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Whitney R. Harris World Ecology Center: Newsletter: May 1999


Vol. VI, No2 - May 1999


Chancellor Blanche Touhill presented the World Ecology Award to Dr. Jane Goodall at a Gala Dinner held on April 14, 1999. More than 150 guests filled the Carriage House at Grant's Farm in St. Louis to see Jane receive this prestigious award. Jane Goodall is the foremost authority on wild chimpanzees and the most recognizable crusader for their conservation. She first visited Africa in 1957 and met famed anthropologist and paleontologist Louis Leakey. She worked for Dr. Leakey as a secretary, but soon impressed him so much with her knowledge of African wildlife that he invited her to begin a study of the wild chimpanzees in Gombe Stream Reserve in Tanzania. At the time, she had no academic qualifications and arrived at Gombe in July 1960 with her mother as chaperone, a cook and his family to establish what has come to be the longest continuous study of any animal species.

In 1965, Jane was awarded a Ph.D. in ethology by Cambridge University, only the eighth person to earn a doctorate from Cambridge without first taking a B.A. She has published her research in academic journals and has also stimulated public interest in wildlife research and conservation through her best-selling book-In the Shadow of Man. In 1977, she founded the Jane Goodall Institute to support the continued research of wild chimpanzee populations. The Institute has since expanded its mission to include conservation and environmental education, welfare for captive chimpanzees, reforestation projects and natural resource management. Dr. Goodall continues to devote her considerable energy to encouraging people to show greater concern for wildlife and the environment.

The Gala Event was sponsored by Anheuser-Busch Companies, NationsBank, Dula Foundation, E. Desmond Lee Foundation, Hermann Foundation, The Sackler Family, Sanford McDonnell Foundation and the Spencer T. & Ann W. Olin Foundation. Previous recipients of the World Ecology Award include John Denver (Colorado), Jacques Cousteau (France), Dr. Paul Ehrlich (California), Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan (Switzerland), Dr. Richard Leakey (Kenya) and President José Figueres (Costa Rica).

The honorary co-chairs of the organizing committee who arranged this wonderful gala evening were: Trudy Buholzer Busch, Trudy Busch Valentine and Beatrice Busch von Gontard.

This Newsletter describes recent activities of the International Center for Tropical Ecology. Established in 1990 in cooperation with the Missouri Botanical Garden, the Center promotes research and education in biodiversity, conservation, and the sustainable use of tropical ecosystems. A key role of the Center is to support an interactive, international environment in which graduate training in ecology, evolution, systematics, and tropical biology and conservation can emerge. Further, the Center has a commitment to undergraduate education in conservation biology, focusing on Missouri and temperate ecosystems. The Center also promotes an awareness within the St. Louis community of the importance of conservation and environmentally sustainable policies and practices.


On April 14, 1999, Dr. Jane Goodall received the highest honor bestowed on an individual by the International Center for Tropical Ecology, the World Ecology Award (see article, page 1). Nearly 40 years ago, Dr. Goodall arrived at Gombe National Park on the shores of Lake Tanganyika to begin what is now the longest continuous study of any animal species. Dr. Louis Leakey obviously recognized in Jane Goodall a determination and spirit to persevere through difficult field conditions in order to develop a research program on human's closest living relative, the chimpanzee. For most organisms, long-term studies are essential in behavioral, population, and ecological research. In the United States, perhaps one of the best known long-term studies is that on the wolves of Isle Royale National Park in Lake Superior. Studies begun by Durward Allen were continued by David Mech and his colleagues. If David Mech had stopped his studies after ten years, we would have concluded that wolves were regulating the moose population at levels below those which food resources are limiting. Over three decades later, we now know that the system is much more complex, as unpredictable weather patterns influence moose behavior, and moose behavior influences availability of food. Consequently, our conclusions regarding how predators and prey interact on Isle Royale have been modified during the second two decades of study.

