Department of Psychology: Jayne E Stake, Ph.D.


Jayne E. Stake, Ph.D.
Professor Emeritus
Department of Psychology
University of Missouri - St. Louis

Office: 213 Stadler Hall, 8001 Natural Bridge Road, St. Louis, MO 63121

Office Hours: By appointment
Phone: 314-516-5830
Fax: 314-516-5392



Current Professional Affiliations and Activities

Current Research Interests

Representative Publications

Sample of Recent Student Research Projects


University of California, Los Angeles: B.A., Psychology, 1966
California State University-Long Beach: M.A., Psychology, 1971
Arizona State University: Ph.D., Clinical Psychology, 1974

Missouri Psychology License #00141
Missouri Health Service Provider Certificate


Current Professional Affiliations and Activities

Fellow, American Psychological Association Division 35: Society for the Psychology of Women

Member, Missouri Psychological Association

Member, St. Louis Psychological Association

Editor, Psychology of Women Quarterly, 2004-2009.

Chair, American Psychological Association Accreditation Site Visit Committees for Doctoral Programs in Clinical Psychology, 1990 - present


Current Research Interests
My research is focused on issues related to the self-concept and empowerment of women. Much of my work has centered on the role of self-esteem in women's behavior and decision making. I have developed a self-esteem measure, the Performance Self-Esteem Scale, to explore these issues and to evaluate interventions for the development of women's potential. The three related areas of my current research are described below. I have involved students in each of these areas of research.

1. The role of women's and gender studies as an intervention for the empowerment of women

My focus has been on student outcomes of women's and gender studies and the feminist pedagogy (teaching emphases, goals, and methods) that brings about these outcomes. My research associates and I have found that women's and gender studies courses influence performance self-esteem, career attitudes, attitudes toward women and other marginalized groups, and activism for women's issues and other social causes. We have developed a measure of feminist pedagogy to assess processes in the women's and gender studies classroom from both the student and instructor perspectives. Our findings have implications for recent public debates regarding the nature and outcomes of women's and gender studies programs. Overall, our results provide strong support for the role of women's and gender studies in advancing women's and men's collective and individual well-being.

2. The promotion of science career confidence and motivation in gifted high school girls

Although women have made major gains in the fields of medicine, the law, and other professions, they continue to be very underrepresented in science, math, and engineering. There are many reasons for this gender gap, most importantly that science in our society has continued to be stereotyped as a male domain, and girls have continued to feel that science is not "their space." I have been researching the value of extracurricular, nonsexist science programming for supporting high school girls' interest and confidence to "do science." We have found that science enrichment programs are particularly beneficial for girls; they not only provide useful instruction but allow an opportunity for girls to expand their career horizons and to develop a social niche of like-minded peers who can support them in their science interests.

3. Androgyny from a situation-based perspective

In traditional androgyny theory, people with a balance of both masculine and feminine traits were believed to be better functioning and to have better mental health than those who had more traditional gender orientations. These predictions were not confirmed by previous empirical research, which was focused on personality traits of individuals. I have been reconsidering this question in a series of studies from a situation-based perspective. When situational demands for traditionally feminine (i.e., expressive) and masculine (i.e., instrumental) behaviors become the focus of study, we have found support for the original androgyny hypothesis. That is, the psychological outcomes for people who are in situations that demand both expressive and instrumental behaviors are more positive than are the outcomes of situations with other gender-role expectation patterns. We have found further that the "androgynous" situation is more likely to result in positive psychological outcomes if the individual responds androgynously to the situation. Our results provide evidence, contrary to previous personality trait research, that expectations for, and the implementation of, primarily instrumental behaviors are associated with less positive personal adjustment than androgynous settings and behavior.


Representative Publications

Listed is a sample of recent representative publications.

Stake, J.E., Roades, L., Rose, S., Ellis, L., & West, C. (1994). The women's studies experience: Impetus for feminist activism. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18, 17-24.

Stake, J.E. (1994). The long-term impact of women's studies on students' personal lives and political activism. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18, 403-412.

Stake, J. E., Huff, L., & Zand, D. (1995). Trait self-esteem, positive and negative events, and event-specific shifts in self-evaluation and affect. Journal ofResearch in Personality, 29, 223-241.

Stake, J. E., Zand, D., & Smalley, R. (1996). The relation of instrumentality and expressiveness to self-concept and adjustment: A social context perspective. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 15, 167-190.

