Department of Psychology: Jayne E Stake, Ph.D.
Jayne E. Stake, Ph.D.
Department of Psychology
University of Missouri -
Office: 213 Stadler Hall, 8001 Natural Bridge Road, St. Louis, MO 63121
Office Hours: By appointment
Professional Affiliations and Activities
of Recent Student Research Projects
University of California, Los
Angeles: B.A., Psychology, 1966
California State University-Long
Beach: M.A., Psychology, 1971
Arizona State University: Ph.D.,
Clinical Psychology, 1974
Missouri Psychology License
Missouri Health Service Provider
Affiliations and Activities
Fellow, American Psychological
35: Society for the Psychology of Women
Member, Missouri Psychological
Member, St. Louis Psychological
Editor, Psychology of Women
Chair, American Psychological
Association Accreditation Site Visit Committees for Doctoral Programs
in Clinical Psychology, 1990 - present
My research is focused on issues
related to the self-concept and empowerment of women. Much of my work
has centered on the role of self-esteem in women's behavior and decision
making. I have developed a self-esteem measure, the Performance Self-Esteem
Scale, to explore these issues and to evaluate interventions for the development
of women's potential. The three related areas of my current research are
described below. I have involved students in each of these areas of research.
1. The role of women's
and gender studies as an intervention for the empowerment of women
has been on student outcomes of women's and gender studies and the feminist
pedagogy (teaching emphases, goals, and methods) that brings about these
outcomes. My research associates and I have found that women's and gender
studies courses influence performance self-esteem, career attitudes, attitudes
toward women and other marginalized groups, and activism for women's issues
and other social causes. We have developed a measure of feminist pedagogy
to assess processes in the women's and gender studies classroom from both
the student and instructor perspectives. Our findings have implications
for recent public debates regarding the nature and outcomes of women's
and gender studies programs. Overall, our results provide strong support
for the role of women's and gender studies in advancing women's and men's
collective and individual well-being.
2. The promotion of science
career confidence and motivation in gifted high school girls
women have made major gains in the fields of medicine, the law, and other
professions, they continue to be very underrepresented in science, math,
and engineering. There are many reasons for this gender gap, most importantly
that science in our society has continued to be stereotyped as a male
domain, and girls have continued to feel that science is not "their space."
I have been researching the value of extracurricular, nonsexist science
programming for supporting high school girls' interest and confidence
to "do science." We have found that science enrichment programs are particularly
beneficial for girls; they not only provide useful instruction but allow
an opportunity for girls to expand their career horizons and to develop
a social niche of like-minded peers who can support them in their science
3. Androgyny from a situation-based
androgyny theory, people with a balance of both masculine and feminine
traits were believed to be better functioning and to have better mental
health than those who had more traditional gender orientations. These
predictions were not confirmed by previous empirical research, which was
focused on personality traits of individuals. I have been reconsidering
this question in a series of studies from a situation-based perspective.
When situational demands for traditionally feminine (i.e., expressive)
and masculine (i.e., instrumental) behaviors become the focus of study,
we have found support for the original androgyny hypothesis. That is,
the psychological outcomes for people who are in situations that demand
both expressive and instrumental behaviors are more positive than are
the outcomes of situations with other gender-role expectation patterns.
We have found further that the "androgynous" situation is more likely
to result in positive psychological outcomes if the individual responds
androgynously to the situation. Our results provide evidence, contrary
to previous personality trait research, that expectations for, and the
implementation of, primarily instrumental behaviors are associated with
less positive personal adjustment than androgynous settings and behavior.
Listed is a sample of recent
Stake, J.E., Roades, L., Rose,
S., Ellis, L., & West, C. (1994). The women's studies experience:
Impetus for feminist activism. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18,
Stake, J.E. (1994). The long-term
impact of women's studies on students' personal lives and political activism. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18, 403-412.
Stake, J. E., Huff, L., &
Zand, D. (1995). Trait self-esteem, positive and negative events, and
event-specific shifts in self-evaluation and affect. Journal ofResearch
in Personality, 29, 223-241.
Stake, J. E., Zand, D., &
Smalley, R. (1996). The relation of instrumentality and expressiveness
to self-concept and adjustment: A social context perspective. Journal
of Social and Clinical Psychology, 15, 167-190.
Smalley, R., & Stake, J.
E. (1996). Evaluating sources of ego-threatening feedback: Self-esteem
and narcissism effects. Journal of Research in Personality, 30, 483-495.
Stake, J. E. (1997). Integrating
expressiveness and instrumentality in real-life settings: A new perspective
on the benefits of androgyny. Sex Roles, 37, 541-564.