In the Missouri Ozarks, Pioneer Forest may well be the nation's longest "experiment" ever with natural forest management. During the past 40 or more years, these forests have been managed to maintain forest structure and diversity, but also to harvest timber in an economically beneficial, yet sustainable manner. In the tropics, ICTE faculty associates, Drs. David and Deborah Clark have amassed the longest data set that combines annually measured tree growth and associated ecological conditions. Although they did not initiate their research in Costa Rica with the idea of understanding the forests' role in the global carbon cycle, results of their long-term studies have stimulated collaborative research with a range of scientists with expertise in plant physiological ecology, soils, ecosystem dynamics, and climatology. Today, the Clarks and collaborators are revealing significant findings regarding ecosystem processes in tropical forests and how changes in the global atmosphere or weather may affect forest productivity.

A bane of natural ecosystems is their complex nature, yet one might argue that it is this complexity and variability that makes life so interesting. During her career, the observations of Dr. Goodall and her colleagues on the chimpanzees of Gombe have revealed many interesting facets of their life-tool-making, meat-eating, formation of alliances among individuals, and the fragile status of the chimps in their environment. Long-term studies undoubtedly have an important place in population, behavioral and ecological research and such studies have time and again provided new insights that would have been overlooked in studies of shorter duration. Yet, the reality is that the future of a long term study is dependent on the continued integrity of the underlying biological systems. Dr. Goodall recognized this link before many of us and has devoted much of the last 25 years to wildlife and habitat conservation. We applaud her vision, her stamina, her successes, and thank the late Dr. Louis Leakey for sending this remarkable woman to the wet forests of Tanzania to study chimpanzees some 40 years ago.


Dr. Ariel Lugo is Director of the International Institute of Tropical Forestry within the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, based in Puerto Rico. Ariel Lugo was born in Puerto Rico and obtained his B.S. and M.S. at the University of Puerto Rico. He was awarded his Ph.D. by the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill for his thesis: "Water, carbon, and energy budgets for a granite outcrop ecosystem." He joined the Department of Natural Resources in Puerto Rico as Assistant Secretary for Planning and Resource Analysis in 1974 after carrying out post-doctoral research studies on wet forests in El Verde, Puerto Rico and mangroves in Florida. He has worked on a wide range of tropical and sub-tropical ecosystems: hardwood forests, mangroves, floodplain wetlands, sand pine forests, prairie lakes and palm wetlands. His current research is focused on assessments of the role of tropical forests in global processes and comparisons between tropical tree plantations and natural forests.

Ariel Lugo has served as president of the Association for Tropical Biology, Chairman of the Man and the Biosphere Directorate for Tropical Forest Ecosystems, Board Member for the Society of Conservation Biology and for the International Society for Tropical Ecology, Founding Member of the Society for Ecological Restoration and Member-at-Large of the Board of the Ecological Society of America. He currently serves on the Editorial Boards of Conservation Ecology, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Forest Ecology and Management, Restoration Ecology, Journal of Sustainable Forestry, Acta Cientifica (Editor) and Journal of the Littoral.

He has over 300 publications in prestigious scientific journals and books and has served on federal interagency committees and frequently required to appear as an expert witness in federal court in cases considering environmental issues. He has received numerous awards including a National Science Foundation Long-Term Ecological Research grant for studies on the Luquillo Experimental Forest.

In his lecture delivered at the Missouri Botanical Garden's Shoenberg Auditorium entitled "Active Management and the Conservation of Tropical Forests", Dr. Lugo entertained and informed the large audience with his views on how we can conserve tropical forests for the future and stimulate restoration of degraded lands. He used examples from Puerto Rico and Amazonian Brazil to demonstrate that reforestation can be achieved.

The generosity of Jane and Whitney Harris has made this annual lecture series possible. On Friday April 16, 1999, St. Louis lost a great champion of community service when Jane Harris passed away after battling cancer. Jane and Whitney Harris have been key supporters of the Center since its inception and members of our Development Board. Jane was deeply concerned about plant conservation and an active supporter of the Missouri Botanical Garden and its Shaw Arboretum. Through the International Center for Tropical Ecology she combined her interest in supporting education with her concern for rain forest conservation. We will greatly miss Jane Harris, her infectious enthusiasm for helping people and her tireless support of so many local, national and international organizations.


