Department of Philosophy

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Faculty

Gualtiero Piccinini, Associate Professor, Chairperson
Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh
Berit Brogaard, Professor
Ph.D., SUNY-Buffalo
Jon McGinnis, Professor
Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania
Stephanie Ross, Professor
Ph.D., Harvard University
John Brunero, Associate Professor
Ph.D., Columbia University
Eric Wiland, Associate Professor
Ph.D., University of Chicago
Robert M. Gordon, Research Professor
Ph.D., Columbia University
Andrew Black, Teaching Professor
Ph.D., University of Massachusetts-Amherst
David Griesedieck, Teaching Professor
M.A. Princeton University
Jill Delston, Assistant Teaching Professor
Washington University in St. Louis
Waldemar Rohloff, Assistant Teaching Professor
Ph.D., University of California-Irvine
Peter Fuss, Professor Emeritus
Ph.D., Harvard University
Ronald Munson, Professor Emeritus
Ph.D., Columbia University
John E. Clifford, Associate Professor Emeritus
Ph.D., University of California-Los Angeles
Henry L. Shapiro, Assistant Professor Emeritus
Ph.D., Columbia University

Philosophy continues to keep alive the tradition begun by Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle of critically examining one’s most cherished assumptions. Moreover, it deals with questions that are common to several areas of inquiry, such as art, ethics, the social sciences, the natural sciences, and the various professions. The study of philosophy also encourages logical precision, a heightened awareness of assumptions used in any discussion, and an attitude of both open-mindedness and responsible criticism toward new and unusual ideas. These skills are particularly useful for students planning careers in law, business, computer science, writing, or other fields requiring such disciplines of mind. For these reasons many students have found it useful to combine a major in another field with a major in philosophy. To accommodate such students, the department has a special program for double majors.

The philosophy faculty has an unusually wide range of research interests. Faculty members have written books and articles addressing not only the classical and traditional concerns of philosophy, but also contemporary controversies in the fields of law, psychology, sociology, political theory, biology, medical ethics, theology, logic, and philosophy of history as well. For their research in some of these areas, members have been awarded a number of national research grants, including fellowships from the National Science Foundation, the American Council of Learned Societies, and the National Endowment for the Humanities.

In keeping with this emphasis on diversity, the department is represented by scholars trained in widely different approaches to philosophy, such as the analytic tradition, Continental idealism and existentialism, Marxist dialectic, and Asian modes of thought.

General Information

Undergraduate Studies

General Education Requirements
Majors must meet the university and college general education requirements. PHIL 1120: Asian Philosophy and PHIL 1125: Islamic Philosophy satisfy the college cultural diversity requirement. Majors may not count philosophy courses taken on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis toward the degree requirements.

Expected Learning Outcomes

  1. Acquire basic knowledge of traditional philosophical issues in the western tradition.
  2. Develop critical thinking skills based on knowledge of the standards governing logical reasoning.
  3. Acquire familiarity with philosophical issues that arise in some other disciplines (e.g. biology, art, education, etc.).
  4. Acquire a basic understanding of ethical and social-political principles and their role in resolving ethical disputes and in evaluating social practices and institutions.
  5. Become acquainted with current philosophical debates in the areas of epistemology, metaphysics, and value theory, and with the arguments and proposals made to resolve them.

Degree Requirements

Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy
The undergraduate major in philosophy requires 30 hours of philosophy coursework. All majors must complete the basic course requirements. Students with particular interests may choose to structure their major around tracks offered by the department. A minimum of 18 hours including all courses for the major at or above the 3000 level must be taken in residence in the UMSL Department of Philosophy. Philosophy majors must complete all required courses (under Course Requirements) with a grade of "C-" or higher and maintain a 2.0 GPA for all their Philosophy coursework.

Course Requirements

1) History of Philosophy, two courses:
PHIL 1110, History of Western Philosophy I, or PHIL 3301, Ancient History
PHIL 1111, History of Western Philosophy II, or PHIL 3303, Early Modern Philosoph

2) Logic, one of the following:
PHIL 1160, Logic and Language
PHIL 3360, Introduction to Formal Logic

3) Normative Philosophy, one of the following:
PHIL 1130, Approaches to Ethics
PHIL 4430, Social and Political Philosophy
PHIL 4435, Classical Ethical Theories
PHIL 4438, Recent Ethical Theory

4) Junior Level Requirement, one of the following:
Any 3000 level History of Philosophy course not used to satisfy the History of Philosophy Requirement above (PHIL 3301 to PHIL 3307)
PHIL 3374, Philosophy of Art
PHIL 3378, Philosophy of Mind
PHIL 3380, Philosophy of Science

5) Core Requirement, one of the following:
PHIL 4440, Theories of Knowledge
PHIL 4445, Metaphysics

6) PHIL 4491, Senior Seminar

Tracks
Tracks are ways that the Philosophy major may be completed but they are not mandatory; a student may complete the Philosophy major without following any track. All students on a track must complete the course requirements of the major. Students may use the same course to satisfy the major's course requirements and the requirements of individual tracks but, if they do so, they need to add enough elective courses to reach a total of 30 hours of philosophy coursework.

Pre-Law
1) PHIL 4487, Topics in Philosophy of Law
2) Two Courses from the following:
PHIL 2251, Sexual Ethics
PHIL 2252, Philosophical Foundations of Criminal Justice
PHIL 2254, Business Ethics
PHIL 2255, Environmental Ethics
PHIL 2256, Bioethics
PHIL 2258, Medicine, Values, and Society*
PHIL 2283, Markets and Morals
PHIL 4430, Social and Political Philosophy
PHIL 4435, Classical Ethical Theory
PHIL 4437, Metaethics
PHIL 4438, Recent Ethical Theory
PHIL 4439, Topics in Ethical Theory

Science Studies
1) PHIL 3380, Philosophy of Science
2) Two of the following, at most one at the 2000 level:
PHIL 2258, Medicine, Values, and Society*
PHIL 2281, Darwinism and the Philosophy of Biology
PHIL 2282, Philosophy of Science in Historical Perspective
PHIL 4465, Theory of Decisions and Games
PHIL 4479, Philosophy of Cognitive Science
PHIL 448, Topics in the Philosophy of Science
PHIL 4482, Philosophy of Social Science
PHIL 4483, Topics in History and Philosophy of Science

Psychology and Neuroscience
1) PHIL 3378, Philosophy of Mind
2) Any two of the following:
PHIL 2280, Minds, Brains, and Machines
PHIL 3380, Philosophy of Science
PHIL 4465, Theory of Decisions and Games
PHIL 4478, Topics in the Philosophy of Mind
PHIL 4479, Philosophy of Cognitive Science

Ethics and Society
1) Any two of the following:
PHIL 4430, Social and Political Philosophy
PHIL 4435, Classical Ethical Theory
PHIL 4437, Metaethics
PHIL 4438, Recent Ethical Theory
PHIL 4439, Topics in Ethical Theory

2) Any one of the following:
PHIL 2251, Sexual Ethics
PHIL 2254, Business Ethics
PHIL 2255, Environmental Ethics
PHIL 2256, Bioethics

