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Home Appliance and Power Tool Repairers
Nature of the Work | Working Conditions | Employment | Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement | Job Outlook | Earnings | Related Occupations | Sources of Additional Information
If your washer, dryer, or refrigerator has ever broken, you know the importance of a dependable repair person. Home appliance and power tool repairers, often called service technicians, keep your home appliances working and help prevent unwanted breakdowns. Some repairers work specifically on small appliances such as microwaves and vacuum cleaners; others specialize in major appliances such as refrigerators, dishwashers, washers, and dryers. Still others handle power tools or gas appliances.
Repairers visually inspect appliances or power tools and check for unusual noises, excessive vibration, fluid leaks, or loose parts to determine why they fail to operate properly. They use service manuals, troubleshooting guides, and experience to diagnose particularly difficult problems. They disassemble the appliance or tool to examine its internal parts for signs of wear or corrosion. Repairers follow wiring diagrams and use testing devices, such as ammeters, voltmeters, and wattmeters to check electrical systems for shorts and faulty connections.
After identifying problems, they replace or repair defective belts, motors, heating elements, switches, gears, or other items. They tighten, align, clean, and lubricate parts as necessary. Repairers use common hand tools, including screwdrivers, wrenches, files, and pliers, as well as soldering guns and special tools designed for particular appliances. When repairing appliances with electronic parts, they may replace circuit boards or other electronic components.
Many manufacturers incorporate "fuzzy logic" technology into their newer and more expensive appliances. Fuzzy logic technology involves sensors, or inputs, strategically placed inside an appliance to transmit information to an on-board computer. The computer processes this information and adjusts variables such as water and electricity, to optimize appliance performance and reduce wasted resources. Fuzzy logic uses 1 input; "neurofuzzy logic" uses up to 5 inputs; and "chaos logic" uses up to 10 inputs. Dishwashers, washers, and dryers commonly use neurofuzzy logic in their components.
When repairing refrigerators and window air-conditioners, repairers must use care to conserve, recover, and recycle chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigerants used in their cooling systems as required by law. Repairers conserve the refrigerant by making sure there are no leaks in the system; they recover the refrigerant by venting it into proper cylinders; and they recycle the refrigerant for reuse with special filter-dryers.
Repairers who service gas appliances may check the heating unit and replace tubing, thermocouples, thermostats, valves, and indicator spindles. They also answer emergency calls for gas leaks. To install gas appliances, repairers may have to install pipes in a customers home to connect the appliances to the gas line. They measure, lay out, cut, and thread pipe and connect it to a feeder line and to the appliance. They may have to saw holes in walls or floors and hang steel supports from beams or joists to hold gas pipes in place. Once the gas line is in place, they turn on the gas and check for leaks.
Repairers also answer customers questions about the care and use of appliances. For example, they demonstrate how to load automatic washing machines, arrange dishes in dishwashers, or sharpen chain saws to maximize performance.
Repairers write up estimates of the cost of repairs for customers, keep records of parts used and hours worked, prepare bills, and collect payments. They also document the capture and disposal of refrigerants.
Home appliance and power tool repairers who handle portable appliances usually work in repair shops that are generally quiet, well lighted, and adequately ventilated. Those who repair major appliances usually make service calls to customers homes. They carry their tools and a number of commonly used parts with them in a truck or van for use on their service calls. A repairer may spend several hours a day driving to and from appointments and emergency calls. They may work in clean comfortable rooms such as kitchens, or in damp, dirty, or dusty areas of a home. Repairers sometimes work in cramped and uncomfortable positions when replacing parts in hard-to-reach areas of appliances.
Repairer jobs generally are not hazardous, but they must exercise care and follow safety precautions to avoid electrical shocks and injuries when lifting and moving large appliances. When repairing gas appliances and microwave ovens, they must be aware of the dangers of gas and radiation leaks.
Many home appliance and power tool repairers work a standard 40-hour week. Some repairers work early morning, evening, and weekend shifts. Many repairers remain on-call in case of emergency. Many repairers work overtime and weekend hours in the summer months, when they are in high demand to fix air-conditioners and refrigerators. Repairers of power tools such as saws and drills may also have to work overtime during spring and summer months when use of such tools increases and breakdowns are more frequent.
Home appliance and power tool repairers usually work with little or no direct supervision, a feature of the job that appeals to many people.
Home appliance and power tool repairers held nearly 51,000 jobs in 1998. More than 15 percent of repairers are self-employed. About one half of salaried repairers worked in retail establishments such as department stores, household appliance stores, and fuel dealers. Others worked for gas and electric utility companies, electrical repair shops, and wholesalers.
Almost every community in the country employs appliance and power tool repairers; a high concentration of jobs are found in more populated areas.
Employers generally require a high school diploma for home appliance and power tool repairer jobs. Repairers of small appliances and tools commonly learn the trade on the job; repairers of large household appliances often receive their training in a formal trade school, community college, or directly from the appliance manufacturer. Mechanical aptitude is desirable, and those who work in customers homes must be courteous and tactful.
Employers prefer to hire people with formal training in appliance repair and electronics. Many repairers complete 1- or 2-year formal training programs in appliance repair and related subjects in high schools, private vocational schools, and community colleges. Courses in basic electricity and electronics are becoming increasingly necessary as more manufacturers install circuit boards and other electronic control systems in home appliances.
Regardless of whether their basic skills are developed through formal training or on the job, trainees usually receive additional training from their employer and manufacturers. In shops that fix portable appliances, they work on a single type of appliance, such as a vacuum cleaner, until they master its repair. Then they move on to others, until they can repair all those handled by the shop. In companies that repair major appliances, beginners assist experienced repairers on service visits. They may also study on their own. They learn to read schematic drawings, analyze problems, determine whether to repair or replace parts, and follow proper safety procedures. Up to 3 years of on-the-job training may be needed for a technician to become skilled in all aspects of repair.
Some appliance and power tool manufacturers and department store chains have formal training programs that include home study and shop classes, in which trainees work with demonstration appliances and other training equipment. Many repairers receive supplemental instruction through 2- or 3-week seminars conducted by appliance and power tool manufacturers. Experienced repairers also often attend training classes and study service manuals. Repairers authorized for warranty work by manufacturers are required to attend periodic training sessions.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has mandated that all repairers who buy or work with refrigerants must be certified in its proper handling; a technician must pass a written examination to become certified to buy and handle refrigerants. Exams are administered by organizations approved by the EPA, such as trade schools, unions, and employer associations. There are even EPA-approved take-home certification exams. Though no formal training is required for certification, many of these organizations offer training programs designed to prepare workers for the certification examination.
To protect consumers and recognize highly skilled home appliance and power tool repairers, the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers has instituted the National Appliance Service Technician Certification Program (NASTeC). Together, manufacturers, schools, and field experts write questions that measure the skills of their trade. To become certified, technicians must pass a comprehensive examination testing their competence in the diagnosis, repair and maintenance of major home appliances. The examination is given on demand at locations throughout the country. While there has not previously been standardized certification, growing numbers of employers now encourage repairers to become certified.
The Professional Service Association (PSA) has a certification program with similar goals to the NASTeC programto recognize skilled repairers. To become certified, technicians must pass an examination. The PSA certification is valid for 4 years, and for renewal the technician must complete at least 12 credit hours of instruction every year during the 4 years. If the technician fails to accumulate the 48 hours of instruction, they must retake the examination.
Repairers in large shops or service centers may be promoted to supervisor, assistant service manager, or service manager. A few repairers advance to managerial positions such as regional service manager or parts manager for appliance or tool manufacturers. Preference is given to those who demonstrate technical competence and show an ability to get along with coworkers and customers. Experienced repairers who have sufficient funds and knowledge of small business management may open their own repair shop.
Employment of home appliance and power tool repairers is expected to increase slower than the average for all occupations through the year 2008. Prospects should continue to be good for well-trained repairers, particularly those with a strong background in electronics. The number of home appliances and power tools in use is expected to increase with growth in the number of households and businesses and the introduction of new and improved appliances and tools. However, employment growth will be constrained as the frequency of repairs is reduced by increased use of electronic parts such as solid-state circuitry, microprocessors, and sensing devices in appliances. Nevertheless, as appliance and power tool repairers retire or transfer to other occupations, additional job openings will arise.
The availability of manufacturer sponsored training programs could also limit employment growth. Manufacturers often make these programs available only to large equipment dealers, thereby discouraging repairers from becoming self-employed or working for small shops. Many self-employed repairers are forced to join larger shops so that they can stay abreast of developments in the industry. Jobs are expected to be increasingly concentrated in larger companies as the number of smaller shops and family owned businesses declines. However, those repairers that maintain strong industry relationships may still go into business for themselves.
Employment is relatively steady because the demand for appliance repair services continues even during economic downturns. However, during economic slowdowns some repair shops may lay off repairers.
Median annual earnings, including commission, of home appliance and power tool repairers were $26,010 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $20,380 and $34,790 a year. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $15,730 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $42,090 a year.
Earnings of home appliance and power tool repairers vary according to the skill level required to fix equipment, geographic location, and the type of equipment repaired. Because many repairers receive commission along with their salary, earnings increase along with the number of jobs a repairer can complete in a day.
Many larger dealers, manufacturers and service stores offer benefits such as health insurance coverage, sick leave, and retirement and pension programs. Some home appliance and power tool repairers belong to the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers.
Other workers who repair electrical and electronic equipment include heating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics; locksmiths; motorcycle, boat, and small-engine mechanics; office machine and cash register servicers; electronic home entertainment equipment repairers; and coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers.
Disclaimer: Links to non-BLS Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
For information about jobs in the home appliance and power tool repair field, contact local appliance repair shops, manufacturers, vocational trade schools, appliance dealers, and utility companies, or the local office of the State employment service.
For general information about the work of home appliance repairers, contact:
For information on technician certification, as well as general information about the work of home appliance repairers, contact:
Last Updated: March 30, 2000
|2000-2001 Handbook Contents...||UMSL Govt. Docs...||UMSL Libraries...||UMSL Home...|