Electricity is vital for most everyday activities. From the moment you flip the first switch each morning, you are connecting to a huge network of people, electric lines, and generating equipment. Power plant operators control the machinery that generates electricity. Power plant distributors and dispatchers control the flow of electricity from the power plant, over a network of transmission lines, to industrial plants and substations, and, finally, over distribution lines to residential users.
Power plant operators control and monitor boilers, turbines, generators, and auxiliary equipment in power-generating plants. Operators distribute power demands among generators, combine the current from several generators, and monitor instruments to maintain voltage and regulate electricity flows from the plant. When power requirements change, these workers start or stop generators and connect or disconnect them from circuits. They often use computers to keep records of switching operations and loads on generators, lines, and transformers. Operators also may use computers to prepare reports of unusual incidents, malfunctioning equipment, or maintenance performed during their shift.
Operators in plants with automated control systems work mainly in a central control room and usually are called control room operators or control room operator trainees or assistants. In older plants, the controls for the equipment are not centralized, and switchboard operators control the flow of electricity from a central point, whereas auxiliary equipment operators work throughout the plant, operating and monitoring valves, switches, and gauges.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licenses operators of nuclear power plants. Reactor operators are authorized to control equipment that affects the power of the reactor in a nuclear power plant. In addition, an NRC-licensed senior reactor operator must be on duty during each shift to act as the plant supervisor and supervise the operation of all controls in the control room.
Power distributors and dispatchers, also called load dispatchers or systems operators, control the flow of electricity through transmission lines to industrial plants and substations that supply residential needs for electricity. They monitor and operate current converters, voltage transformers, and circuit breakers. Dispatchers also monitor other distribution equipment and record readings at a pilot boarda map of the transmission grid system showing the status of transmission circuits and connections with substations and industrial plants.
Dispatchers also anticipate power needs, such as those caused by changes in the weather. They call control room operators to start or stop boilers and generators, in order to bring production into balance with needs. Dispatchers handle emergencies such as transformer or transmission line failures and route current around affected areas. In substations, they also operate and monitor equipment that increases or decreases voltage, and they operate switchboard levers to control the flow of electricity in and out of the substations.
Because electricity is provided around the clock, operators, distributors, and dispatchers usually work one of three daily 8-hour shifts or one of two 12-hour shifts on a rotating basis. Shift assignments may change periodically, so that all operators can share duty on less desirable shifts. Work on rotating shifts can be stressful and fatiguing, because of the constant change in living and sleeping patterns. Operators, distributors, and dispatchers who work in control rooms generally sit or stand at a control station. This work is not physically strenuous, but it does require constant attention. Operators who work outside the control room may be exposed to danger from electric shock, falls, and burns.
Nuclear power plant operators are subject to random drug and alcohol tests, as are most workers at such plants.
Employers often seek high school graduates for entry-level operator, distributor, and dispatcher positions. Candidates with strong mathematics and science skills are preferred. College-level courses and prior experience in a mechanical or technical job are becoming increasingly helpful in a competitive job market. With computers now used to keep records, generate reports, and track maintenance, employers are increasingly requiring computer proficiency. Most entry-level workers start as helpers or laborers. Depending on the results of aptitude tests, their own preferences, and the availability of openings, workers may be assigned to train for one of many utility positions.
Workers selected for training as a fossil-fueled power plant operator or distributor undergo extensive on-the-job and classroom instruction. Several years of training and experience are required for a worker to become a fully qualified control room operator or power plant distributor. With further training and experience, workers may advance to shift supervisor. Utilities generally promote from within; therefore, opportunities to advance by moving to another employer are limited.
Extensive training and experience are necessary to pass the NRC examinations for reactor operators and senior reactor operators. To maintain their license, licensed reactor operators must pass an annual practical plant operation exam and a biennial written exam administered by their employers. Training may include simulator and on-the-job training, classroom instruction, and individual study. Entrants to nuclear power plant operator trainee jobs must have strong mathematics and science skills. Experience in other power plants or with Navy nuclear propulsion plants also is helpful. With further training and experience, reactor operators may advance to senior reactor operator positions.
In addition to receiving preliminary training as a power plant operator, distributor, or dispatcher, most workers are given periodic refresher trainingfrequently in the case of nuclear power plant operators. Refresher training usually is taken on plant simulators designed specifically to replicate procedures and situations that might be encountered at the trainee’s plant.
Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers held about 47,000 jobs in 2004. Jobs were located throughout the country. About 64 percent of jobs were in electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. About 20 percent worked in government, mainly in local government. Others worked for manufacturing establishments that produced electricity for their own use.
People who want to become power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers are expected to encounter keen competition for these relatively high-paying jobs. While demand for electricity will increase, the slow pace of construction of new plants will limit opportunities for these workers. In addition, the increasing use of automatic controls and more computerized equipment should boost productivity and decrease the demand for operators. As a result, individuals with training in computers and automated equipment will have the best job prospects. Some job opportunities will arise from the need to replace workers who retire or leave the occupation. However, cost considerations may restrict the number of workers who are replaced, with the job duties instead being given to other workers.
A decline in employment of power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers is projected through the year 2014, as the utilities industry continues to restructure in response to deregulation and increasing competition. Independent producers are now allowed to sell power directly to industrial and other wholesale customers. Consequently, some utilities that historically operated as regulated local monopolies have restructured their operations in order to reduce costs and compete effectively. While much of this restructuring is complete, the focus on reducing costs persists. This new focus is present in regulated utilities, as well as those that have been deregulated. As a result, the number of jobs is expected to decline.
Median annual earnings of power plant operators were $52,530 in May 2004. The middle 50 percent earned between $43,310 and $62,030. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $34,550, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $70,330. Median annual earnings of power plant operators in May 2004 were $53,820 in electric power generation, transmission and distribution.
Median annual earnings of nuclear power reactor operators were $64,090 in May 2004. The middle 50 percent earned between $56,890 and $71,160. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $49,690, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $82,220.
Median annual earnings of power distributors and dispatchers were $57,330 in May 2004. The middle 50 percent earned between $48,010 and $69,100. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $38,220, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $83,030.
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2006-07 Edition,
Power Plant Operators, Distributors, and Dispatchers, on the Internet at
(visited June 21, 2006).