Hoffmann, F. L., & Stake,
J. E. (1998). Feminist pedagogy in theory and practice: An empirical investigation. Journal of the National Women's Studies Association, 10, 79-97.
Housman, L.M., & Stake,
J.E. (1999). The current state of sexual ethics training in clinical psychoogy:
Issues of quantity, quality, and effectiveness. Professional Psychology:
Research and Practice, 30, 302-311.
Stake, J. E., & Hoffmann,
F. L. (2000). Putting feminist pedagogy to the test: The experience of
women's studies from student and teacher perspectives. Psychology of
Women Quarterly, 24, 30-38.
Stake, J. E. (2000). When situations
call for instrumentality and expressiveness: Resource appraisal,
coping strategy choice, and adjustment. Sex Roles, 42, 865-885.
Kaysen, D., & Stake, J.
E. (2001). From thought to deed: Understanding abortion activism. Journal
of Applied Social Psychology, 31, 2378-2400.
Stake, J. E., & Hoffmann,
F. L. (2001). Changes in student social attitudes, activism, and personal
confidence in higher education: The role of women's studies. American
Educational Research Journal, 38, 411-436.
Stake, J. E., & Mares, K.
R. (2001). Science enrichment programs for gifted high school girls and
boys: Predictors of program impact on science confidence and motivation. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38, 1065-1088.
Wise, D., & Stake, J. E.
(2002). Effects of social support and self-esteem on the relation between
social expectations for instrumentality and expressiveness and well-being. Journal of Social Psychology, 142, 109-119.
Stake, J. E. (2003). Understanding
male bias against girls and women in science. Journal of Applied Social
Psychology, 33, 667-682.
Stake, J. E. (2003). Students'
quality of experiences and perceptions of intolerance and bias in the
women's and gender studies classroom. Psychology of Women Quarterly,
Sevelius, J., & Stake, J.
E. (2003). The effects of prior attitudes and attitude importance on attitude
change and class impact in women's and gender studies. Journal of Applied
Social Psychology, 33, 2341-2353.
Malkin, C., & Stake, J.
E. (2004). Changes in social attitudes and self-confidence in the women's
and gender studies classroom: The role of teacher alliance and student
cohesion. Sex Roles, 50, 455-468.
Stake, J. E., & Mares, K.
R. (2005). Evaluating the impact of science enrichment programs on adolescents'
science motivation and confidence: The splashdown effect. Journal
of Research in Science Teaching, 42, 359-375.
Stake, J. E., & Stanton,
S. D. (2005). Adolescent girls' and boys' science peer relationships and
perceptions of the possible self as scientist. Sex Roles, 52, 1-11.
Stake, J. E. (2006). Pedagogy
and student change in the women's and gender studies classroom. Gender
and Education, 18, 199-212.
Stake, J. E. (in press). The
critical mediating role of social encouragement for science motivation
and confidence among high school girls and boys. Journal of Applied
Student Research Projects
The role of teacher alliance
and student cohesion in determining the impact of the women's studies
class on student attitudes toward self and others.
Moderating effects of self-esteem
and social support on the relationship between dual expectations (instrumentality
and expressiveness) and well-being.
Peer influences on gifted high
school girls' motivation and confidence for science education and careers.
Gender differences in self-concept
across the adult life span: Relationships to gender roles and life events.
Predicting resistance to attitude
change in the women's studies classroom: The nature and importance of
Predictors of abortion attitudes
and social activism: The role of performance-self-esteem, social ties
to activists, biographic constraints, and attitudes toward women.
The impact of expressive, instrumental,
and dual (androgynous) expectations on mental health outcomes.
Gender role adoption and sexual
functioning in women.
Predictors and mediators of
feminist activism in the women's and gender studies classroom..
The link between gender role
orientation and the experience of premenstrual symptoms on daily and retrospective
Parent and peer relationships
as predictors of student reactions to their women's and gender studies
Male gender role prescriptions
and willingness to seek psychological help.
The impact of diversity content
and instruction on the impact of women's and gender studies in African
American, White, and other student groups.
Body image concerns among African
American and European American women.
Links between indenpendence,
interdependence, self-esteem, and life satisfaction.
The relation between multicultural
class content and changes in social attitudes in the gender studies classroom.
Comparison of self and observer
ratings of expressivity and instrumentality on well-being and adjustment.
The benefits of the development
of feminist attitudes and a feminist identity: Self-esteem and disordered
Feminist role models as a moderator
of the relation between the development of quality relationships in the
women's studies classroom and class outcomes.