Dr. Peter Raven, Director of the Missouri Botanical Garden was recognized in the Earth Day Special of Time Magazine as a hero for the planet (Time, April 26, 1999). Dr. Raven joined the Garden in 1971 and, under his stewardship, it has grown from an operation with 85 employees and a budget of $650,000 to one with over 350 people and an annual budget of $20 million. The herbarium now has nearly 5 million specimens and underpins the enormous undertakings of writing the floras of China, the United States as well as many other countries and regions throughout the world. In particular, Dr. Raven was recognized for his lifelong crusade to catalogue and encourage conservation of the earth's botanical diversity.



Dr. José Sarukhán Kermiz, National Coordinator, CONABIO and former Rector, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) visited the Center for International Studies (CIS) and the International Center for Tropical Ecology at the end of March. Dr. Sarukhán gave the inaugural Rolanda Lara Zavala Memorial Lecture in Mexican Studies sponsored by the Center for International Studies entitled: "Higher education in Mexico: Its connections with major social and political trends in Mexico and North America." Dr. Sarukhán also gave a seminar co-sponsored by the CIS and ICTE entitled "Biodiversity in Mexico". Dr. Sarukhán has a long association with UNAM. He started there as a student in the 1960's and, after an interlude at the University of Wales where he received his doctorate in 1972, he returned to UNAM to become a senior scientist and then Director of the Institute of Biology. The Institute houses the national biological collections and as such is the most important institution for biodiversity conservation in Mexico. In 1988, Dr. Sarukhán was appointed Rector of UNAM, a position he held for the statutory two full terms.

He has been president of the Botanical Society of Mexico and of the Mexican Academy of Sciences as well as the Association of Tropical Biology. He was a vice-chairman of Conservation International and holds a presidential appointment as National Coordinator of the Mexican Committee for the study and conservation of Biodiversity.

He has published numerous papers on his research on plant population ecology and systems ecology and has received both national and international awards for his contributions to science, education, and biodiversity conservation including the Henry Shaw Medal from the Missouri Botanical Garden.

This new annual lecture series has been established through a generous gift to the Center for International Studies from ICTE Development Board members James and Mary Moog in memory of their friend Rolanda Lara Zavala.


The theme for this year's World Ecology Day, to be held on October, 22 1998, is "Frontiers in marine biology and conservation." Dr. Douglas Wartzok, Dean of the Graduate School and Professor in Biology at UM-St. Louis will present a paper entitled "Life beneath the ice and waves: Research on seals and whales". Dr. Ian R. MacDonald, with the Ocean Sciences Division in the College of Geosciences, at Texas A&M University will talk on his work on deep sea animal communities: "Life without light: Animal communities, deep-sea seeps and vents." Dr. Mary Ratnaswamy, School of Natural Resources, University of Missouri-Columbia will talk on "Raccoons and sea turtles: a conservation dilemma."


The second annual Tropical Fantasia took place on Saturday May 1 at Plaza Frontenac. This massive plant sale, silent auction and conservation extravaganza is designed to raise awareness within the St. Louis community of local, national and international conservation issues and to raise funds for the ICTE's tropical research scholarship and conservation internship programs. Honorary co-chairs were KTVI Weatherman Dave Murray and his wife Janis. The co-chairs of the organizing committee were Janet Shores and Julie Cowhey. They were ably supported by Tracie Drake, Dudley Grove, John Huhn, Ann Lapides, Angela Phillips, Susie Schulte, David Shores, and Doug Wolter. Participants included the Missouri Botanical Garden, Saint Louis Zoo, World Bird Sanctuary, St. Louis Rainforest Advocates, Sugar Creek Gardens, Windy Hills Farms, Ladue Florist, Ronnoco Coffee, Cardwells, and St. Louis Smoothies.