Health Sciences
1) PHIL 2256, Bioethics
2) Any two of the following:
PHIL 2251, Sexual Ethics
PHIL 2257, Happiness and the Meaning of Life
PHIL 2258, Medicine, Values, and Society*
PHIL 2280, Philosophy of Science
PHIL 4478, Topics in the Philosophy of Mind
PHIL 4479, Philosophy of Cognitive Science

History
1) Any one of the following:
PHIL 3301, Ancient Philosophy
PHIL 3302, Medieval Philosophy
PHIL 4401, Plato
PHIL 4402, Aristotle
PHIL 4410, Significant Figures in Philosophy (depending upon the historical figure)

2) Any one of the following:
PHIL 3303, Early Modern Philosophy
PHIL 3304, Kant and Nineteenth-Century Philosophy
PHIL 4405, The Rationalists
PHIL 4406, The British Empiricists
PHIL 4407, Kant
PHIL 4408, Hegel
PHIL 4410, Significant Figures in Philosophy (depending upon the historical figure)

3) Either a course from the following or an additional course from one of the above categories:
PHIL 2281, Darwinism and the Philosophy of Biology
PHIL 2282, Philosophy of Science in Historical Perspective
PHIL 3305, Twentieth-Century Philosophy
PHIL 3307, American Philosophy
PHIL 4403, Topics in the History of Philosophy
PHIL 4421, The Analytic Tradition
PHIL 4435, Classical Ethical Theories
PHIL 4483, Topics in History and Philosophy of Science

* For Honors College students.

Departmental Honors
Majors with a 3.2 or higher grade point average in all courses may, with the department’s consent, earn departmental honors by:
1. Taking PHIL 3360, Introduction to Formal Logic;
2. Completing at least 3 hours of PHIL 4450, Special Readings in Philosophy;
3. Submitting an acceptable thesis before the end of the senior year.

Philosophy as Part of a Double Major
Consider combining your philosophy major with another major. Philosophy trains students in basic, portable skills such as thinking independently and creatively, analyzing and constructing arguments, communicating clearly and persuasively, and considering multiple viewpoints. So philosophy naturally complements virtually every other field.

The Minor:
Minor in Philosophy
The undergraduate minor in philosophy requires any 15 hours of philosophy courses, at least three of which must be taken at the 3000 level or higher. Students with particular interests are encouraged to use the tracks above to organize their minor. All course work for the minor must be taken in residence in the UMSL Department of Philosophy.

A GPA of 2.0 or better is required in courses presented for the minor. Prospective minors are encouraged to consult with members of the department for advice in planning an appropriate sequence of courses.

Bachelor of Liberal Studies
Build a bridge to some other discipline by combining a minor in philosophy with a minor in that second field to get a Bachelor of Liberal Studies.

Philosophy of Science and Technology Minor (PST)

The Minor in Philosophy of Science and Technology (PST) is an interdisciplinary program requiring a minimum of 18 credits in PST.

All required courses must be completed with a “C” or higher. The satisfactory/unsatisfactory option may not be used. No transfer courses may be used towards the PST Minor. A minimum of 12 hours must be taken at 2000 and above with 9 of those hours being at 3000 or above. Courses in the upper division may satisfy requirements for the student’s major, consistently with the major’s requirements.

Requirements

1.  Math: Choose one of the following courses in either statistics or calculus
BIOL 4122, Biometry
ECON 3100, Economic Statistics
MATH 1320, applied Statistics I
MATH 1800, analytic Geometry and Calculus I
PSYCH 2201, Psychological Statistics
SOC 3220, Sociological Statistics

2. Logic and Methodology: Choose one of the following courses in either logic or methodology.

ANTHRO 4308, Practicum in Cultural Research Methods
ANTHRO 4310, Laboratory Methods in Archaeology
HIST 2999, Introduction to Historical Inquiry
PHIL 3360, Formal Logic
PHIL 4460, Advanced Formal Logic
PSYCH 2219, Research Methods
SOC 3230, Research Methods

3. Philosophy: Philosophy of Science (PHIL 3380) plus one of the following other courses in the philosophy of science and technology (6 credits total).

PHIL 2280, Minds, Brains, and Machines
PHIL 2281, Darwinism and the Philosophy of Biology
PHIL 2282, Philosophy of Science in Historical Perspective
PHIL 3380, Philosophy of Science
PHIL 4452, Feminism and Science
PHIL 4479, Philosophy of Cognitive Science
PHIL 4480, Topics in Philosophy of Science
PHIL 4482, Philosophy of Social Science
PHIL 4483, Topics in History and Philosophy of Science
PSYCH 3400, Conceptual and Historical Foundations of Psychology

4. Science: 6 credit in the mathematical, physical, life, behavioral, or social sciences. The science courses must be in addition to those satisfying the Gen Ed requirements and conditional upon their acceptance by the PST undergraduate advisor.

Prerequisites:

Some courses required by the Minor in PST have prerequisites. Some students may satisfy prerequisites by virtue of their prior curriculum. When this is not the case, students are responsible for either satisfying the prerequisites by adding courses to their curriculum or obtaining a waiver from the instructor.

Alternative courses to satisfy the Philosophy requirements:

Some courses may satisfy the Philosophy requirement even though they are not listed as such depending on their content. These include variable content courses, courses at the Honors College, history of philosophy courses, and courses in metaphysics. If a course that deals with some aspect of PST and should satisfy a requirement is not listed among those satisfying the requirements, you may do the following:

1. Obtain the description of what the course will cover.
2. Write a very short explanation of why the course ought to count toward satisfaction of the requirement, by showing how it deals with the relevant aspect of PST.
3. Submit both to the PST undergraduate advisor for approval.

Bachelor of Liberal Studies Option:
A minor in PST may be combined with a minor in the History of Science and Technology and a capstone to form a Bachelor of Liberal Studies. The relevant capstones are either Philosophy 4491 or History 4004. Since students taking history 4004 must have taken history 2999, it is suggested such students use History 2999 to satisfy the Logic and Methodology requirement. Students can use the same course to satisfy the Logic and Methodology requirement of both minors, but cannot use the same science courses. Also, students that pursue the Bachelor of Liberal studies combining these two minors must pursue at least one science at an advanced level. Such a Liberal Studies program is easily combined, in turn, with a major in any science as a double major. This provides the student with a deeper historical and conceptual understanding of the science(s) heor she is studying.

Certificate of History and Philosophy of Science and Technology

The undergraduate Certificate Program in History and Philosophy of Science and Technology (HPST) is an interdisciplinary program requiring a minimum of 18 credits in HPST.

All required courses must be completed with a “C-“or higher. The satisfactory/unsatisfactory option may not be used towards the HPST Certificate. A minimum of 12 hours must be taken at 2000 or above with 9 of those hours being at 3000 or above. Courses in the upper division (3000 level and above) may satisfy requirements for the student’s major, consistently with the major’s requirements.

