Interpreters and translators enable the cross-cultural communication necessary in today’s society by converting one language into another. However, these language specialists do more than simply translate wordsthey relay concepts and ideas between languages. They must thoroughly understand the subject matter in which they work, so that they are able to convert information from one language, known as the source language, into another, the target language. In addition, they must remain sensitive to the cultures associated with their languages of expertise.
Interpreters and translators are often discussed together because they share some common traits. For example, both need a special ability, known as language combination. This enables them to be fluent in at least two languagesa native, or active, language and a secondary, or passive, language. Their active language is the one they know best and into which they interpret or translate, and their passive language is one of which they have nearly perfect knowledge.
Although some people do both, interpretation and translation are different professions. Each requires a distinct set of skills and aptitudes, and most people are better suited for one or the other. While interpreters often work into and from both languages, translators generally work only into their active language.
Interpreters convert one spoken language into anotheror, in the case of sign-language interpreters, between spoken communication and sign language. This requires interpreters to pay attention carefully, understand what is communicated in both languages, and express thoughts and ideas clearly. Strong research and analytical skills, mental dexterity, and an exceptional memory also are important.
The first part of an interpreter’s work begins before arriving at the jobsite. The interpreter must become familiar with the subject matter that the speakers will cover, a task that may involve research to create a list of common words and phrases associated with the topic. Next, the interpreter usually travels to the location where his or her services are needed. Physical presence may not be required for some work, such as telephone interpretation. But it is usually important that the interpreter see the communicators in order to hear and observe the person speaking and to relay the message to the other party.
There are two types of interpretation: simultaneous and consecutive. Simultaneous interpretation requires interpreters to listen and speak (or sign) at the same time. In simultaneous interpretation, the interpreter begins to convey a sentence being spoken while the speaker is still talking. Ideally, simultaneous interpreters should be so familiar with a subject that they are able to anticipate the end of the speaker’s sentence. Because they need a high degree of concentration, simultaneous interpreters work in pairs, with each interpreting for 20- to 30-minute segments. This type of interpretation is required at international conferences and is sometimes used in the courts.
In contrast to simultaneous interpretation’s immediacy, consecutive interpretation begins only after the speaker has verbalized a group of words or sentences. Consecutive interpreters often take notes while listening to the speakers, so they must develop some type of note-taking or shorthand system. This form of interpretation is used most often for person-to-person communication, during which the interpreter sits near both parties.
Translators convert written materials from one language into another. They must have excellent writing and analytical ability. And because the documents they translate must be as flawless as possible, they also need good editing skills.
Translators’ assignments may vary in length, writing style, and subject matter. When they first receive text to convert into another language, translators usually read it in its entirety to get an idea of the subject. Next, they identify and look up any unfamiliar words. Translators also might do additional reading on the subject matter if they are unclear about anything in the text. However, they also consult with the text’s originator or issuing agency to clarify unclear or unfamiliar ideas, words, or acronyms.
Translating involves more than replacing a word with its equivalent in another language; sentences and ideas must be manipulated to flow with the same coherence as those in the source document, so that the translation reads as though it originated in the target language. Translators also must bear in mind any cultural references that may need to be explained to the intended audience, such as colloquialisms, slang, and other expressions that do not translate literally. Some subjects may be more difficult than others to translate because words or passages may have multiple meanings that make several translations possible. Not surprisingly, translated work often goes through multiple revisions before final text is submitted.
The way in which translators do their jobs has changed with advancements in technology. Today, nearly all translation work is done on a computer, and most assignments are received and submitted electronically. This enables translators to work from almost anywhere, and a large percentage of them work from home. The Internet provides advanced research capabilities and valuable language resources, such as specialized dictionaries and glossaries. In some cases, use of machine-assisted translationincluding memory tools that provide comparisons of previous translations with current workhelps save time and reduce repetition.
The services of interpreters and translators are needed in a number of subject areas. While these workers may not completely specialize in a particular field or industry, many do focus on one area of expertise. Some of the most common areas are described below; however, interpreters and translators also may work in a variety of other areas, including business, social services, or entertainment.
Conference interpreters work at conferences that involve non-English-speaking attendees. This work includes international business and diplomacy, although conference interpreters also may interpret for any organization that works with foreign language speakers. Employers prefer high-level interpreters who have at least two language combinationsfor example, the ability to interpret from English to French and English to Spanish. For some positions, such as those with the United Nations, this qualification is mandatory.
