assistants to handle routine services that they now perform themselves.
The net median income of dentists in private practice was about $100,000 a year in 1994, according to the American Dental Association. Net median income of those in specialty practices was about $132,500 a year, and for those in general practice, $97,450 a year. Dentists in the beginning years of their practice often earn less, while those in mid-careers earn more.
A relatively large proportion of dentists are self-employed. Like other business owners, these dentists must provide their own health insurance, life insurance, and retirement benefits.
Dentists examine, diagnose, prevent, and treat diseases and abnormalities. So do clinical psychologists, optometrists, physicians, chiropractors, veterinarians, and podiatrists.
For information on dentistry as a career and a list of accredited dental schools, contact:
American Dental Association, Department of Career Guidance, 211 E. Chicago Ave., Chicago, IL 60611.
American Association of Dental Schools, 1625 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20036.
The American Dental Association also will furnish a list of State boards of dental examiners. Persons interested in practicing dentistry should obtain the requirements for licensure from the board of dental examiners of the State where they plan to work.
Prospective dental students should contact the office of student financial aid at the schools to which they apply for information on scholarships, grants, and loans, including Federal financial aid.
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