The following student associates of the ICTE were awarded their doctorates during the fall semester 1998. Gillian Bowser (Dissertation title: "Genetics, geographics and prairie dogs: A landscape model of prairie dog (Cynomys ludovocianus) dispersal"; co-advisors: John Blake and Bette Loiselle), John Lill (Dissertation title: "The influence of adjacent trophic levels on life history evolution in Psilocorsis quercicella (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae"; advisor: Robert Marquis), Diego R. Perez-Salicrup (Dissertation title: "Effects of liana cutting on trees and tree seedlings in a tropical forest in Bolivia"; advisor: Victoria Sork), Luis Miguel Renjifo (Dissertation title: "Effect of the landscape matrix on the composition and conservation of forest bird communities"; advisor: Bette Loiselle).

ICTE student associates receiving M.Sc. degrees included Trisha Consiglio (Dissertation title: "Pollination biology and breeding systems of a tropical palm Astrocaryum vulgare in Guyana"; advisor: Godfrey Bourne), Alina Freire-Fierro (Dissertation title: "Revision of Aciotis (Melastomataceae); advisor: Susanne Renner), and Jon Seal (Dissertation title: "Morphology and protein responses to colony level nourishment manipulations in two broods of the paperwasp Polistes metricus Say."; advisor: Jim Hunt).

Janeth K. Aldas, (advisor: Carol Kelly), Sandra Arango (advisor: Bette Loiselle) and Lúcia Garcez Lohmann (advisor: Susanne Renner) completed non-thesis masters degrees. Frank Wolff was awarded a Graduate Certificate in Tropical Biology and Conservation.


Parker-Gentry Tropical Research Fellowship

Iván Jiménez was awarded the Parker-Gentry Tropical Research Fellowship in order to continue his research into food preferences and patch assessment abilities of currasows. Ivan will return to his study site in Colombia in the forthcoming summer.

John Denver Memorial Scholarship in Tropical Ecology

Luciana Griz is the second recipient of the John Denver Memorial Scholarship in Tropical Ecology and will use the award to support her research entitled "Spatial distribution of plant life stages and the role of post-dispersal factors on recruitment of an animal-dispersed tree in caatinga (NE Brazil)." Luciana is a second year doctoral student from Brazil who received a highly competitive fellowship from her government to study abroad. Luciana's research will provide us with a greater understanding of what factors limit establishment of trees in tropical dry forests.

Marlin Perkins Memorial Fellowship

Frank Wolff was awarded the Marlin Perkins Memorial Fellowship which will support Frank's research into the feeding ecology of Neotropical carnivores in caatinga, seasonal dry forests found in the northeast of Brazil. Last year Frank completed the Graduate Certificate in Tropical Biology and Conservation and is now enrolled in the masters program.

Stephen M. Doyle Memorial Scholarship and ICTE Development Board Scholarship

Silvio Marchini was awarded the Stephen M. Doyle Memorial Scholarship and an ICTE Development Board Scholarship to support his research project entitled "The influence of environmental heterogeneity on the strengths of top-down and bottom-up forces affecting the community of insect herbivores and resulting herbivory in an Amazonian Forest." Silvio is working with the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP) funded through the Institute for Amazon Research (INPA) based in Manaus and the Smithsonian Institution. The BDFFP is the only experimental investigation into the effects of tropical forest fragments.

Mallinckrodt Scholarship

The 1999 Mallinckrodt Scholarship for Tropical Ecology was shared between Andre Chanderbali and Jane Whitehill. Andre is investigating the systematic relationships and biogeography of Neotropical Lauraceae (Avocado family). Jane is studying molecular markers from nine of the eleven genera in the Caladium alliance of the Araceae family.

ICTE Faculty Scholarship for Tropical Ecology

Susana León Yánez has received the first scholarship awarded as a result of donations received from ICTE Faculty and Faculty Associates. Susana is investigating herbivory in montane Polylepis forests and will be looking at the effects of elevation, seasonality, and host plant species on the arthropod community composition and leaf herbivory.

Jane and Stanley Birge Scholarship

The Jane and Stanley Birge Scholarship was awarded to Tibisay Escalona to support her research project entitled "Nest site selection and reproductive success of a harvested turtle (Podocnemis unifilis, Testudines: Pelomedusidae) in the Nichare region, Venezuela" These turtles provide an important protein source for local communities in the Orinoco basin and hunting has driven many populations to near extinction. Tibisay's research will provide the scientific data necessary to develop sound management and conservation programs to increase the likelihood of survival of this species throughout its range.