Much of the interpreting performed at conferences is simultaneous; however, at some meetings with a small number of attendees, consecutive interpreting also may be used. Usually, interpreters sit in soundproof booths, listening to the speakers through headphones and interpreting into a microphone what is said. The interpreted speech is then relayed to the listener through headsets. When interpreting is needed for only one or two people, the chuchotage, or whispering, method may be used. The interpreter sits behind or next to the attendee and whispers a translation of the proceedings.
Guide or escort interpreters accompany either U.S. visitors abroad or foreign visitors in the United States to ensure that they are able to communicate during their stay. These specialists interpret on a variety of subjects, both on an informal basis and on a professional level. Most of their interpretation is consecutive, and work is generally shared by two interpreters when the assignment requires more than an 8-hour day. Frequent travel, often for days or weeks at a time, is common, a factor which some find particularly appealing.
Judiciary interpreters and translatorshelp people appearing in court who are unable or unwilling to communicate in English. These workers must remain detached from the content of their work and not alter or modify the meaning or tone of what is said. Legal translators must be thoroughly familiar with the language and functions of the U.S. judicial system, as well as other countries’ legal systems. Court interpreters work in a variety of legal settings, such as attorney-client meetings, preliminary hearings, depositions, trials, and arraignments. Success as a court interpreter requires an understanding of both legal terminology and colloquial language. In addition to interpreting what is said, court interpreters also may be required to translate written documents and read them aloud, also known as sight translation.
Literary translators adapt written literature from one language into another. They may translate any number of documents, including journal articles, books, poetry, and short stories. Literary translation is related to creative writing; literary translators must create a new text in the target language that reproduces the content and style of the original. Whenever possible, literary translators work closely with authors in order to best capture their intended meanings and literary characteristics.
This type of work often is done as a sideline by university professors; however, opportunities exist for well-established literary translators. As is the case with writers, finding a publisher is a critical part of the job. Most aspiring literary translators begin by submitting a short sample of their work, in the hope that it will be printed and give them recognition. For example, after receiving permission from the author, they might submit to a publishing house a previously unpublished short work, such as a poem or essay.
Localization translators constitute a relatively recent and rapidly expanding specialty. Localization involves the complete adaptation of a product for use in a different language and culture. At its earlier stages, this work dealt primarily with software localization, but the specialty has expanded to include the adaptation of Internet sites and products in manufacturing and other business sectors.
Translators working in localization need a solid grasp of the languages to be translated, a thorough understanding of technical concepts and vocabulary, and a high degree of knowledge about the intended target audience or users of the product. The goal of these specialists is for the product to appear as if it were originally manufactured in the country where it will be sold and supported. Because software often is involved, it is not uncommon for people who work in this area of translation to have a strong background in computer science or computer-related work experience.
Providing language services to healthcare patients with limited English proficiency is the realm of medical interpreters and translators. Medical interpreters help patients to communicate with doctors, nurses, and other medical staff. Translators working in this specialty primarily convert patient materials and informational brochures, issued by hospitals and medical facilities, into the desired language. Medical interpreters need a strong grasp of medical and colloquial terminology in both languages, along with cultural sensitivity regarding how the patient receives the information. They must remain detached but aware of the patient’s feelings and pain.
Sign language interpreters facilitate communication between people who are deaf or hard of hearing and people who can hear. Sign language interpreters must be fluent in English and American Sign Language (ASL), which combines signing, finger spelling, and specific body language. ASL has its own grammatical rules, sentence structure, idioms, historical contexts, and cultural nuances. Sign language interpreting, like foreign language interpreting, involves more than simply replacing a word of spoken English with a sign representing that word.
Most sign language interpreters either interpret, aiding communication between English and ASL, or transliterate, facilitating communication between English and contact signinga form of signing that uses a more English language-based word order. Some interpreters specialize in oral interpreting for deaf or hard of hearing persons who lipread instead of sign. Other specialties include tactile signing, interpreting for persons who are deaf-blind; cued speech; and signing exact English.
Working environments of interpreters and translators vary. Interpreters work in a variety of settings, such as hospitals, courtrooms and conference centers. They are required to travel to the sitewhether it is a neighboring town or the other side of the worldwhere their services are needed. Interpreters who work over the telephone generally work on call or in call centers in urban areas and keep to a standard 5-day, 40-hour workweek. Interpreters for deaf students in schools usually work in a school setting and work 9 months out of the year. Translators usually work alone, and they must frequently perform under pressure of deadlines and tight schedules. Many translators choose to work at home; however, technology allows translators to work from virtually anywhere.
