Line installers and repairers work outdoors; conditions can be hazardous.
Employers prefer applicants with knowledge of electricity and electronics obtained through experience or classroom training.
Overall employment is projected to increase more slowly than average, although a growing number of retirements should create very good job opportunities, especially for electrical powerline installers and repairers.
Earnings are higher than in most other occupations that do not require postsecondary education.
Vast networks of wires and cables provide customers with electrical power and communications services. Networks of electrical power lines deliver electricity from generating plants to customers. Communications networks of telephone and cable television lines provide voice, video, and other communications services. These networks are constructed and maintained by electrical powerline installers and repairers and telecommunications line installers and repairers.
While the work performed by telecommunications and electrical powerline installers is quite similar, they are two distinct occupations. Working with powerlines requires specialized knowledge of transformers, electrical power distribution systems, and substations. Working with telecommunications lines requires specialized knowledge of fiber optics and telecommunications switches and routers. While both powerline and telecommunications line installers have specialized knowledge, the procedures for installing both kinds of lines are quite similar.
All line installers, or line erectors, install new lines by constructing utility poles, towers, and underground trenches to carry the wires and cables. Line erectors use a variety of construction equipment, including digger derricks, trenchers, cable plows, and borers. Digger derricks are trucks equipped with augers and cranes; workers use augers to dig holes in the ground, and cranes are used to set utility poles in place. Trenchers and cable plows are used to cut openings in the earth for the laying of underground cables. Borers, which tunnel under the earth, are used to install tubes for the wire without opening a trench in the soil.
When construction is complete, line installers string cable along the poles, towers, tunnels, and trenches. While working on poles and towers, installers first use truck-mounted buckets to reach the top of the structure or physically climb the pole or tower. Next, they pull up cable from large reels mounted on trucks. The line is then set in place and pulled so that it has the correct amount of tension. Finally, line installers attach the cable to the structure using hand and hydraulic tools. When working with electrical power lines, installers bolt or clamp insulators onto the poles before attaching the cable. Underground cable is laid directly in a trench, pulled through a tunnel, or strung through a conduit running through a trench.
Other installation duties include setting up service for customers and installing network equipment. To set up service, line installers string cable between the customersí premises and the lines running on poles or towers or in trenches. They install wiring to houses and check the connection for proper voltage readings. Line installers also may install a variety of equipment. Workers on telephone and cable television lines install amplifiers and repeaters that maintain the strength of communications transmissions. Workers on electrical powerlines install and replace transformers, circuitbreakers, switches, fuses, and other equipment to control and direct the electrical current.
In addition to installation, line installers and repairers also are responsible for maintenance of electrical, telecommunications, and cable television lines. Workers periodically travel in trucks, helicopters, and airplanes to visually inspect the wires and cables. Sensitive monitoring equipment can automatically detect malfunctions on the network, such as loss of current flow. When line repairers identify a problem, they travel to the location of the malfunction and repair or replace defective cables or equipment. Bad weather or natural disasters can cause extensive damage to networks. Line installers and repairers must respond quickly to these emergencies to restore critical utility and communications services. This can often involve working outdoors in adverse weather conditions.
Installation and repair work may require splicing, or joining together, separate pieces of cable. Each cable contains numerous individual wires; splicing the cables together requires that each wire in one piece of cable be joined to another wire in the matching piece. Line installers splice cables using small handtools, epoxy, or mechanical equipment. At each splice, they place insulation over the conductor and seal the splice with moistureproof covering. At some companies, cable splicing technicians perform splices on larger lines.
Communications networks are transitioning to fiber optic cables instead of conventional wire or metal cables. Fiber optic cables are made of hair-thin strands of glass, which convey pulses of light. These cables carry much more information at higher speeds than conventional cables. The higher transmission capacity of fiber optic cable has allowed communication networks to offer upgraded services, such as high-speed Internet access. Splicing fiber optic cable requires specialized equipment that carefully slices, matches, and aligns individual glass fibers. The fibers are joined by either electrical fusion (welding) or a mechanical fixture and gel (glue). More newly constructed buildings are being wired with fiber optic lines.
Line installers and repairers must climb and maintain their balance while working on poles and towers. They lift equipment and work in a variety of positions, such as stooping or kneeling. Their work often requires that they drive utility vehicles, travel long distances, and work outdoors under a variety of weather conditions. Many line installers and repairers work a 40-hour week; however, emergencies may require overtime work. For example, when severe weather damages electrical and communications lines, line installers and repairers may work long and irregular hours to restore service.
Line installers and repairers encounter serious hazards on their jobs and must follow safety procedures to minimize potential danger. They wear safety equipment when entering utility holes and test for the presence of gas before going underground. Electric powerline workers have the more hazardous jobs. High-voltage powerlines can cause electrocution, and line installers and repairers must consequently use electrically insulated protective devices and tools when working with live cables. Powerlines are typically higher than telephone and cable television lines, increasing the risk of severe injury due to falls. To prevent these injuries, line installers and repairers must use fall-protection equipment when working on poles or towers.