Professors Toby Kellogg and Peter Stevens have a published a book co-authored with Walter Judd and Christopher Campbell entitled: "Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach." The book is an introductory text that describes phylogenetic principles and methods. It is designed for use by students enrolled in courses devoted to the systematics of angiosperms or vascular plants. The book has been published by Sinauer Associates.

Luis Miguel Renjifo has been appointed Director of Conservation Biology Program for the Humboldt Institute in Colombia, which establishes the national agendas for biodiversity and conservation research in this megadiversity country.

Alvaro Herrera has recently accepted a position as Scientific Assistant at the National Institute of Biodiversity (INBio) in San José, Costa Rica. He is involved in INBio's daunting task of producing a complete inventory of the biological diversity of Costa Rica. In 1995, while an M.Sc. student, and as part of the Graduate Certificate in Tropical Ecology and Conservation, Alvaro completed an internship at INBio.

Lúcia Lohmann will participate in a botanical inventory expedition to the upper Jari River basin, a very remote part of northern Brazil. The expedition has been partly funded by a National Geographic Research Award to the Principal Investigator Dr. Randall Evans of the Missouri Botanical Garden. Other participants include Dr. Bruce Allen and Dr. Barry Hammel of the Missouri Botanical Garden.

Ricardo Rueda's has been appointed Decano (Dean) of the Facultad de Ciencias Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Nicaragua, Leon, Nicaragua.


Dr. Gordon Orians, a member of the ICTE's Scientific Board received the prestigious Miller Award from the Cooper Ornithological Society. he delivered the plenary lecture at the Society's annual meeting in Portland, Oregon on 31 March 1999.

Michael and Patricia Fogden kindly donated some of their spectacular photographs to the Center. The photographs, of African and Costa Rican wildlife and scenery were displayed at the Jane Goodall Gala and were offered for sale to raise funds for research scholarships. Patricia Fogden received her Ph.D. from London University where she researched the dentition of bats. She then conducted research on bat ecology and taught at the University of Hong Kong. While an undergraduate student at Oxford University, Michael Fogden studied behavior and taxonomy of Hemprich's Gull in Kenya under the direction of Nobel prize winner Niko Tinbergen. He also received his doctorate at Oxford, where he was advised by David Lack and studied the seasonality and population dynamics of rain forest birds in Borneo.

Since 1978, Michael and Patricia have been freelance writers and photographers. They spend half the year in their home nestled amidst the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve in Costa Rica and travel throughout the globe in search of stories and photos. Their work has appeared in magazines, books, and calendars around the world including Smithsonian, Natural History, Discover, International Wildlife in the USA; Equinox in Canada; BBC Wildlife in the UK; Das Tier in Germany; Terre Sauvage in France; Airone in Itlay; Anima, Omni, Sinra and Newton in Japan. Their books include Costa Rica-Wildlife of the National Parks and Reserves, Sloths and Animals and their Colors. Their stunning photographs have illustrated Adrian Forsyth's Portraits of the Rainforest, Harry Greene's Snakes-the Evolution of Mystery in Nature, and the upcoming Herpetofauna of Costa Rica written by Jay Savage. Recently, they were among the 20 photographers selected by an international jury of magazine editors to feature Magnificent Moments-the World's Greatest Wildlife Photographs (Willow Creek Press, 1995).

The Fogdens have used their photos and stories to discover new information about tropical organisms, their natural history and their environments and to further conservation and conservation education. Among their many projects, their long-term observations on frogs and snakes have been used to document the drastic decline of these animals in the Monteverde Could Forest Reserve in Costa Rica.


The XVI International Botanical Congress will be held at the America's Center, St. Louis from August 1-7, 1999. The IBC is held only once every six years and scientists from around the world meet to discuss the latest research in the plant sciences. These congresses are particularly notable because they bring together a diversity of plant scientists from the fields of botany, mycology, plant ecology, horticulture, and agriculture. President of the Organizing Committee is Dr. Peter Raven and vice-presidents are Drs. John McNeill and José Sarukhán. The Secretary General is Dr. Peter Hoch. The congress is being organized by the Missouri Botanical Garden.