Because many interpreters and translators freelance, their schedules are often erratic, with extensive periods of no work interspersed with others requiring long, irregular hours. For those who freelance, a significant amount of time must be dedicated to looking for jobs. In addition, freelancers must manage their own finances, and payment for their services may not always be prompt. Freelancing, however, offers variety and flexibility, and allows many workers to choose which jobs to accept or decline.
The number of work-related accidents in these occupations is relatively low. The work can be stressful and exhausting and translation can be lonesome or dull. However, interpreters and translators may use their irregular schedules to pursue other interests, such as traveling, dabbling in a hobby, or working a second job. Many interpreters and translators enjoy what they do and value the ability to control their schedules and workloads.
Interpreters and translators held about 24,000 jobs in 2002. Because of the large number of people who work in the occupation sporadically, however, the actual number of interpreters and translators is probably significantly higher. Reflecting the diversity of employment options in the field, interpreters and translators are employed in a variety of industries. Nearly 3 in 10 worked in public and private educational institutions, such as schools, colleges, and universities. About 1 in 10 worked in healthcare, many of which worked for hospitals. More than 1 in 10 worked in other areas of government, such as Federal, State and local courts. Other employers of interpreters and translators include publishing companies, telephone companies, airlines, and interpreting and translating agencies.
More than 2 in 10 interpreters and translators are self-employed. To find work, these interpreters and translators may submit resumes to 100 or more employment agencies, and then wait to be contacted when an agency matches their skills with a job. After establishing a few regular clients, interpreters and translators often hear of subsequent jobs by word of mouth; or, they may receive enough work from a few clients to stay busy. Many who freelance in the occupation work only part time, relying on other sources of income to supplement earnings from interpreting or translation.
The educational backgrounds of interpreters and translators vary. Knowing a language in addition to a native language is a given. Although it is not necessary to have been raised bilingual to succeed, many interpreters and translators grew up speaking two languages.
In high school, students can begin to prepare for these careers by taking a broad range of courses that include English writing and comprehension, foreign languages, and basic computer proficiency. Other helpful pursuits include spending time abroad, or comparable forms of direct contact with foreign cultures, and extensive reading on a variety of subjects in English and at least one other language.
Beyond high school, there are many educational options. Although a bachelor’s degree is almost always required, interpreters and translators note that it is acceptable to major in something other than a language. However, specialized training in how to do the work is generally required. A number of formal programs in interpreting and translation are available at colleges nationwide and through nonuniversity training programs, conferences, and courses. Many people who work as conference interpreters or in more technical areassuch as localization, engineering, or financehave master’s degrees, while those working in the community as court or medical interpreters or translators are more likely to complete job-specific training programs.
There is currently no universal form of certification required of all interpreters and translators in the United States, but there are a variety of different tests that workers can take to demonstrate proficiency. The American Translators Association provides accreditation in more than 24 language combinations for its members; other options include a certification program offered by The Translators and Interpreters Guild. Many interpreters are not certified. Federal courts have certification for Spanish, Navaho, and Haitian Creole interpreters, and many State and municipal courts offer their own forms of certification. The National Association of Judiciary Interpreters and Translators also offers certification for court interpreting.
The U.S. Department of State has a three-test series for interpreters, including simple consecutive interpreting (escort), simultaneous interpreting (court/seminar), and conference-level interpreting (international conferences). These tests are not referred to directly as certification, but successful completion often indicates that a person has an adequate level of skill to work in the field.
Both the National Association of the Deaf and the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf offer certification for sign interpreters and have recently collaborated to develop a joint exam.
Experience is an essential part of a successful career in either interpreting or translation. In fact, many agencies or companies use only the services of people who have worked in the field for 3 to 5 years or who have a degree in translation studies or both.
A good way for translators to learn firsthand about the profession is to start out working in-house for a company; however, such jobs are not very numerous. Advice for new entrants to the field is to begin getting experience whatever way they caneven if it means doing informal or unpaid work. Mentoring relationships and internships are other ways to build skills and confidence. Escort interpreting may offer an opportunity for inexperienced candidates to work alongside a more seasoned interpreter. Interpreters might also find it easier to break into areas with particularly high demand for language services, such as court or medical interpretation. Once interpreters and translators have gained sufficient experience, they may then move up to more difficult or prestigious assignments, may be given editorial responsibility, or may eventually manage or start their own translation agency.
