The Prior G.R.E.A.T. Evaluation (1994-2001)
The original G.R.E.A.T. program was developed by Phoenix area law enforcement agencies in 1991, and quickly spread throughout the United States. The original G.R.E.A.T. program operated as a nine-lesson lecture-based curriculum taught primarily in middle-school settings. In 1994, Dr. Finn-Aage Esbensen at the University of Missouri - St. Louis was awarded funding by the National Institute of Justice to evaluate the effectiveness of the original G.R.E.A.T. program. This longitudinal research study found no differences between G.R.E.A.T. and non-G.R.E.A.T. youth in terms of gang membership and involvement in delinquent behavior. Based in part on these findings, the G.R.E.A.T. program underwent a critical review that resulted in substantial program modifications. The effectiveness of the revised curriculum is currently under investigation.
Funding Award: $1,560,000
Publications from the original G.R.E.A.T. evaluation:
Finn-Aage Esbensen. 2004. "Evaluating G.R.E.A.T.: A School-Based Gang Prevention Program- Research in Policy." Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.
Dana Peterson and Finn-Aage Esbensen. 2004. "The Outlook is G.R.E.A.T.: What Educators Say about School-Based Prevention and the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Program." Evaluation Review 28(3): 218-45.
Finn-Aage Esbensen, Adriene Freng, Terrance J. Taylor, Dana Peterson, and D. Wayne Osgood. 2002. "The National Evaluation of the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Program." In Winnie Reed and Scott Decker (eds.) NIJ Report - Responding to Gangs: Evaluation and Research. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice.
Finn-Aage Esbensen, D. Wayne Osgood, Terrance J. Taylor, Dana Peterson, and Adrienne Freng. 2001. "How Great is G.R.E.A.T.? Results from a Quasi-Experimental Design." Criminology and Public Policy 1: 87-118.
Finn-Aage Esbensen and D. Wayne Osgood. 1999. "Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.): Results from the National Evaluation." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 36: 194-225.
L. Thomas Winfree, Jr., Dana Peterson Lynskey, and James R. Maupin. 1999. "Developing Local Police and Federal Law Enforcement Partnerships: G.R.E.A.T. as a Case Study of Policy Implementation." Criminal Justice Review 24: 145-68.
L. Thomas Winfree, Jr., Finn-Aage Esbensen, and D. Wayne Osgood. 1996. "Evaluating a School-Based Gang Prevention Program: A Theoretical Perspective." Evaluation Review 20: 181-203.