Requirements
1.  History: Choose two of the following courses in History of Science and Technology (6 credit hours).
ECON 3800, History of Economic Thought
HIST 2089, History of Ideas in the West
HIST 2770, Introduction to Transportation
HIST 2772, History of Aviation in American Life
HIST 2773, Urbanization and Transportation
HIST 3143, Inquiries in Transnational History: Introduction to the History of Science (Note: History 3143 is offered under different topics; only the specific topics listed here counts as HPST).
PHIL 3383, The History of Science in Philosophical Perspective
PHIL 4483, Topics in History and Philosophy of Science
PHIL 4484, Topics in History and Philosophy of Medicine
PSYCH 3400, Conceptual and Historical Foundations of Psychology

2. Philosophy: Philosophy of Science (PHIL 3380) plus one of the following another courses in the philosophy of science (6 credit hours).

PHIL 2280, Minds Brains, and Machines
PHIL 2281, Darwinism and the Philosophy of Biology
PHIL 2282, Philosophy of Science in Historical Perspective
PHIL 3380, Philosophy of Science
PHIL 4452, Feminism and Science
PHIL 4479, Philosophy of Cognitive Science
PHIL 4480, Topics in Philosophy of Science
PHIL 4482, Philosophy of Social Science
PHIL 4483, Topics in History and Philosophy of Science
PSYCH 3400, Conceptual and Historical Foundations of Psychology

3. Science: Two courses in the mathematical, physical, life, behavioral, or social sciences. The science courses must be in addition to those satisfying the Gen Ed requirements (for students pursuing a degree at UM-St. Louis) and conditional upon their acceptance by the HPST Certificate Undergraduate advisor (6 credit hours).

Prerequisites:
Some courses required by the Certificate Program in HPST have prerequisites. Some students may satisfy prerequisites by virtue of their prior curriculum. When this is not the case, students are responsible for either satisfying the prerequisites by adding courses to their curriculum or obtaining a waiver from the instructor.

Alternative courses to satisfy the History and Philosophy requirements:

Some courses may satisfy either the History or the Philosophy requirement even though they are not listed as such, depending on what their content is. These include but are not limited to variable content courses, courses at the Honors College, history of philosophy courses, and courses in metaphysics. If a course that deals with some aspect of HPST and should satisfy a requirement is not listed among those satisfying the requirements, you may do the following:

1.  Obtain the description of what the course will cover.
2. Write a very short explanation of why the course ought to count toward satisfaction of the requirement, by showing how it deals with the relevant aspect of HPST.
3. Submit both to the HPST undergraduate advisor for approval.

Certificate in Neuroscience

The undergraduate Certificate Program in Neuroscience is an interdisciplinary program requiring 20 credits of training in Neuroscience. The Program provides a group of related courses capped by a research experience. The Program is likely to be of particular interest to students who want to pursue graduate or professional training, but it is intended to appeal to any student interested in Neuroscience.

Courses taken for the certificate in the lower division (1000 and 2000 level) may satisfy general education requirements (that is, breadth requirements), if they are approved general education courses. Courses in the upper division (3000 level and above) may satisfy requirements for the student’s major, consistently with the major’s requirements. All required courses must be completed with a “B-“average or higher. Pass/Fail grades to not count.

Most courses required by the Certificate Program in Neuroscience have prerequisites. Some students may satisfy prerequisites by virtue of their prior curriculum. When this is not the case, students are responsible for satisfying the prerequisites.

Requirements

1.  The two entry level courses (8 credit hours):
BIOL 1811, Introductory Biology: From Molecules to Organisms
PSYCH 2211, Introduction to Biological Psychology

2. One statistics course selected from the list below (3 credit hours):
BIOL 4122, Biometry
MATH 1320, Applied Statistics I
PSYCH 2201, Psychological Statistics
SOC 3220, Sociological Statistics

3. Two elective courses (6 credit hours). At least one elective must be taken outside the student’s major:
BIOL 3102, Animal Behavior
BIOL 4822, Introduction to Neuroscience
CHEM 4712, Biochemistry
CMP SCI 4300, Introduction to Artificial Intelligence
CMP SCI 4340, Introduction to Machine Learning
HONORS 3050, Advanced Honors Seminar in the Sciences
PHIL 2280, Minds, Brains, and Machines
PHIL 3378, Philosophy of Mind
PHIL 4478, Topics in Philosophy of Mind
PHIL 4479, Philosophy of Cognitive Science
PHYSICS 4347, Biophysics of Imaging
PSYCH 4300, Introduction to Psychopharmacology: Drigs and Mental Illness
PSYCH 4314, Behavioral Neuroscience
PSYCH 4330, Hormones, the Brain and Behavior
PSYCH 4349, Human Learning and Memory

4. At least 3 credits from two semesters of research experience. This requires completion of a Directed Research Assistantship with a Neuroscience faculty member within any of the participating departments. The research project must be approved in advance by the undergraduate advisor with the assistance of a committee of Neuroscience faculty. It is expected that this research will lead to a presentation at the UM-St. Louis Neuroscience seminar and the Undergraduate Research Symposium.

BIOL 4905, Research
CHEM 3905, Chemical Research
CMP SCI 4880, Individual Studies
PHIL 4450, Special Readings in Philosophy
PHYSICS 3390, Research
PSYCH 3390, Directed Studies

Graduate Studies

Expected Learning Outcomes

  1. Acquire advanced knowledge of traditional philosophical issues in the western tradition.
  2. Develop critical thinking skills based on knowledge of the standards governing logical reasoning.
  3. Acquire familiarity with philosophical issues that arise in some other disciplines (e.g. biology, art, education, etc.).
  4. Acquire a basic understanding of ethical principles and their role in resolving ethical disputes.
  5. Acquire the knowledge and skills required to write a paper identifying a philosophical issue and presenting arguments supporting a thesis for resolving it.

Master of Arts in Philosophy
To earn a M.A. in philosophy, students must complete at least 30 hours of graduate-level course work. In addition, students must write a thesis, for which they must take three to six credit hours of Thesis Research.  Entering students must demonstrate a competence in logic, either by having passed the relevant course prior to admission or by taking PHIL 5561: Graduate Formal Logic here at UMSL. Students should take PHIL 5400: Proseminar in Philosophy in the first year of residency. At least two-thirds of the course work must be completed in residence at UMSL. In addition, the courses taken are subject to two distribution requirements:

1) At least half of the courses must be at the 5000 level.
2) Two courses (6 credit hours) must be chosen from each of the following four subject areas:

  • Value Theory
  • History of Philosophy
  • Logic/Philosophy of Science
  • Epistemology/Metaphysics

2+3 B.A. and M.A. in Philosophy
The Combined B.A./M.A. Program in Philosophy provides an opportunity for students of recognized academic ability and educational maturity to fulfill integrated requirements of undergraduate and master’s degree programs in three years from the beginning of their junior year. When all the requirements of the B.A./M.A. program have been completed, students will be awarded both the B.A. and M.A. degrees. With a carefully designed program, a student can earn both degrees within as few as ten semesters.