The Department of Biology and the International Center for Tropical Ecology offer two certificate programs in conservation biology. The Graduate Certificate in Tropical Biology and Conservation is a multidisciplinary program integrating theoretical and applied topics associated with tropical biology and conservation. This certificate is intended for those who wish to pursue a career in conservation biology from either a research or practical standpoint and those who are pursuing careers in related fields who could benefit from further formal training. The Undergraduate Certificate in Conservation Biology is intended for students with majors in biology, or any other field, who wish to develop a specialization in conservation. For further information on both of these certificate programs, contact Bernadette Dalton in the ICTE Office (516-6203;


August 1-7 XVI International Botanical Congress, America's Center, St. Louis

October 6 Conservation Forum, Saint Louis Zoo

October 22 World Ecology Day, UM-St. Louis


The VIII International Aroid Conference (VIII IAC) will be held at the Missouri Botanical Garden from August 9-11, 1999. The VIII International Aroid Conference will provide a forum for the presentation and discussion of current topics in the family Araceae, including their biology, ecology, taxonomy, and horticulture. Attendees are invited to present a poster on any of the above topics (abstracts not required). The registration fee of $100 includes admittance to all scientific sessions, evening lectures, poster sessions and receptions. Box lunches, morning coffee, and afternoon breaks are also included in the registration fee. There will be an additional $25 per person fee for the Closing Banquet.

If you would like more information about attending the VIII International Aroid Conference, please contact Beth L. Cosgriff, Secretary General, Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166-0299, USA, FAX: 314-577-9596, E-mail:


Lúcio R. Malizia is a Ph.D. student from Argentina and previously worked at the Laboratorio de Investigaciones Ecológicas de las Yungas, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Argentina.

The NorAndino Gas Pipeline is a major construction project which when completed in August 1999, will transport gas over 1000 km from north-west Argentina to northern Chile. The pipeline runs along an environmental gradient from subtropical lowland forest at 400 m above sea level (a.s.l.), through montane rain forest, Andean grasslands, Puna, and highland deserts up to 4700 m a.s.l. The pipeline construction directly affects about 150 ha of lowland and montane rain forests by opening a 70 km long and 12-15 m wide strip. The pipeline is buried 1.2 m below ground, and after allowing for forest recovery in the strip, a 2 m wide swath above the pipeline will remain relatively clear of vegetation.

The Environmental Impact Assessment Team (EIAT) is, in part, responsible for organizing and surveying environmental activities that the construction company proposed in its environmental management plan. The EIAT included biologists, ecologists, engineers, geologists, archeologists, and anthropologists which enabled the team to take a broad, multidisciplinary approach to the challenges of minimizing environmental impacts associated with pipeline construction. An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is required by the Argentinean government and the EIAT oversees the company's operations with relative freedom, even though it is financed by the pipeline company.

The EIAT has four main activities, each posing different challenges. (1) Carry out an EIA prior to the project, and develop the environmental management plan that will guide the construction. (2) Monitor the construction with guidance from the environmental management plan. If plans are inappropriate or poorly designed (i.e., without priorities), some guidelines are impossible to follow (e.g., avoid trees with nests, avoid noisy activities during construction), whereas others either are unreasonable (e.g., revegetation of the strip with Citrus spp.) or are not considered (e.g., revegetation of non-forest habitats, which may be a priority). (3) Develop and monitor mitigation actions (e.g., reforestation, revegetation of critical slopes, erosion prevention, reconstruction of water courses). (4) Develop and monitor compensation activities (e.g., establish mountain forest reserves, conduct scientific research). Usually these activities are not included, but encompass the most important results for the medium term (>10 years) and are expensive so early consideration is crucial.

As (conservation) biologists, we have responsibilities to conserve our natural resources. To achieve this, we have to approach problems without losing sight of the broader implications of development. We must be aware of the different interests involved (i.e., the company, local people, NGOs, biologists, politicians, and national aspirations). We must also analyze the effects of construction at suitable temporal and spatial scales (research in this topic will be fundamental); and we must think about fair compensation measures that help resolve the problems we are trying to address.