Employment of interpreters and translators is projected to grow faster than the average for all occupations over the 2002-12 period, reflecting growth in the industries employing interpreters and translators. Higher demand for interpreters and translators in recent years has resulted directly from the broadening of international ties and the increase in foreign language speakers in the United States. Both of these trends are expected to continue, contributing to relatively rapid growth in the number of jobs for interpreters and translators.
Technology has made the work of interpreters and translators easier. However, technology is not likely to have a negative impact on employment of interpreters and translators because such innovations are incapable of producing work comparable with work produced by these professionals.
Translators are most in demand for the languages referred to as “PFIGS”Portuguese, French, Italian, German, and Spanish, and the principal Asian languagesChinese, Japanese, and Korean. Current events and changing political environments, often difficult to foresee, sometimes increase the need for persons who can work with other languages.
Urban areas, especially those in California, New York, and Washington, DC, provide the largest numbers of employment possibilities, especially for interpreters; however, as the immigrant population spreads into more rural areas, jobs in smaller communities will become more widely available.
Job prospects for interpreters and translators vary by specialty. In particular, there should be strong demand for specialists in localization, driven by imports and exports, the expansion of the Internet, and demand in other technical areas such as medicine or law. Rapid employment growth among interpreters and translators in health services industries will be fueled by relatively recent guidelines regarding compliance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act, which requires all healthcare providers receiving Federal aid to provide language services to non-English speakers. Similarly, the Americans with Disabilities Act and other laws, such as the Rehabilitation Act, mandate that, in certain situations, an interpreter must be available for people who are deaf or hard of hearing. Given the lack of qualified candidates meeting these requirements, interpreters for the deaf will continue to have favorable employment prospects. On the other hand, job growth is expected to be limited for both conference interpreters and literary translators.
Salaried interpreters and translators had median hourly earnings of $15.67 in 2002. The middle 50 percent earned between $11.97 and $20.33. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $9.37, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $25.99. Limited information suggests that highly skilled interpreters and translatorsfor example, high-level conference interpretersworking full time can earn more than $100,000 annually.
Earnings depend on language, subject matter, skill, experience, education, certification, and type of employer, and salaries of interpreters and translators can vary widely. Interpreters and translators with language skills for which there is a greater demand, or for which there are relatively few people with the skills, often have higher earnings. According to a 2001 salary survey by the American Translators Association, Chinese and Japanese interpreters and translators earned the highest median hourly ratesranging from $45 to $50 an hour. Interpreters and translators with specialized expertise, such as those working in software localization, also generally command higher rates. Individuals classified as language specialists for the Federal Government earned an average of $64,234 annually in 2003.
For those who are not salaried, earnings may fluctuate, depending on the availability of work. Furthermore, freelancers do not have any employer-paid benefits. Freelance interpreters usually earn an hourly rate, whereas translators who freelance typically earn a rate per word or per hour.
The work of translators is similar to that of
writers and editors, in that they communicate information and ideas through the written word and prepare texts for publication or dissemination. Those working in localization of software have skills similar to those of
computer software engineers, in that they analyze users’ needs and design, create, and modify computer software, and many possess strong programming skills. Furthermore, interpreters or translators working in a legal or healthcare environment are required to have a knowledge of terms and concepts that is similar to that of professionals working in these fields, such as
court reporters or
Organizations dedicated to these professions can provide valuable advice and guidance for people interested in learning more about interpretation and translation. The language services division of local hospitals or courthouses also may be able to offer information about available opportunities.
For career information, contact the organizations listed below:
American Translators Association, 225 Reinekers Lane, Suite 590, Alexandria, VA 22314.
The Translators and Interpreters Guild, 8611 Second Ave., Suite 203, Silver Spring, MD 20910.
U.S. Department of State, Office of Language Services, Room 2212, Washington, DC 20520.
For more detailed information by specialty, contact the association affiliated with that subject area:
National Association of Judiciary Interpreters and Translators, 2150 N. 107th St., Suite 205, Seattle, WA 98133.
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2004-05 Edition,
Interpreters and Translators, on the Internet at
(visited July 09, 2004).