The Combined Program requires a minimum of 138 credit hours, of which at least 30 must be at the upper division level course numbers in the 4000-5999 range (excluding 5495 and 5595). In qualifying for the B.A., students must meet all university and college requirements, including all the requirements of the regular undergraduate major in philosophy described above. Students will normally take PHIL 3360: Formal Logic and two courses in the 3301-3307: History of Philosophy sequence in their junior years, along with electives. Any courses still needed to satisfy college foreign language and expository writing requirements would also be taken during this year. PHIL 4491: Senior Seminar and more specialized courses are taken in the senior year. In the fifth year, students take advanced electives and such required courses as are needed to fulfill remaining university, Graduate School, and departmental requirements for the M.A. This includes satisfactory completion of 30 graduate credit hours, at least 18 of which must be in courses numbered above 5000 and among which must be at least three in each of the four subject areas listed for the regular M.A. program, and one of which must be PHIL 5400: Proseminar in Philosophy. Up to 12 graduate credit hours may be applied simultaneously to both the B.A. and M.A. requirements. In addition to the above coursework, students must also write a thesis, in which case at least three hours must be taken in PHIL 5495 and/or 5595. Students should apply to the Graduate Committee for admission to the Combined B.A./M.A. Program in Philosophy the semester they will complete sixty undergraduate credit hours or as soon thereafter as possible. It is also recommended that students complete the foreign language requirement and the junior-level writing requirement before applying. A cumulative grade point average of 3.0 or higher and three letters of recommendation from faculty are required for consideration.

Students should apply to the Graduate Committee for admission to the Combined B.A./M.A. Program in Philosophy the semester they will complete sixty undergraduate credit hours or as soon thereafter as possible. It is also recommended that students complete the foreign language requirement and the junior-level writing requirement before applying. A cumulative grade point average of 3.0 or higher and three letters of recommendation from faculty are required for consideration.

Students will be admitted to the Combined Program under provisional status until they have completed fifteen credit hours in it with a grade point average of 3.0 or higher. After the completion of the provisional period, and with the recommendation of the Graduate Committee, students can be granted full admission into the program. Students must maintain a grade point average of 3.0 or higher throughout the Combined Program. Students who officially withdraw from the Combined Program who have successfully completed all the requirements for the B.A. degrees will be awarded the B.A. degree.

Philosophy Requirements for Students in the 2+3 Program

A. To be taken in the junior year:
Choose four courses (12 credit hours) from the following:
1) PHIL 3360: Formal Logic

2) Two courses in the History of Philosophy, each at the 2000 level or above.

3) One additional Philosophy course, at the 2000 level or above.

B. To be taken in the senior year:
Choose six courses (18 credit hours) from the following:
PHIL 4491: Senior Seminar
Either
PHIL 4445: Metaphysics or
PHIL 4440: Theories of Knowledge.
Two History courses, each at the upper division
One course from the PHIL 4470-PHIL 4487 sequence
Choose one of the following:
PHIL 4430: Social and Political Philosophy
PHIL 4435: Classical Ethical Theory
PHIL 4438: Recent Ethical Theory

C. To be taken in the final year of the program:
Six courses (18 credit hours)
1) At least five of these courses must be at or above the 5000 level.

2) Courses must be selected so that the student has taken at least one and preferably two courses from each of the four subject areas in the course of completing the 2 + 3 program:

• Value Theory
• History of Philosophy
• Logic/Philosophy of Science
• Epistemology/Metaphysics

3) PHIL 5400: Proseminar in Philosophy

Cooperative arrangement with Saint Louis University.
The strengths of the UMSL Department of Philosophy are complemented by those of the Saint Louis University Philosophy Department, which has strengths in the history of philosophy as well as in philosophy of religion. To enhance students' opportunities for instruction and expertise, the two departments have worked out a cooperative arrangement that permits graduate philosophy students on each campus to take up to four courses at the partner institution. In any given semester, UMSL graduate students must take at least half of their courses at their home institution. Students admitted to the M.A. program on a probationary basis must take all their courses at UMSL during their first semester.

Course Descriptions

Prerequisites may be waived by consent of the department.

PHIL 1120, 1125 fulfill the Cultural Diversity requirement [CD].

PHIL 1021 Choice and Chance (3) [C, MS]
Prerequisites: A score of 22 or higher on the ACT Math sub-test; or a grade of C or better in a two-or four-year college intermediate algebra course; or a score of 22 or higher on the UMSL Math Placement Test, obtained in the six months prior to enrollment in this course. Same as MATH 1021. This course provides an introduction to inductive logic and the theory of probability. We will present the theory of probability in an organized and systematic way, so as to give students tools for more effective decision-making. We will introduce the probability calculus, basic concepts of utility theory, decision theory and different approaches to understanding probability. This course is designed to be accessible to students of all levels. Satisfies mathematics proficiency.

PHIL 1090 Philosophy Looks at the Arts (3) [V, H]
This online course will explore the distinct resources of various arts the raw materials of each, what each can represent, express, convey and key differences among them. After an introductory unit devoted to art in general, the course will present eight units examining the arts of painting, photography, sculpture, architecture, music, literature, drama, and film. The course will employ a variety of instructional materials. These include posted essays, streaming video, readings from an assigned text, and participation on an interface discussion board.

PHIL 1091 Great Philosophers [V, H]
This online course introduces philosophy through a survey and examination of the ideas of fifteen of the most important figures in the history of the subject. From Socrates to Nietzsche, the questions, answers, and lives of the great philosophers are explored in a multimedia context. This course does not satisfy any of the requirements for philosophy major or minor.

PHIL 1110 Western Philosophy I: Antiquity to the Renaissance (3) [V, H]
Lectures and discussions tracing the development of Western philosophy from its beginnings among the pre-Socratics through the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Philosophical ideas will be examined in the cultural and historical context: the Greek city-state, the rise of Christianity, etc.

PHIL 1111 Western Philosophy II: Descartes to the Present (3) [V, H]
Lectures and discussions on the development of Western philosophy from Descartes (1596-1650) to the present. Philosophical ideas will be examined with an eye to their historical and cultural setting: the rise of modern science, the industrial revolution, the rise of capitalism, etc.

PHIL 1120 Asian Philosophy (3) [CD, V, H]
Critical study of selected philosophical classics of India and China.

PHIL 1125 Islamic Philosophy (3) [CD, V, H]
Introduction to Arabic philosophy in the Islamic classical period (roughly from mid-9th through 12th centuries). Considers philosophical and theological background and examines the thought of such notable Islamic philosophers as al-Kindi, Ibn Sina, al-Ghazali, and Ibn Rushd. Topics include proofs for the existence of God, whether the world is eternal or had a beginning, the nature of the soul and whether it is immortal, and distinction between essence and existence.

PHIL 1130 Approaches to Ethics (3) [V, H]
A study and discussion of representative topics in moral philosophy such as moral skepticism, moral objectivity, theories of obligation and value, evaluation of social institutions, and the relation between morality and science. Traditional and contemporary writers will be considered.

PHIL 1150 Major Questions in Philosophy (3) [V,H]
A study and discussion of representative topics in philosophy such as free will and determinism, concepts of mind and body, the basis of value judgments, knowledge and belief, and the possibility of constructing a world view.