Smalley, R., & Stake, J. E. (1996). Evaluating sources of ego-threatening feedback: Self-esteem and narcissism effects. Journal of Research in Personality, 30, 483-495.

Stake, J. E. (1997). Integrating expressiveness and instrumentality in real-life settings: A new perspective on the benefits of androgyny. Sex Roles, 37, 541-564.

Hoffmann, F. L., & Stake, J. E. (1998). Feminist pedagogy in theory and practice: An empirical investigation. Journal of the National Women's Studies Association, 10, 79-97.

Housman, L.M., & Stake, J.E. (1999). The current state of sexual ethics training in clinical psychoogy: Issues of quantity, quality, and effectiveness. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30, 302-311.

Stake, J. E., & Hoffmann, F. L. (2000). Putting feminist pedagogy to the test: The experience of women's studies from student and teacher perspectives. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 24, 30-38.

Stake, J. E. (2000). When situations call for instrumentality and expressiveness: Resource appraisal, coping strategy choice, and adjustment. Sex Roles, 42, 865-885.

Kaysen, D., & Stake, J. E. (2001). From thought to deed: Understanding abortion activism. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31, 2378-2400.

Stake, J. E., & Hoffmann, F. L. (2001). Changes in student social attitudes, activism, and personal confidence in higher education: The role of women's studies. American Educational Research Journal, 38, 411-436.

Stake, J. E., & Mares, K. R. (2001). Science enrichment programs for gifted high school girls and boys: Predictors of program impact on science confidence and motivation. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38, 1065-1088.

Wise, D., & Stake, J. E. (2002). Effects of social support and self-esteem on the relation between social expectations for instrumentality and expressiveness and well-being. Journal of Social Psychology, 142, 109-119.

Stake, J. E. (2003). Understanding male bias against girls and women in science. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33, 667-682.

Stake, J. E. (2003). Students' quality of experiences and perceptions of intolerance and bias in the women's and gender studies classroom. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 27, 174-185.

Sevelius, J., & Stake, J. E. (2003). The effects of prior attitudes and attitude importance on attitude change and class impact in women's and gender studies. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33, 2341-2353.

Malkin, C., & Stake, J. E. (2004). Changes in social attitudes and self-confidence in the women's and gender studies classroom: The role of teacher alliance and student cohesion. Sex Roles, 50, 455-468.

Stake, J. E., & Mares, K. R. (2005). Evaluating the impact of science enrichment programs on adolescents' science motivation and confidence: The splashdown effect. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42, 359-375.

Stake, J. E., & Stanton, S. D. (2005). Adolescent girls' and boys' science peer relationships and perceptions of the possible self as scientist. Sex Roles, 52, 1-11.

Stake, J. E. (2006). Pedagogy and student change in the women's and gender studies classroom. Gender and Education, 18, 199-212.

Stake, J. E. (in press). The critical mediating role of social encouragement for science motivation and confidence among high school girls and boys. Journal of Applied Social Psychology.


Sample of Student Research Projects

The role of teacher alliance and student cohesion in determining the impact of the women's studies class on student attitudes toward self and others.

Moderating effects of self-esteem and social support on the relationship between dual expectations (instrumentality and expressiveness) and well-being.

Peer influences on gifted high school girls' motivation and confidence for science education and careers.

Gender differences in self-concept across the adult life span: Relationships to gender roles and life events.

Predicting resistance to attitude change in the women's studies classroom: The nature and importance of pre-existing attitudes.

Predictors of abortion attitudes and social activism: The role of performance-self-esteem, social ties to activists, biographic constraints, and attitudes toward women.

The impact of expressive, instrumental, and dual (androgynous) expectations on mental health outcomes.

Gender role adoption and sexual functioning in women.

Predictors and mediators of feminist activism in the women's and gender studies classroom..

The link between gender role orientation and the experience of premenstrual symptoms on daily and retrospective measures.

Parent and peer relationships as predictors of student reactions to their women's and gender studies experience.

Male gender role prescriptions and willingness to seek psychological help.

The impact of diversity content and instruction on the impact of women's and gender studies in African American, White, and other student groups.

Body image concerns among African American and European American women.

Links between indenpendence, interdependence, self-esteem, and life satisfaction.

The relation between multicultural class content and changes in social attitudes in the gender studies classroom.

Comparison of self and observer ratings of expressivity and instrumentality on well-being and adjustment.

The benefits of the development of feminist attitudes and a feminist identity: Self-esteem and disordered eating.

Feminist role models as a moderator of the relation between the development of quality relationships in the women's studies classroom and class outcomes.