We can see the pipeline as a lost battle for the conservation of the forest, or we can see it as an important opportunity to obtain benefits and ameliorate the conservation and research status of the affected forest. It depends on us. But our profession tends to bias our perceptions of major construction projects like pipelines. A priori, we think that companies will try to minimize environmental work and will heavily impact the forest. Furthermore, although thousands of hectares of endangered lowland forest near the pipeline are being logged for agriculture without any environmental plan, we focus more on the 150 ha damaged by the pipeline.

If we are to make wise conservation decisions, we must be fair when facing these environmental challenges. If we learn how to pressure companies from a realistic and reasonable perspective, we will have a better chance to obtain responses to our requests than if we have a closed mind, thinking only of biologists' interests. For many years, our work has resulted in little interaction with the different actors that comprise our society. This is changing fast and I think we, as conservation biologists, should interact more and improve our strategies to communicate better with all actors, in order to accomplish our work successfully.


The International Center for Tropical Ecology gratefully acknowledges the following for their support from July 1998 to April 1999:

Jaguar Club

Anheuser-Busch Companies, Inc

Compton Foundation

Jane and Whitney Harris

Carole and Hal Kroeger

Leopard Club

Allen-Birge Charitable Trust

Ahner's Florist and Greenhouse


John and Jean Blake

Dr. James F. Doyle

Susan Doyle and David Goo

Leo and Kay Drey

The Dula Foundation

Patricia and Michael Fogden

Ilene and Burt Follman

Jim and Dudley Grove

The Hermann Foundation

Mary Lee and Robert R. Hermann, Sr.

Mrs. Lee Hunter, Hunter Farms

Nancy and Ken Kranzberg

E. Desmond Lee Family Foundation

Mr. and Mrs. Lee M. Liberman

Sanford N. McDonnell Foundation

Dr. Kenneth Mares


Mr. Thomas H. O'Leary

Spencer T. and Ann W. Olin Foundation

Party Arts

Mrs. Marlin Perkins

Rentokil, Inc Tropical Plant Service

Ronnoco Coffee Company

The Sackler Family

Janet and David Shores

Puma Club

Mr. and Mrs. Randolph Adams

Bonnie and Hord Armstrong

Mr. and Mrs. N. Arne Arneson

Dr. and Mrs. Walter Ballinger

Nini and Cedge Barksdale

Demetrice Battle

Bourne and Byrd Bean

Barbara Behrens

Pat and Frank Bick

Claire and Stanley Birge Jr.

Nancy Birge-Osborne

Mr. and Mrs. Van-Lear Black III

Dr. John G. Blake

Kim and Ron Bonine

Gus Buder III

Andy Busch

Christi and Bill Busch

Mr. and Mrs. Randolph W. Carter

Stafford Clark

Jeff G. Clinton

Jerry G. Clinton

The Cohn Group, Inc.

Sally and Tom Cohn

Sarah S. Cohn

Julie and Michael Cowhey

Tracie Drake

George Erker

Mr. and Mrs. David C. Farrell

Alison and John Ferring

B.J. and David Fisher

Marilyn and Sam Fox

The Garden Club of St. Louis

Jean Gase

The Hon. Mary S. and James W. Gillespie

Judith Ross Goodman

Grey Eagle Distributors, Inc.

Mr. and Mrs. Earle H. Harbison, Jr.

Jay and Carolyn Henges

Signa and Bob Hermann, Jr.

Hermann Companies, Inc.