PHIL 1151 Love 101 (3) [V, H]
A critical review of what media personalities, philosophers, criminal justice experts, medical experts, neuroscientists, and psychologists have said about love and its place in our lives. Included will be such topics as the neuroscience of love, love across culture, love and commitment issues, marriage and the "seven-year itch," jealousy, domestic violence, and verbal abuse. Larger questions will include the role of love in the good life; the ethics of love; the psychological consequences of obsession, breakups and divorce; arranged marriages vs. freely chosen love; and the morality of laws that affect relationships between loving partners.

PHIL 1160 Logic and Language (3) [V, H]
An introduction to the language and logical structure of arguments, the principles of sound reasoning, and application of these principles in a variety of contexts.

PHIL 1163 Disagreement, Difference, Diversity (6) [C, V, SS, H]
Same as ANTHRO 1163. This interdisciplinary course will combine material from philosophy, anthropology, and sociology to examine the ways we encounter and accommodate disagreement in our daily lives. The unifying thread is our ability to deal with various sorts of opposition: differences of opinion, differences in practice, and differences in how we construct and address both biological and cultural variation. The course will combine units on informal logic and applied ethics from philosophy together with units on the social construction of difference and the understanding of human diversity from anthropology and sociology. The course will be worth 6 SCHs.

PHIL 1175 Arts and Ideas (3) [H]
Same as ST ART 1175, ENGL 1175, HIST 1175, M H L T 1175, TH DAN 1175. An Interdisciplinary course tied to the semester’s offerings at the Blanche Touhill Performing Arts Center as well as other events on campus featuring the visual arts, literature, music, and film. Each semester the course will provide background on the arts in general and will critically examine particular performances and offerings. Special themes for each semester will be selected once the Touhill schedule is in place. Students will be expected to attend 6-8 performances or exhibitions. Can be repeated once for credit.

PHIL 1180 Sciences vs. God (3) [V, S]
This course examines whether religion and science are compatible, discusses the science-religion debate historically, and broaches philosophical issues surrounding belief, especially whether belief should be based in empirical evidence or in faith. Following these introductory course sessions, the class will discuss, in detail, topics in science and religion, including creation versus evolution; human nature (including abortion and stem cell research); the nature of sexuality and gender; the science of religion; morality; the environment from a religious perspective; meaningfulness in the universe; and finally, evidence for or against the afterlife, existence of a divinity, and divine providence.

PHIL 1185 Philosophy of Religion (3) [V, H]
A philosophical investigation of such problems as the nature of religious faith and experience, the relation of faith and reason, alternative concepts of deity, and the problem of evil.

PHIL 2250 Philosophy and Current Issues (3)
A careful examination of such current social controversies as women's liberation, the ethics of abortion, public accountability of holders of high offices, and the subtler forms of racism and other prejudices. Although there is no formal prerequisite, it is recommended that students have taken, or be concurrently enrolled in, at least one other philosophy course.

PHIL 2251 Sexual Ethics (3)
A critical review of what philosophers, both classical and contemporary, have said about sexual experience and its place in our lives. Included will be such topics as sexual desire, sexual perversion, love and commitment, marriage and adultery, larger questions might include that role of sexual experience in the good life, issues of sexual privacy, and the morality of laws which regulate sexual activity.

PHIL 2252 Philosophical Foundations of Criminal Justice (3) [V, H]
Same as CRIMIN 2252. Addresses fundamental conceptual and ethical issues that arise in the context of the legal system. Questions may include: How does punishment differ from pre-trial detention? How, if at all, can it be justified? Is the death penalty ever justified? When is it morally permissible for juries to acquit defendants who are legally guilty? Is plea bargaining unjust? Why might people be morally obligated to obey the laws? Are Laws restricting civil liberty (e.g., laws against abortion, homosexuality, or drug use) permissible?

PHIL 2253 Philosophy and Feminism (3) [V, H]
Same as GS 2253. A critical examination of what various philosophers have said about issues of concern to women. Sample topics include oppression, racism, women's nature, femininity, marriage, motherhood, sexuality, pornography, the ethics of care.

PHIL 2254 Business Ethics (3) [V, H]
A critical survey from the perspective of moral theory of businesses and business practices. Topics vary but usually include some of the following: whether the sole moral obligation of businesses is to make money; whether certain standard business practices, e.g., the creation of wants through advertising, are moral; whether businesses ought to be compelled, e.g., to protect the environment or participate in affirmative action programs.

PHIL 2255 Environmental Ethics (3) [V, H]
Examines such issues as the value of wilderness, our duties to animals and the natural world, pollution and development, environmental justice.

PHIL 2256 Bioethics (3) [V, H]
Same as GERON 2256. An examination of ethical issues in health care practice and clinical research and in public policies affecting health care. Topics include abortion, euthanasia, health care, experimentation, informed consent, and the right to health care.

PHIL 2257 Happiness and the Meaning of Life (3) [V,H]
This course is an accessible introduction to the historical and contemporary perspectives on happiness and the meaning of life in philosophy. It examines the nature of happiness by focusing on three major theories: happiness as pleasure, happiness as excellence and happiness as desire satisfaction. Other issues examined may include the relevance of virtue for happiness, the experience machine argument, the best way to pursue happiness as a personal or a policy goal, and other related topics.

PHIL 2258 Medicine, Values, and Society (3) [V, H]
Social, conceptual, and policy issues connected with medicine form the focus of the course. Topics may include: role played by race and gender in design of research and distribution of care; whether diseases are socially constructed categories reflecting the values of society; development of social policies that offer universal access to health care; the legitimacy of using Psychotropic drugs to enhance life, rather than treat disease. The course differs from Bioethics by emphasizing policy issues and their conceptual basis. Content of this course may vary.

PHIL 2259 Engineering Ethics (3)
An examination of ethical issues in engineering using professional engineering codes as a starting point. The course will have a problem solving orientation, focusing on the analysis of particular cases. Actual high-profile cases such as the Challenger disaster will be considered, as well as hypothetical cases illustrating the more commonly encountered moral problems in engineering (such as accepting gifts from vendors). Topics include the engineer/manager relationship, engineers and the environment, honest in engineering, and risk, safety, and liability.

PHIL 2276 Philosophy of Film (3) [V,H]
Critical study of such issues as film’s relation to photography, shots and editing, documentary vs. fiction films, cinematic narration, our identification with film characters, criticism and evaluation.

PHIL 2280 Minds, Brains, and Machines (3) [C, V, H]
Introduction to basic philosophical issues in cognitive science. General topics include minds as computers; computers as minds, or the possibility of artificial intelligence that is truly intelligent; relationship between mental function and brain function. Some areas of current research, such as reasoning, vision, and emotion.

PHIL 2281 Darwinism and the Philosophy of Biology (3)
Prerequisites: Six hours of philosophy graduate standing, or consent of instructor. Examines Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection and its philosophical consequences. Besides the theory itself, topics may include (but are not limited to): how we can test evolution and what the evidence is for it; the design argument; adaptationism; evolutionary psychology; evolution and morality; the fact-value distinction; nature versus nurture; differences between humans and other animals; evolution and human history; genetic engineering and possible futures.

PHIL 2282 Philosophy of Science in Historical Perspective (3) [C]
The course considers the history and philosophy of ancient, medieval and early modern science, with a focus on theories of scientific methodology, biology and physics. Figures treated may include Pythagoras, Hippocrates, Plato, Aristotle, Euclid, Galen, Harvey, Copernicus, Kepler, and Newton. Topics may include Hippocratic and Galenic medicine; geocentric and heliocentric astronomies; theories of induction; scientific realism vs. instrumentalism; and the role of logic and mathematics in ancient and medieval sciences. Content of this course may vary.

PHIL 2283 Markets and Morals (3) [V, H]
Prerequisite: MATH 1030, or equivalent. This course will explore some moral issues connected with economic markets: the reasons for and against promoting free markets and free trade; whether we should be able to buy and sell anything or are there goods and services that should be above market transactions; whether free markets make us happier; how free markets are related to individual freedom; whether the efficacy of markets requires individuals to be moral; what moral grounds there are, if any, for capitalism, libertarianism, socialism, and Marxism.

PHIL 3286 International Business Ethics (3)
Same as INTBUS 3286. The course will deal with moral issues that are raised by the increasing globalization of business. Apart from the general issue of whether this globalization is itself a good thing, we will discuss such issues as child labor, working conditions, safety standards, environmental policies, bribery and other "corrupt" practices, respect for intellectual property, etc. Frequent short papers will be assigned.

PHIL 3301 Ancient Philosophy (3)
Freshmen admitted by consent of department. The principal philosophical doctrines of the ancient world, with special emphasis on the philosophies of Plato and Aristotle. Although there is no formal prerequisite, it is recommended that students have taken at least one other philosophy course.

PHIL 3302 Medieval Philosophy (3)
A critical study of the important philosophies of the period from Augustine to the Renaissance. Although there is no formal prerequisite, it is recommended that students have taken at least one other philosophy course.

PHIL 3303 Early Modern Philosophy (3)
Principal figures in the development of rationalism, empiricism and skepticism in early modern Europe, from Descartes through Hume. Although there is no formal prerequisite, it is recommended that students have taken at least one other philosophy course.

PHIL 3304 Kant and Nineteenth-Century Philosophy (3)
A study of Kant and such major nineteenth-century figures as Hegel and Nietzsche, Mill, and Peirce. Although there is no formal prerequisite, it is recommended that students have taken at least one other philosophy course.

PHIL 3305 Twentieth-Century Philosophy (3)
Representative topics in contemporary philosophy, with readings selected from pragmatism, logical positivism, linguistic analysis, and existentialism. Although there is no formal prerequisite, it is recommended that students have taken at least one other philosophy course.

PHIL 3307 American Philosophy (3)
Prerequisite: Six hours of philosophy or consent of instructor. A study of selected American philosophers.

PHIL 3360 Formal Logic (3)
An introductory study of logical truth and deductive inference, with emphasis on the development and mastery of a formal system.

PHIL 3374 Philosophy of Art (3)
Same as ART HS 3374. A critical study of such issues as the definition of art, the nature of aesthetic experience, meaning and interpretation in the arts, art and emotion, value in art.

PHIL 3378 Philosophy of Mind (3)
Prerequisites: Three hours of philosophy or consent of instructor. An introduction to philosophical issues pertaining to the mind. Topics may include how the mind relates to the body, how the mind represents the world, how the mind works, consciousness, and free well.

PHIL 3380 Philosophy of Science (3)
An examination of science: what makes science special? Topics may include (but are not limited to): empiricism and scientific method; confirmation and the problem of induction; paradigms and revolutions; explanation, causation and laws; realism versus instrumentalism; critiques of science such as those of feminism or postmodernism; and reductionism – ultimately is it all just physics?

PHIL 4401 Plato (3)
Prerequisites: Six hours of philosophy, a course in Ancient Philosophy recommended, graduate standing, or consent of instructor. A study of selected Platonic dialogues.

PHIL 4402 Aristotle (3)
Prerequisites: Six hours of philosophy, a course in Ancient Philosophy, recommended, graduate standing, or consent of instructor. A selective study of Aristotle's major works.

PHIL 4403 Topics in the History of Philosophy (3)
Prerequisitess: Six hours of philosophy (PHIL 3301, 3302 or 3303 strongly recommended) or consent of instructor. Examines in depth a particular topic or topics of school of thought from the history of philosophy.  This is a variable content course and may be taken again for credit with the consent of the instructor and department chair.

PHIL 4405 The Rationalists (3)
Prerequisites: Six hours of philosophy, a course in Ancient Philosophy recommended, graduate standing, or consent of instructor. An examination of the philosophies of such major figures as Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz.

PHIL 4406 The British Empiricists (3)
Prerequisite: Six hours of philosophy, a course in Early Modern Philosophy recommended, graduate standing, or consent of instructor. An examination of the philosophies of such major figures as Locke, Berkeley and Hume.

PHIL 4407 Kant (3)
Prerequisites: Six hours of philosophy, PHIL 3304 or equivalent recommended, graduate standing, or consent of instructor. A systematic study of the Critique of Pure Reason.

PHIL 4408 Hegel (3)
Prerequisites: Six hours of philosophy, PHIL 3304 or equivalent recommended, graduate standing, or consent of instructor. A critical study of the writings and influence of Hegel.

PHIL 4410 Significant Figures in Philosophy (3)
Prerequisites: Nine hours of philosophy, graduate standing, or consent of instructor. Examination of the work of an important twentieth-century philosopher or philosophical movement. The philosopher or movement to be studied will be announced prior to registration. This is a variable content course that may be taken again for credit with approval of instructor and department chair.

PHIL 4420 Topics in Non-Western Philosophy (3)
Prerequisites: PHIL 1120, graduate standing, or consent of instructor. An extensive exploration of issues in some particular non-Western traditions (Islamic, Indian, or Chinese). This is a variable content course and may be taken again for credit with consent of instructor and department chair.

PHIL 4421 The Analytic Tradition (3)
Prerequisites: Six hours of philosophy, graduate standing, or consent of instructor. PHIL 3305 and PHIL 3360 strongly recommended. Course studies in depth the development of analytic philosophy with a broad emphasis on its style and substance. Topics may include early writings that set the stage for this tradition (Frege, Moore, Russell), the basic texts of Logical Positivism (Carnap, Schlick, Neurath, Hempel), and later responses including reassessment of the doctrine, the revival of naturalism, and the “death” of philosophy (Wittgenstein, Quine, Sellars). This is a variable content course that may be taken again for credit with consent of the instructor and the department chair.

PHIL 4430 Social and Political Philosophy (3)
Prerequisites: Six credit hours of philosophy required or consent of instructor. This course will cover several classic works of political theory, with a particular focus on the nature of justice, the proper extent of liberty, and social contract arguments for the legitimacy of state authority. Readings from Plato, Hobbes, Locke, Hume, Rousseau, Bentham, Mill, Marx and Rawls.

PHIL 4435 Classical Ethical Theories
Prerequisites: Six hours of philosophy, graduate standing, or consent of instructor. Significant contributions to moral philosophy from Plato and Aristotle to Bentham and Mill.

PHIL 4437 Metaethics (3)
Prerequisites: 6 credit hours of Philosophy. The course deals with questions regarding the foundations of ethics and the status of our ethical judgments about what’s right and wrong, good and bad. The course will consider contemporary approaches to issues such as moral motivation, moral reasons, moral explanations, moral disagreement, moral knowledge, and moral supervenience, as well as various debates between realists and antirealists, and between cognitivists and expressivists.

PHIL 4438 Recent Ethical Theory (3)
Prerequisites: Six hours of philosophy, graduate standing or consent of instructor. A study of major contributions to twentieth-century ethics, including works by such writers as Moore, Dewey, Ross, Stevenson, Hare, and Rawls.

PHIL 4439 Topics in Ethical Theory (3)
Prerequisites: PHIL 4435, 4438, nine hours of philosophy, graduate standing, or consent of instructor. Formulation and evaluation of major theories in normative ethics, metaethics, and axiology. Topics include egoism, moral realism, act and rule utilitarianism, and varieties of naturalism and non-naturalism in ethics. This is a variable content course and can be taken again for credit with consent of instructor and department chair.

PHIL 4440 Theories of Knowledge (3)
Prerequisites: Six hours of philosophy, graduate standing, or consent of instructor. An examination of concepts and problems involved in the characterization of knowledge. Specific topics will vary, but will usually include knowledge, belief, skepticism, evidence, certainty, perception, truth, and necessity.

PHIL 4445 Metaphysics (3)
Prerequisites: Six hours of philosophy, graduate standing, or consent of instructor. An examination of selected metaphysical topics such as substance, universals, causality, necessity, space and time, free will, being, and identity.

PHIL 4450 Special Readings in Philosophy (1-3)
Prerequisite: Special consent required. Independent study through readings, reports, and conferences. This is a variable content course and may be taken again for credit with consent of instructor and department chair.

PHIL 4451 Special Topics in Philosophy (3)
Prerequisites: Six hours of philosophy, graduate standing, or consent of instructor. A critical study of classical and/or contemporary contributions to a selected topic in philosophy. The topic to be considered will be announced prior to registration. This is a variable content course and can be taken again for credit with the consent of the instructor and department chair.

PHIL 4452 Feminism And Science (3)
Prerequisites: Six hours of philosophy, graduate standing, or consent of instructor. Same as GS 4452. This course will explore major themes and issues in feminist science scholarship, a body of research that focuses on the relationship between science and gender. Feminist research in the philosophy and history of science, and in the biological sciences, are emphasized. Issues include: the nature of objectivity, evidence, and truth; the factors that contribute to the acceptance or rejection of research hypothesis and theories; the nature and consequences of science’s cognitive authority; and the relationship between science and values.

PHIL 4457 Media Ethics (3)
Same as MEDIA ST 4357. Prerequisites: nine hours of philosophy or nine hours of communication or consent of instructor. This course is concerned with some of the issues that arise from the intersection of ethics and modern media communications. Attention is given to some of the more specific concerns of media ethics, such as truth, honesty, fairness, objectivity and bias; personal privacy and the public interest; advertising; conflicts of interest; censorship and offensive or dangerous content (pornography, violence). Particular attention will be given to problems posed by the development of personal computer communications through bulletin boards, on-line services, and the Internet.

PHIL 4458 Ethics and the Computer
Prerequisites: 6 hours of course work above the level of MATH 1030 in Math/Computer Science or at least 6 hours of philosophy or consent of instructor. Examination of ethical issues concerning the use of computers generally and software engineering in particular. Aims at developing awareness of these issues and skills for ethical decision making regarding them through careful, analytical methods. Typical issues include privacy, intellectual property, computer fraud, and others.

PHIL 4460 Advanced Formal Logic (3)
Prerequisites: PHIL 3360, graduate standing, or consent of instructor. Rigorous study of major developments in contemporary logic. Emphasis is given to theoretical problems and some attention is devoted to philosophical issues arising from logic.

PHIL 4470 Topics in Philosophy of Language (3)
Prerequisites: Six hours of philosophy, graduate standing, or consent of instructor. Intensive examination of selected problems encountered in developing philosophical accounts of truth, reference, propositional attitudes, and related concepts. This is a variable content course and may be taken again for credit with consent of instructor and department chair.

PHIL 4474 Topics in Aesthetics (3)
Prerequisites: PHIL 3374, graduate standing, or consent of instructor. Selected topics, such as vision and representation, musical aesthetics, and recent theorists. This is a variable content course and may be taken again for credit with consent of instructor and department chair.

PHIL 4478 Topics in Philosophy of Mind (3)
Prerequisites: PHIL 3378 or six hours of other philosophy courses graduate standing, or consent of instructor. An examination of selected topics at the interface of philosophical and psychological research. This is a variable content course and can be taken again for credit with consent of instructor and department chair.

PHIL 4479 Philosophy of Cognitive Science (3)
Prerequisites: PHIL 3378 or PHIL 4478 or nine hours of other philosophy courses or consent of instructor. An exploration of the philosophical foundations and implications of cognitive science, a cooperative effort of philosophers, cognitive Psychologists, brain scientists, computer scientists, and others to understand the relationship between the mind and the brain.

PHIL 4480 Topics In Philosophy Of Science (3)
Prerequisite: Consent of the instructor. An advanced introduction to the philosophy of science for advanced undergraduates in philosophy and graduate and professional students. Topics covered include scientific method, confirmation, explanation, the nature of theories, scientific progress, science criticism, ethics in science, and science and religion.

PHIL 4482 Philosophy of Social Science (3)
Prerequisites: Six hours of philosophy or consent of instructor. An intensive examination of selected topics such as the nature theory, and the postmodernism debate e.g., Habermas of explanation in social science versus natural science, interpretation, Foucault, Clifford. This course may be repeated for credit on approval by the department.

PHIL 4483 Topics in History and Philosophy of Science (3)
Prerequisites: Six hours of philosophy (PHIL 3380, strongly recommended), graduate standing, or consent of instructor. Examines in depth a particular topic or topics from either the history or philosophy of science. This is a variable content course and may be taken again for credit with the consent of the instructor and department chair.

PHIL 4487 Topics in Philosophy of Law (3)
Same as CRIMIN 4487. Prerequisite: CRIMIN 1100 and 3 hours of philosophy, graduate standing or consent of instructor. An intensive study of recent philosophical debate about such issues as the authority of law, legal equality and justice, legal responsibility, self-determination and privacy, and legal punishment. This is a variable content course and may be taken again for credit with consent of the instructor and the department chair.

PHIL 4491 Senior Seminar (3)
Prerequisites: Senior standing; at least 12 hours of philosophy at the 1000 level or above; or consent of instructor. Intensive study of a central philosophical problem. The course emphasizes the fundamentals of philosophical writing and scholarship. Students will write a major paper to be evaluated by two members of the Philosophy Department and the course instructor.

PHIL 5400 Proseminar in Philosophy (3)
Prerequisite: Graduate standing. Required of all entering graduate students in the fall semester of the first full year of residency. Topics vary. Other graduate students may take this course with the permission of the instructor and the director of graduate studies in Philosophy. Students will be expected to write papers, give presentations, and join in class discussion.

PHIL 5403 Seminar on Themes in the History of Philosophy (3)
Prerequisite; Graduate standing or consent of instructor. Close study of selected topics, texts, or school of thought in the history of philosophy. Topics may include but are not limited to historical theories of science. Hellenistic philosophy, Neoplatonism, and historical approaches concerning the nature of time. This is a variable content course and may be taken again for credit with consent of instructor and department chair.

PHIL 5410 Seminar in Significant Figures in Philosophy (3)
Prerequisite: Graduate Standing. In-depth study of work of a single philosopher. The philosopher selected will be announced prior to registration. This is a variable-content course any may be taken again for credit with consent of instructor and department chair.

PHIL 5478 Seminar in Philosophy of Mind (3)
Prerequisite: Graduate standing. Topics may include functionalism and physicalism; representation and nature of propositional attitudes such as belief, desire, and various emotions; folk psychology and knowledge of other minds; introspection and knowledge of one's own mind; conscious and unconscious mental states and processes. This is a variable content course and may be taken again for credit with consent of instructor and department chair.

PHIL 5495 Thesis Research (3)
Prerequisite: Graduate standing or consent of instructor. May be repeated once for credit with consent of instructor and department chair.

PHIL 5521 Seminar in Analytic Philosophy (3)
Prerequisite: Graduate standing or consent of instructor. Intensive study of selected topics, texts, or individuals in historical or contemporary analytic philosophy. Topics may include, but are not limited to, Frege semantics, Russell’s theory of definite descriptions, logical positivism, Wittgenstein’s philosophy of language, Quine on the analytic/synthetic distinction, Kripe possible-world semantics, theories of propositions, the analysis of knowledge, contextualism in epistemology and language, relativistic semantics, epistemic two-dimensionalism, conceivability vs. possibility, three-dimensionalism vs. four-dimensionalism, presentism vs. eternalism, and applications of core concepts in other areas of philosophy. This is a variable content course and may be taken again for credit with consent of instructor and department chair.

PHIL 5530 Seminar in Social and Political Philosophy (3)
Prerequisite: Graduate standing or consent of instructor. An intensive study of contemporary philosophical debate about such issues such as civil liberty, economic justice, political decision-making, and state authority. Variable content course and may be taken again for credit with consent of instructor and department chair.

PHIL 5537 Seminar in Metaethics (3)
Prerequisite: Graduate standing or consent of instructor. The course deals with questions regarding the foundations of ethics and the status of our ethical judgments about what’s right and wrong, good and bad. The course will consider contemporary approaches to issues such as moral motivation, moral reasons, moral explanations, moral disagreement, moral knowledge, and moral supervenience, as well as various debates between realists and antirealists, and between cognitivists and expressivists.

PHIL 5538 Seminar in Ethical Theory (3)
Prerequisite: Graduate standing or consent of instructor. Answers questions from normative ethics or metaethics, which may include the following: What do all morally wrong actions have in common? What does the word "wrong" mean? How, if at all, can we verify moral judgements? Are any moral judgements valid for all societies? Do we always have good reason to be moral?

PHIL 5540 Seminar in Epistemology (3)
Prerequisite: Graduate standing or consent of instructor. Close study of selected topics, texts, or individuals in epistemology. Topics may include (but are not limited to) theories of justification, naturalism in epistemology, and conceptions of knowledge. This is a variable content course and may be taken again for credit with consent of instructor and department chair.

PHIL 5545 Seminar in Metaphysics (3)
Prerequisite: Graduate standing. Intensive study of a selected topic or problem area in metaphysics, e.g., mind-body identity, nature of the self, or conception of time. This is a variable content course and may be taken again for credit with consent of instructor and department chair.

PHIL 5546 Seminar in Modality (3)
Prerequisites: Graduate standing or consent of instructor. Intensive study of selected topics, texts, or individuals in modality. Topics may include (but are not limited to): Kripke semantics, Lewis’ genuine modal realism about possible worlds, linguistic ersatzism, epistemic two-dimensionalism, conceivability vs. possibility, theories of epistemic modals, theories of propositional attitude reports, theories of knowability, provability, and computability, modal paradoxes, and applications of core concepts in other areas of philosophy. This is a variable content course and may be taken again for credit with consent of instructor and department chair.

PHIL 5551 Special Readings in Philosophy (3)
Prerequisites: Graduate standing, written consent of instructor. Independent study through readings, reports, and conferences. This is a variable content course and may be taken again for credit with consent of instructor and department chair.

PHIL 5560 Seminar in Logic (3)
Prerequisite: Graduate standing. Focused study of topics in logic and/or its history. Representative topics include Aristotelian logic, modal logic, Gödel incompleteness theorems, relevance logic, paraconsistent logic, free logic. This is a variable content course and may be taken again for credit with consent of instructor and department chair.

PHIL 5561 Graduate Formal Logic (3)
Prerequisites: Graduate standing; permission of the department. A rigorous introduction to formal logic that includes sentential calculus, predicate logic, and completeness proofs. May be taken for graduate credit only with permission of the graduate advisor and chair.

PHIL 5570 Seminar in Philosophy of Language (3)
Prerequisite: Graduate standing or consent of instructor. Close study of selected topics, texts, or individuals in the philosophy of language. Topics may include (but are not limited to): theories of indexicals and demonstratives, theories of proper names and descriptions, sense and reference, compositionality, natural language semantics, syntax pragmatics, applications of core concepts in other areas of philosophy. This is a variable content course and may be taken again for credit with consent of instructor and department chair.

PHIL 5579 Seminar in Philosophy of Cognitive Science (3)
Prerequisite: Graduate standing. General topics include role of computation in cognitive science, merits of symbolic computation and connectionism, aims and methods of artificial intelligence, and relationship between cognitive science and our everyday understanding of people. Specific topics may include perception, reasoning, consciousness, language, emotion, and will. This is a variable content course and may be taken again for credit with consent of instructor and department chair.

PHIL 5580 Seminar in Philosophy of Science (3)
Prerequisite: Graduate standing or consent of instructor. Focus on recent issues and controversies. Topics may include theories and observation, models of explanation, confirmation, realism and antirealism, empiricism and naturalism, "social construction" and feminist views of science. This is a variable content course and may be taken again for credit with consent of instructor and department chair.

PHIL 5582 Seminar in Philosophy of Social Science (3)
Prerequisite: Graduate standing or consent of instructor. Intensive examination of selected topics, such as the nature of explanation in social science, rationality, value-freedom and objectivity, or relation of social to natural sciences. This is a variable content course and may be taken again for credit with consent of instructor and department chair.

PHIL 5590 Philosophical Issues in Other Disciplines (3)
Prerequisite: Graduate standing or consent of instructor. Examination of selected philosophical issues in disciplines other than philosophy. One or more such disciplines as history, political science, psychology, sociology, biology, chemistry, physics, or mathematics will be chosen. The discipline(s) and issues selected will be announced prior to registration. This is a variable content course and may be taken again for credit with consent of instructor and department chair.