Employers of line installers and repairers usually require applicants to have at least a high school diploma. They also strongly prefer applicants with a technical knowledge of electricity or electronics, or experience obtained through vocational/technical programs, community colleges, or the Armed Forces. Programs in telecommunications, electronics, or electricity are offered by many community or technical colleges. These programs often are operated with assistance from local employers and unions. Some schools, working with local companies, offer 1-year certificate programs that emphasize hands-on field work. More advanced 2-year associate degree programs provide students with a broader knowledge of telecommunications and electrical utilities technology through courses in electricity, electronics, fiber optics, and microwave transmission. Graduates of these programs often get preferential treatment in the hiring process.
Prospective employees also should possess a basic knowledge of algebra and trigonometry, and have mechanical ability. Customer service and interpersonal skills also are important, especially for those dealing with customers. Because the work entails lifting heavy objects (many employers require applicants to be able to lift at least 50 pounds), climbing, and other physical activity, applicants should have stamina, strength, and coordination, and must be unafraid of heights. The ability to distinguish colors is necessary because wires and cables may be color-coded. A good driving record is important because workers often hold commercial driverís licenses and operate company-owned vehicles.
Line installers and repairers receive most of their training on the job. Electrical line installers and repairers often must complete formal apprenticeships or other employer training programs. These programs, which can last up to 5 years, combine on-the-job training with formal classroom courses and are sometimes administered jointly by the employer and the union representing the workers. The unions include the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, the Communications Workers of America, and the Utility Workers Union of America. Government safety regulations strictly define the training and education requirements for apprentice electrical line installers.
Line installers and repairers working for telephone and cable television companies receive several years of on-the-job training. They also may attend training or take online courses provided by equipment manufacturers, schools, unions, or industry training organizations. The Society of Cable Television Engineers (SCTE) provides certification programs for line installers and repairers. Applicants for certification must be employed in the cable television industry and attend training sessions at local SCTE chapters.
Entry-level line installers may be hired as ground workers, helpers, or tree trimmers, who clear branches from telephone and power lines. These workers may advance to positions stringing cable and performing service installations. With experience, they may advance to more sophisticated maintenance and repair positions responsible for increasingly larger portions of the network. Promotion to supervisory or training positions also is possible, but more advanced supervisory positions often require a college diploma.
Line installers and repairers held about 251,000 jobs in 2004. Approximately 147,000 were telecommunications line installers and repairers; the remainder were electrical powerline installers and repairers. Nearly all line installers and repairers worked for telecommunications, construction, or electric power generation, transmission, and distribution companies. Approximately 4,800 line installers and repairers were self-employed. Many of these were contractors employed by the telecommunications companies to handle customer service problems and installations.
Overall employment of line installers and repairers is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through 2014. However, because many line installers and repairers are nearing retirement, job opportunities for new workers in this field should be very good, particularly for electrical powerline installers. Some companies are expanding their hiring in anticipation of increased retirements.
Employment of telecommunications line installers is projected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations. Much of their work will involve replacing old wiring with fiber optic cable and expanding their networks to provide customers with high-speed access to data, video, and graphics. Line installers and repairers will be needed to construct and maintain the networks. However, the increasing use of wireless systems, increasingly reliable lines, and improved speeds of data transmission over existing lines will limit employment growth. The number of households with wired telephone service is declining because of the increasing use of wireless telephones. Wireless networks do not require as many technicians to maintain and expand their systems, a characteristic that will reduce job growth. Satellite television providers are also providing strong competition. As wireless systems offer higher-speed Internet access, the number of households with wired phone or cable TV should decline further.
Very little employment growth is expected among electrical powerline installers and repairers. Despite consistently rising demand for electricity, industry deregulation is pushing companies to cut costs and maintenance, which tends to reduce employment. Most new jobs are expected to arise in the construction industry.
Earnings for line installers and repairers are higher than those in most other occupations that do not require postsecondary education. Median hourly earnings for electrical powerline installers and repairers were $23.61 in May 2004. The middle 50 percent earned between $18.00 and $27.64. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $13.31, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $32.54. Median hourly earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of electrical powerline installers and repairers in May 2004 are shown below:
Electric power generation, transmission and distribution
Wired telecommunications carriers
Utility system construction
Building equipment contractors
Median hourly earnings for telecommunications line installers and repairers were $19.39 in May 2004. The middle 50 percent earned between $13.98 and $25.10. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $10.96, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $28.56 . Median hourly earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of telecommunications line installers and repairers in May 2004 are shown below:
Wired telecommunications carriers
Cable and other subscription programming
Cable and other program distribution
Building equipment contractors
Utility system construction
Most line installers and repairers belong to unions, principally the Communications Workers of America, the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, and the Utility Workers Union of America. For these workers, union contracts set wage rates, wage increases, and the time needed to advance from one job level to the next.
For more details about employment opportunities, contact the telephone, cable television, or electrical power companies in your community. For general information and some educational resources on line installer and repairer jobs, write to:
Communications Workers of America, 501 3rd St. NW., Washington, DC 20001.
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, Telecommunications Department, 1125 15th St. NW., Washington, DC 20005.
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2006-07 Edition,
Line Installers and Repairers, on the Internet at
(visited June 21, 2006).