Herne Comprehensive School, Germany

Herner Sparkasse Bank-Herne, Germany

Mr. and Mrs. Jack K. Higgins

Lotsie and Rick Holton

Christy James

Gerald S. Keil

Mr. and Mrs. Geoffrey J. W. Kent

Sarah Kincaid

Kurt Kleta

Dorotha and Bob Kresko

F. Holmes Lamoreux

Elissa M. Landre

Teri Larkin

Mr. and Mrs. E. Desmond Lee

Toni E. Leidenfrost

Jocelyn E. Leidenfrost

Dr. Bette Loiselle

Sue and Roger Lorenz

Norman F. Mack

Mr. James F. Mauzé

Mr. and Mrs. Sanford N. McDonnell

Jan McReynolds

Mr. and Mrs. I.E. Millstone

Mary and Jim Moog

Mr. and Mrs. John W. Moore

Bennett A. Morris

Matthew Moynihan

Susan and Jack Musgrave

Jessica Musgrave

National Starch and Chemical Foundation, Inc.

David A. Neill and Mercedes Asanza

Harry Newland

Joanne and Steve Nolan

Dr. and Mrs. Gordon H. Orians

Dr. Patrick Osborne

Mr. and Mrs. F. Thomas Ott

Sally and Jack Parriott

Judy and Fred Peil

Mrs. Gordon W. Philpott

Patricia Polys

Porsche, Stuttgart, Germany

Dr. Susanne Renner

Deborah and Thomas C. Rich

Dr. Robert E. Ricklefs

Dr. Ira Rubinoff

Anne Schleiter

Susie and Bob Schulte

Rosa and Luis Schwarz

Schwing GmbH, Herne, Germany

Mr. and Mrs. Warren M. Shapleigh

Ellen Sherberg

Brian Smith

Sally and Tim Snavely

Dr. Peter F. Stevens

Roger Still

Kim and Jack Strellis

Nancy and Frank Susman

Jane Elizabeth Sutter

The Swan Corporation

Robert Trulaske Jr.

Trudy and John Valentine

Beatrice Von Gontard

Clara Von Gontard Steinlagge

Carol and Burt Walker

Ellen and John Wallace

Ms. Judith S. Warner

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Werner

Mr. and Mrs. Orrin S. Wightman III

Donna Wilkinson

Cora Lynn and Bill Wilson

Windy Hills Garden

Ocelot Club

Mary M. Bauer

John R. Beck, Jr.

Annalisa Beins

Ellen Bigelow

Judee K. Borm

Carole S. Campbell

James and Aimee Campbell

Kathleen Campbell

Patricia A. Cavanaugh

Michelle Crenshaw

Joan M. Creson

Henry R. Day

Sandra Dipiazza

Deann Dooley

Laura Dwyer

Linda Fried-Ellis

Tanya E. Fell

Lori L. Forbes

William D. Giezentanner

Mr. and Mrs. Barney S. Giza

Jaqueline Goerck

Rosemary Good

Thomas N. Hardy

Debbie King

Lisa A. Klein

Dr. Daniel Kohl

Debby Kohler

Maureen Krauel

Joan Kurtz

Doris Lembke

Kathleen Loretzen

Mr. and Mrs. DeWayne Lukkasson

Deborah K. McMann

Cheryl L. Markvart

David and Cathie Marx

Cathleen Meadows

Jane Merkel

Maureen K. Memhardt

Margaret L. Moody

Mrs. C. A. Moon

Mr. and Mrs. Robert J. Morris

Diane J. Novak

Ann O'Connor

Debbie Ohlman

Petropolis Inc.

Mr. and Mrs. Charles D. Porter

Janet Pyle

Connie J. Risby

Dr. and Mrs. David B. Robertson

Christa M. Robinson

Elizabeth Marie Rush

Michelle Schroeter

Patricia R. Schuba

Robert and Nancy Smith

Sue B. Steves

Carol Sullivan

Diana Taylor

Carol Tomicich

Pierre and Jane E. Vacho

Margit Voell

Dennis E. Walsh

Dr. Douglas Wartzok

Doris Watt

Ana Rosa Zamora

Lana Sue Zinkon

From the Editor

We thank all who contributed to this newsletter. Send future contributions to the editor, Patrick L. Osborne, International Center for Tropical Ecology, University of Missouri-St. Louis, 8001 Natural Bridge Road, St. Louis, MO 63121 (Email:; FAX: 314-516-6233) If you do not wish to continue receiving this newsletter, please contact the ICTE office: 314-516-6203. For further information on the ICTE and its activities you can visit our web page: