D'Souza received his M.Sc. from Bombay University, and his
Ph.D from the University of Detroit. He held a postdoctoral
position at Northwestern University prior to joining the UM-St.
Louis faculty in 1987.
Phone: (314) 516-5324
Fax: (314) 516-5342
goal of our research project is to build redox catalysts based
on the chemistry of biological redox
enzymes. The incredible power of the enzymes to bring about chemical transformations
with large acceleration and high specificity has been mainly attributed to their
ability to bind the substrate and catalyze specific reactions of the bound substrate. Thus,
these redox catalysts are designed to have a binding site to bind particular
molecules and a catalytic site to catalyze redox enzymes. We have synthesized
the first generation of these artificial enzymes using cyclodextrins as a binding
site and flavin derivatives as catalytic site shown in the figure.
artificial enzyme can accelerate oxidation of benzyl alcohols
up to 650-fold over that catalyzed by riboflavin. We are
in the process of designing and synthesizing the second generation
of artificial redox enzymes which should have enhanced catalytic
ability. These enzymes are designed using computational
In the process of developing the methodology to build these
artificial enzymes, we have also produced a method to synthesize
custom-designed cyclodextrins. Cyclodextrins
are cyclic oligosaccharides which have gained prominence in the last two decades
as complexing agents for various organic molecules in artificial enzymes, foods,
flavors, etc. However, the main shortcoming of this, otherwise remarkable,
molecule is that the functionalities available for useful chemical processes
are limited to simple hydroxyl groups. The new method developed by us enables
us to synthesize cyclodextrins with various desired functionalities. We
are presently investigating the binding and catalytic properties of these new
"Preparation and Characterization of Porous Gold and Its Application
as a Platform for
Immobilization of Acetylcholinene Esterase".O. V. Shulga,
K. Jefferson, A. R. Khan, V. T. D'Souza, J. Liu, A. V. Demchenko
K. J. Stine. Chem. Materials 2007, 19,
methodology for cyclodextrin-dipyrromethane conjugates," J. N. Swamy, R. E. K. Winter, C. R. Jeffreys and V. T. D'Souza, Tet.
Lett., 2004, 45, 7595.
"Modification of Cyclodextrins for Use as
Artificial Enzymes," V. T. D'Souza, Supromolecular Chemistry, 2003,
15, , 221.
"Artificial redox enzymes," V. T. D'Souza, Biologicheskii
Zhurnal Armenii, 2001, 53, 105.
and properties of modified cyclodextrins," A. R. Khan, P. Forgo, S. Tian and V. T. D'Souza, Proceedings,
10th International Cyclodextrin Symposium, Ann Arbor,
MI, 2000, 673.
Mono-Modified Cyclodextrins. Synthetic Strategies," S. Tian, H. Zhu, P. Forgo and V. T. D'Souza J.
Org. Chem., 2000, 65, 2624 .
modifications of cyclodextrins,"A. R. Khan, P. Forgo, K. J. Stine and V. T. D'Souza, Proceedings, 9th International
Symposium on Cyclodextrins, Santiago de Comostela, Spain, 1999,
Use of High Resolution NMR Spectroscopy in Supramolecular Systems," Peter
Forgo and Valerian T. D'Souza, Organic Letters, 1999, 1,
"An NMR Approach for Determination of the Substitution Pattern in Supramolecular
Systems," Peter Forgo and Valerian T. D'Souza Tetrahedron Letters, 1999, 40,
"Structure and Electrochemical Behavior of a Flavin Sulfide Monolayer Adsorbed
on Gold," K. J. Stine, D. M. Andrauskas, A. R. Khan, P. Forgo, V.
T. D'Souza, R. M. Friedman and J. Liu, Journal of Electroanalytical
Chemistry, 1999, 472, 147.
"Selective Modifications of Cyclodextrins," A. R. Khan, P. Forgo, K.
J. Stine and V. T. D'Souza Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium
on Cyclodextrins, Kluwer Academic Publishers, the Netherlands, 1999,
"Electrochemical Study of Self-Assembled Monolayers of a �-cyclodextrin Methyl
Sulfide Covalently Linked to Anthraquinone," K. J. Stine, D. M. Andrauskas,
A. R. Khan, P. Forgo and V. T. D'Souza, Journal of Electroanalytical
Chemistry, 1999, 465, 209.
"Application of Selective HSQC Experiment to Measure Interglycosidic Heteronuclear
Long-range Coupling Constants in Cyclodextrins," P. Forgo and V. T.
D'Souza Journal of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, 1999, 37,
"Unambiguous Identification of Regioisomers in Selectively
Modified b -Cyclodextrins". P. Forgo and V. T. D'Souza, Journal
of Organic Chemistry 1999, 64,
"The application of selective ROE experiments to study
solution structures of cyclomaltooligosacharide derivatives and
complexes". P. Forgo and V. T. D'Souza Carbohydrate
Research 1998, 306, 473.
"Methods for Selective Modifications of Cyclodextrins".
A. R. Khan, P. Forgo, K. J. Stine and V. T. D'Souza, Chemical
Reviews, 1998, 98, 1977.